study guide exam 3
study guide exam 3 CHEM 2770
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Corey Burr on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 2770 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Colin Burns in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Biological Chemistry in Chemistry at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Study Guide Exam 3 1. T or F: Membranes are SHEET LIKE STRUCTURES, two molecules thick, which form CLOSED BOUNDARIES between different compartments. 2. What are the two main components of a cell membrane? 3. T of F: Most cell membranes are electrically polarized, causing the inside to be negative, which is why membrane potential is so important in energy conservation, transport, and excitability. 4. T or F: Membranes are SYMMETRICAL. 5. T or F: Membranes are FLUID STRUCTURES. 6. T or F: Membranes are COVALENT ASSEMBLIES. 7. What are the functions of a protein within the membrane? 8. Protein Kinases A is an enzyme that does what? 9. Lipids in the membrane have a _____________ head and _______________ tails. These molecules are amphipathic, meaning they have water loving and water fearing qualities. What is a result of them being amphipathic? 10.Lipid bilayers form spontaneously by __________________. The main driving force in the formation of lipid bilayers is the ____________________________. 11.What type(s) of forces hold the tails together? What type(s) of forces hold the heads together? 12.What is the difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion? Active transport versus passive transport? 13.What are the three main classes of membrane receptors? 14.How can a small number of hormones binding to the extracellular surface of a cell have a large biochemical effect inside the cell? 15.What causes the heart to contract (heart beat)? Calcium, Sodium, or Potassium? 16.Explain the role of a sodium-calcium antiporter. 17.Where does the citric acid cycle happen in eukaryotic cells? 18.Where is the energy stored that is created in the Citric Acid Cycle? 19.How does a LOW ATP/ADP ratio affect the citric acid cycle in a cell? Low NADH/NAD+ ratio? 20.What are the three “important” steps in glycolysis? Are they reversible? What are the regulated steps during these steps? 21.What steps in the citric acid cycle have oxidation-reduction reactions occurring? 22.What is the NET ATP generation in glycolysis? 23.What are the end products of the glycolysis of 1 glucose molecule? 24.What is a zymogen? 25.What are isozymes? 26.What are the four enzymes regulated in gluconeogenesis? 27.Hexokinase has 4 types of isozymes (I, II, III, and IV). What is the difference between the first three and the fourth? 28.Which enzyme, PFK-1, hexokinase, or Pyruvate kinase, is the most important control site in mammalian glycolytic pathway? 29.Pyruvate Kinase is inhibited by ______ & ______? What activates pyruvate kinase? 30.What enzymes catalyzes the reaction linking glycolysis and the citric acid cycle? 31.What are the 5 enzymes that constitute pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? What does each catalyze? 32.What coenzymes are required by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? 33.What is the net equation for the citric acid cycle? 34.How is it possible that there is no O 2xchange in the citric acid cycle, yet it is considered aerobic respiration? 35.Why is succinate dehydrogenase unique when compared to all the other enzymes in the citric acid cycle? ** Know how to calculate delta G values of reactions. ** take extra time on citric acid cycle and glycolysis! Know the pathways 1. TRUE! Cell membranes are usually between 6-10 nm thick. 2. Lipids and proteins are the main components, however they do contain carbohydrates that are linked to those lipids and proteins. 3. TRUE! 4. FALSE! Each face of the biological membrane is different than the other, making them asymmetrical! 5. TRUE! Lipid and protein molecules readily diffuse in the plane of the membrane, unless anchored by a specific interaction. They don’t, however, rotate willingly across the membrane. 6. FALSE! The constituent protein and lipid molecules are bonded by noncovalent bonds that act cooperatively, meaning membranes are NONCOVALENT assemblies! 7. Proteins catalyze specific reactions of membranes. Proteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer of the membrane and function as pumps, channels, receptors, energy transducers, and enzymes. 