Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide COMM 1041
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marissa Mangini on Friday February 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1041 at George Washington University taught by Lally in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 229 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Communication at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
Interpersonal Communication Final Review Ch 7 Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Communicationbehavior other than written or spoken language that creates meaning for someone Interaction Adaptation Theorytheory suggesting that people interact with others by adapting to their communication behaviors Interactional SynchronyMirroring of each other s nonverbal behavior by communication partners Gesturehand and body gestures with the most shared meaning among Africans North Americans and South Americans include pointing shrugging nodding the head clapping and beckoning gestures are a way of communicating without words Eye Contactfour functions of eye contact cognitive function monitoring function regulatory function and expressive function Facial Expressionyour face is versatile capable of producing over 250000 different expressions the face is the single most important source of information about which speci c emotion someone may be expressing 0 You can control some facial expressions 0 Facial expressions are contagious o Smiling is cross cultural 0 There may be a universal basis for interpreting facial expressions 0 Complex facial expressions are easier to interpret 0 It s likely you can spot a phony smile 0 You express microexpressions Proxemicsstudy of how close or far away from people and objects people position themselves Space 0 Intimatezone of space most often used for very personal or intimate interactions ranging from 0 to 1 and 12 feet between individuals 0 Personalzone of space most often used for conversations with family and friends ranging from 1 and 12 to 4 feet between individuals 0 Socialzone of space most often used for group interactions ranging from 4 to 12 feet between individuals 0 Publiczone of space most often used by public speakers or anyone speaking to many people ranging beyond 12 feet from the individual Touchthe amount of touch you need tolerate receive and initiate depends on many factors studies show intimate touching is vital to your personal development and wellbeing Body Movement and Posturequotquasicourtshipquot courtship readiness preening behaviors positional cues and appeals to invitation Kinesicsstudy of human movement and gesture Regulatorsnonverbal messages that help to control the interaction or ow of communication between two people ex Looking at someone when you wish to speak Adaptorsnonverbal behaviors that satisfy a personal need and help a person adapt or respond to the immediate situation ex Scratching combing your hair Emblemsnonverbal cues that have speci c generally understood meanings in a given culture and may substitute a word or phrase ex Raising a hitchhiking thumb Illustratorsnonverbal behaviors that accompany a verbal message and either contradict accent or complement it ex Pounding the lectern to emphasize a point Affect Displaynonverbal behavior that communicates emotions ex Hugging someone to express love Vocal Cuesa category of nonverbal cues we respond to communicate emotions and help us manage conversations Territorialitystudy of how animals and humans use space and objects to communicate occupancy or ownership of space Territorial Markerstangible objects that are used to signify that someone has claimed an area or space Tella nonverbal cue such as a facial expression body posture or eye behavior that gives away what we are thinking and feeling lmmediacyfeelings of liking pleasure and closeness communicated by such nonverbal cues as increased eye contact forward lean touch and open body orientation Arousalfeelings of interest and excitement communicated by such nonverbal cues as vocal expression facial expressions and gestures Dominancepower status and control communicated by such nonverbal cues as a relaxed posture greater personal space and protected personal space Expectancy Violation Theorytheory that you interpret the messages of others based on how you expect others to behave Perceptions of Other s Nonverbal Cues o 1 Observe their nonverbal behavior 0 2 Form a mental impression of what you think they mean 0 Ask questions to check whether your perception is accurate Honest vs Dishonest Communication 0 Honest O Use fewer pauses when they talk speak uently smoothly Speak at a normal speaking rate smile genuinely and sincerely Are less likely to play with objects as they speak use fewer gestures Are not likely to shift body weight generally display less nervousness Maintain normal eye contact have a normal eye blink rate Dishonest Pause more use more non uencies speak a bit faster than normal Display a plasteredon phony smile may smile a bit toolong Are more likely to play with objects use more gestures and selfadaptors Are more likely to shift their posture display increased nervousness May look away maintain less direct eye contact have an increased eyeblink rate Ch 8 Con ict Management Skills Interpersonal Con ictan expressed struggle between at least two interdependent people who perceive incompatible goals scarce resources or interference in the achievement of their goals Con ict as a Process 0 Sourcebegins when you become aware that there are differences between you and another person many potential sources of con ict may be smoldering below the surface Beginningat least one of you becomes aware that the differences in the relationship are increasingly problematic may begin to engage in selftalk noting that something is wrong and creating frustration Middlewhen you bring frustration to the attention of others a con ict becomes an active expressed struggle if frustrations remain only thoughtspassive con ict Endwhen you begin to try to manage the con ict it has progressed to the resolution stage can be positive or negaUve Aftermathindividuals check to determine whether the con ict has been effectively and appropriately managed they may need to revisit con ict management strategies Struggle SpectrumDeveloped by Sam Keltner to describe con icts ranging from mild differences to outright ghts Constructive Con ictcon ict that helps build new insights and establishes new patterns in a relationship Destructive Con ictcon ict that dismantles rather than strengthens relationships Con ict Triggers with examplescommon perceived causes of interpersonal con icts 0 Examples criticism feeling entitled perceived lack of fairness more perceived costs than rewards different perspectives Dialectical Tensiontension arising from a person s need for two things at the same time Con ict Myths 0 1 Con ict is always a sign of a poor interpersonal relationship 0 2 Con ict can always be avoided o 3 Con ict always occurs because of misunderstandings o 4 Con ict can always be resolved Con ict Management Skills 0 Manage your emotions Be aware that you are becoming angry and emotionally volatile Seek to understand why you are angry and emotional Make a conscious decision about whether to express youranger Select a mutually acceptable time and place to discuss a con ict Plan your message and breathe Monitor nonverbal messages Avoid personal attacks name calling and emotional overstatement Take time to establish rapport Use selftalk 0 Manage Information Clearly describe the con ictproducing event Take turns talking Own your statements by using descriptive language Use effective listening skills Check your understanding of what others say and do 0 Manage Goals Identify your goal and your partner s goal lllll Identify where your goals and your partner s goals ovenap 0 Manage the Problem Use principled negotiation strategies 0 Separate the people from the problem 0 Focus on the shared interests 0 Generate many options to solve the problem 0 Base decisions on objective criteria Use a problemsolving structure De ne the problem Analyze the problem Determine the goals Generate multiple solutions Select the best solution Develop a solution that helps each person save face 0 Con ict Management Styles 0 Avoidancecon ict management style that involves backing off and trying to sidestep con ict 0 Demandwithdrawal patternpattern in which one person makes a demand and the other person avoids con ict by changing the subject or walking away 0 Accommodationcon ict management style that involves giving in to the demands of others 0 Competitioncon ict management style that stresses winning a con ict at the expense of the other person involved 0 Compromisecon ict management style that attempts to nd the middle ground in a con ict 0 Collaborationcon ict management style that uses other oriented strategies to achieve a positive solution for all involved 0 Power and Con ict 0 Power principles Power exists in all relationships Power derives from the ability to meet a person s needs Both people in a relationship have some power Power is circumstantial Power is negotiated 0 Power negotiation Assess needs Identify powerbased con icts Discuss power issues directly 0 Power Sources o Legitimatepower that is based on respect for a person s position 0 Referentpower that comes from our attraction to another person or the charisma a person possesses o Expertpower based on a person s knowledge and expenence o Rewardpower based on a person s ability to satisfy our needs Types of Con ict o Pseudoco ictcon ict triggered by a lack of understanding and miscommunication 0 Simple Con ictcon ict that stems from different ideas de nitions perceptions or goals 0 Ego Con ictcon ict in which the original issue is ignored as partners attack each other s selfesteem Ch 9 Understanding Interpersonal Relationships Relationshipconnection established when we communicate with another person Interpersonal Relationshipperception shared by two people of a n ongoing interdependent connection that results in the development of relational expectations and varies in interpersonal intimacy 0 Shared perceptionto be in an interpersonal relationship both individuals must share a perception that they have an ongoing relationship 0 Ongoing Interdependent Connectioninterdependence creates a relational system or transactional process in which both partners affect each other simultaneously interdependence involves each partner relying fairly equally on the other to meet needs 0 Relational Expectationsyou and your partner establish expectations speci c to that relationship that are continually evolving Interpersonal Intimacydegree to which relational partners mutually accept and con rm each other s sense of self Relationship of Circumstanceinterpersonal relationship that exists because of life circumstances who your family members are where you work or study and so on Relationship of Choiceinterpersonal relationship you choose to initiate maintain and perhaps terminate Power in Relationships 0 Complementaryrelationship in which power is divided unevenly with one partner dominating the other submitting o Competitiverelationship in which both people vie for power and control of decision making 0 Submissiverelationship in which neither partner wants to take control or make decisions 0 Parallelrelationship in which power shifts back and forth between the partners depending on the situation Interpersonal Attraction and sourcesdegree to which you want to form or maintain an interpersonal relationship Predicted Outcome Value Theorypeople predict the value of a relationship based on initial selfassessment compared to the potential costs and rewards of the relationship Stages of Interpersonal Relationship Development Elevator o Relational Escalation Preinteraction awarenessyou gain information about others by observing them or talking with others about them Acquaintance rst interaction super cial topics like weather Explorationyou will begin to share more indepth information about yourselves like hobbies and where you grew up lntensi cationyou will start to depend on