8. Phosphorylates substrates 9. Hydrophilic (polar; water loving) / Hydrophobic (nonpolar; water hating) / Amphipathic nature of these elements is how membranes form. 10.Self-assembly process / Hydrophobic effect 11.Tails: Van der Waals Heads: electrostatic and hydrogen bonding between the heads and water molecules. 12.Simple diffusion: molecule can diffuse down concentration gradient through membrane Facilitated diffusion: molecule cannot directly diffuse through membrane because it is lipophilic, so a channel or carrier is need to “facilitate” the diffusion of the particular molecule. Active Transport: another source of energy, like hydrolysis of ATP, is used to create a concentration gradient for the molecule that needs help to pass the membrane. Passive transport: also known as facilitated diffusion. The molecule passes through its gradient by channels or transporter. Extra energy is not needed for this type of transportation. 13.GPCRs, receptors that recruit tyrosine kinases and dimerize on ligand binding, and receptors that cross phosphorylate on ligand binding and recruit adenylate cyclase. 14.The initial signal where hormones are bound by a receptor is enlarged by enzymes and channels. 15.Calcium (Ca 2+) release from calcium stores triggers heartbeat (contraction). When Ca 2+ is taken away, the contraction releases. 16.Sodium-Calcium antiporter takes Ca 2+ out of the cell against its concentration gradient and Na+ flowing into the cell down its gradient (which is established by the Na+ - K+ ATPase). Cardiotonic steroids function by inhibiting the Na+ - K+ ATPase, which also inhibits the Na+ - Ca2+ antiporter, causing the Ca2+ to stay in the cell longer. If the Ca2+ couldn’t be taken out through this method, then the muscle would stay contracted. 17.The mitochondria! 18.NADH and FADH2 19.Flux through the citric acid cycle increase for both Low ATP/ADP ratio and Low NADH/NAD+ ratio. 20.GLU G6P, F6P FBP, and PEP PYR (steps 1, 3, and 10). They have a (-) delta G value, meaning they’re EXERGONIC. They are IRREVERSIBLE and have the most regulated enzymes: Hexokinase: regulated between GLU G6P PFK-1: regulated between F6P FBP They become more/less reactive in response Pyruvate Kinase: regulated between PEP PYR to allosteric effect or covalent modification 21.3, 4, 6, and 8. 22.2 ATP; 2 are used in Stage One, 4 are generated in Stage Two: 4-2 = 2. 23.2 Pyruvate, 2 NADH, and 2 ATP. 24.It is a catalytically inactive precursor of an enzyme, also known as a proenzyme. 25. Homologous enzymes within a single organism that catalyze the same reaction, but differ slightly in areas such as structure, Michaelis-Mentin constant (Km), Vmax, and other regulatory properties. They’re usually expressed in distinct tissues or organelles. 26.Pyruvate carboxylase, fructose bisphosphate phosphatase, PEP carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P). 27.I-III: high glucose affinities, inhibited by G-6-P, and is the product of its own reaction IV: also known as Glucokinase (GK). Lower glucose affinity, but is NOT inhibited by G-6-P! Mainly present in LIVER! 28.PFK-1 (phosphofructokinase). ATP allosterically inhibits this enzyme, lowering its affinity for F6P. This can be REVERSED by AMP! 29.ATP and Alanine inhibit. Alanine can be made in one step from pyruvate. HIGH alanine concentration indicates that fundamental building blocks are high, so production of pyruvate kinase should slow down. Fructose-1,6- bisphosphate ACTIVATES pyruvate kinase. 30.Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The reaction linking glycolysis and the citric acid cycle is: Pyruvate + CoA + NAD + acetyl CoA + NADH + H + CO+ 2 31.Pyruvate dehydrogenase: decarboxylation of pyruvate and formation of acetyllipoamide Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase: formation of acetyl CoA Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase: reduction of oxidized lipoic acid PDH kinase: inactivates complex PDH phosphatase: dephosphorylates and activates complex 32.Thiamine pyrophosphate, lipoic acid, Coenzyme A, FAD, and NAD+. 33.Acetyl-CoA + 3 NAD + FAD + ADP + Pi 2 CO + 3 NADH + 3 H + FADH + 2 2 + ATP + CoA 34.The citric acid cycle depends on NAD+ which is generated by NADH reacting with oxygen. Without oxygen, NAD+ will cease to exist, and the cycle will stop. 35.Succinate dehydrogenase is the only enzyme in the citric acid cycle that is in the mitochondrial membrane, associating it with the electron transport chain (ETC).
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