each other for selfcon rmation and engage in more risky self disclosure like nature of your relationship boyfriend or quotmy BFFquot Intimacypartners con rm and accept each other s sense of self and their communication is highly personalized and synchronized o Relational Deescalation Turmoil or stagnationinvolves an increase in coercive con ict as one or both partners tend to nd more faults in the other Deintensi cationdecreasing their interactions increasing their physical emotional and psychological distance and decreasing their dependence on the other for selfcon rmation lndividualizationthe partners tend to de ne their lives more as individuals and less in terms of their relationship no more we or quotboyfriendgirlfriend Separationindividuals make an intentional decision to eliminate or minimize further interpersonal interaction PostSeparation effectsrepresents the lasting effects the relationship has on you and therefore on your other interactions and relationships lntroductionssubstage of the acquaintance stage of relationship development in which interaction is routine and basic information is shared 0 Casual Bantersubstage of the acquaintance stage of relationship development in which impersonal topics are discussed but very limited personal information is shared 0 Turning Pointsspeci c event or interaction associated with a positive or negative change in a relationship Theories of Relationship Development 0 Social Exchange Theorytheory that claims people make relationships decisions by assessing and comparing the costs and rewards o Relational Dialectics Theorytheory that views relational development as the management of tensions that are pulling us in two directions at the same time connectednessautonomy opennessclosedness 0 Social Penetration Theorytheory of relational development that posits that increases in intimacy are connected to increases in selfdisclosure Dyadic Effectthe reciprocal nature of selfdisclosure quotYou disclose to me and I ll disclose to youquot SelfDisclosure 0 Understanding the social penetration model 0 Enhancing intimacy by selfdisclosing over time 0 Characteristics of SelfDisclosure 1 Selfdisclosure usually occurs in small increments 2 Selfdisclosure moves from less personal to more personal information 3 Selfdisclosure is reciprocal 4 Selfdisclosure involves risk ad requires trust 5 Selfdisclosure re ects perceptions about the nature of your relationships Ch 10 Managing Relationship Challenges 0 Types of Relationship Challenges 0 Violating Expectations Understanding relational expectations and violations Socially based expectations Relationshipspeci c expectations 0 Severity Responding with discussion Apologiesinclude admission that the failure event occurred acceptance of responsibility and expression of regret Excusesinclude admission that the failure event occurred coupled with a contention that nothing could have been done to prevent the failure it was due to unforeseen circumstances Justificationsinvolve accepting responsibility for the event but rede ning the event as not a failure Denialsare statements that the failure event never took place 0 Absence of an accountinvolves ignoring a reproach or refusing to address it Responding with forgiveness o Confront transgressionthe failure event and hurt must be acknowledged by both partners 0 Manage emotionemotions must be acknowledged expressed and accepted by both partners Engage in sense makingboth partners need to understand and empathize Seek forgivenessthe transgressor requests forgiveness offers an apology expresses regret and acknowledges the other s hurt Grant forgivenessforgiveness can be immediate or conditional Negotiate values and rulesboth partners need to clarify negotiate and renew commitment to relevant relational rules and morals 0 Transition monitor maintain renegotiatetime is needed to reestablish trust while readjusting to the pretransgression state Responding with Retaliation Examining a model of forgiveness responses 0 Maintaining long distance relationships The nature of the separation Effects of time between visits Cost and rewards Tensions created by LDRs 0 Relationships that challenge social norms Failure Eventan incident marked by the breaking or violating of a relational understanding or agreement Reproachmessage that a failure event has occurred Accountresponse to a reproach Dark side of interpersonal communication 0 Deception By omissionintentionally holding back some of the information another person has requested or that you are expected to share By commission Iyingdeiberate presentation of false information Comm that hurts feelings Active verbal responsesreactive statements made in response to a hurtful message Acquiescent responsescrying conceding or apologizing in response to a hurtful message Invulnerable responsesignoring laughing or being silent in response to a hurtful message Jealousyreaction to the threat of losing a valued relationship Unwanted attention Obsessive Relational Intrusionrepeated invasion of a person s privacy by a stranger or acquaintance who desires or assumes a close relationship Stalkingrepeated unwelcome intrusions that create concern for personal safety and fear in the target Relational Violencerange of destructive behaviors aimed at other people including aggressiveness threats violent acts and verbal psychological or physical abuse 0 Relationship DeEscalation 0 Signs ess touch or physical contact ess smiling ess eye contact ess sexual activity decreases in time together separation of possessions less use of present tense more con ict ess selfdisclosure Relational dissolution process 0 Intrapsychic phase rst phase in relationship termination when an individual engages in an internal evaluation of the partner Con dant phasediscussion and evaluation of a relationship our concerns and options with someone other than our partner Dyadic phasea phase in relationship termination when the individual discusses termination with the partner Social phasea phase in relationship termination in which members of the social network around both parties are informed of and become involved in the termination process Gravedressing phasethe phase when the partners generate public explanations and move past the relationship o Resurrection phasereview and adjustment of our perspectives on self others and relationships while beginning he pursuit of new meaningful relationships Strategies for ending relationships lndirect O Withdrawal Pseudodeescalationone partner claims that he or she wants to rede ne the relationship at a lower level of intimacy Cost escalation 0 Direct Negative identity managementa direct statement of the desire to terminate the relationship Justi cationa clear statement of the desire to end the relationship accompanied by an honest explanation of the reasons Deescalationan honest statement of a desire to rede ne the relationship at a lower level of intimacy or to move toward ending the relationship Recovery Strategies OOOOOOO OWOWU39lbULJNl l Express your emotions Figure out what happened Realize don t realize Prepare to feel better Expect to heal Talk to others Get some perspective Ch 11 Interpersonal Relationships Friendship and Romance Friendshipa relationship of choice that exists over time between people who share a common history Qualities of Friendship Selfdisclosure respect helping behavior Opennesshonesty positive evaluation Compatibility trust concern and empathy Egoreinforcement O O O O 0 Acceptance of one s individuality Friendshipbased intimacya type of intimacy based on feelings of warmth understanding and emotional connection Passionbased intimacya type of intimacy based on romantic and sexual feelings Making friends 0 1 Similarity of attitudes o 2 An expectation that the other person will like us 0 3 Reciprocating selfdisclosures o 4 Proximity 0 5 Accessibility or availability Friendships at different stages 0 Childhood friendships Momentary playmates stage37 interact with those nearest Oneway assistance49 friendships quottakequot perspective Fairweather friend612 more give and take and cooperation Mutual lntimacy915 develop close friendships lndependence12adulthood we tolerate friends making friends with others 0 Adolescent friendshipspeer relationships signi cantly in uence our identity and social skills we develop cliques of friends and form friendship networks 0 Young adult friendshipslate teens through early thirty are linked to a succession of signi cant changes in our lifestyles and goals 0 Adult relationshipsthirties to sixties our most valued relationships providing emotional support partners for activities and socializing opportunities 0 Late Adulthood friendshipsgreater relational satisfaction and less relational con ict more positive perspective Romantic Relationshipsthe closest relationship you ever develop with another human being Qualities of Romantic Relationships 0 Love 0 Commitmentour intention to remain in a relationship 0 Physical affection and sex Triangular Theory of Lovetheory that suggest that all loving relationships can be described according to three dimensions intimacy commitment and passion Friendship to Romance stages 0 Signi cant and intimate self disclosure 0 A shared interaction that is seen as a quot rst datequot 0 The occurrence of sex Unrequited Romantic Interestfeelings created when one partner desires a more intimate romantic relationship than the other partner would like Strategies in Interpersonal Relationships 0 Initiate a relationship Observe and act on approachability cues Identify and use conversation starters Follow initiation norms Ask questions Don t expect too much from the initial interaction 0 Initiate of escalate relationships Communicate and cultivate attraction Be open and selfdisclose appropriately Gather information to reduce uncertainty Listen actively and respond effectively Socially decenter and adopt an otheroriented perspective 0 Escalate of maintain relationships Express emotions Provide comfort and social support Communicate and engage in relationship talk Be tolerant and tactful Manage con ict cooperatively Affinityseeking strategiesa strategy we use to increase others liking us Ch 12 Family and Workplace Communication 0 Family def from text and your own defselfdefined unit made up of any number of persons who live or have lived in relationship with one another over time in a common living space and who are usually but not always united by marriage and kinship Family Types 0 Naturalnuclear mother father and their biological children 0 Extendedrelatives such as aunts uncles cousins or grandparents andor unrelated persons who are part of a family unit 0 Blendedtwo adults and their children Because of divorce separation death or adoption the children are the offspring of other biological parent or of just one of the adults who are raising them 0 Singleparentone parent raising one or more children 0 Family of originfamily in which a person is raised 0 Voluntaryindividuals considered family regardless of their legal or blood connections 0 Strategies for improving family communication 0 Take time to talk Be otheroriented in your focus Don t take yourself too seriously 0 Listen actively and clarify the making of message Stop look and listen Check your interpretation of messages 0 Support and encourage one another Use con rming messages Be selective in disclosing your feelings 0 Use productive strategies for managing con ict stress and change Pick your battles carefully and schedule discussion Acknowledge your partner s viewpoint Strategies for Interviewing 0 Good questions 0 Appearance BIG PICTURE QUESTIONS 00 O 000 0 What are some important questions to be prepared for in an interview What questions should you ask during an interview What are important factors to remember in an interview What does otheroriented mean and how does it apply to interpersonal communication in various contexts Differences in communication in various contexts friendship romance etc Nonverbal and Verbal Communication Be prepared to talk about what you learned in interpersonal communication as it relates to your daily interactions
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