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Bio Exam 3

by: Michael Notetaker

Bio Exam 3 BISC207

Michael Notetaker
GPA 3.895

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Topic 6,7,8
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Notetaker on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BISC207 at University of Delaware taught by JaneNoble-Harvey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Delaware.

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Date Created: 04/17/16
BISC 207 Exam 3 Guide Topic 7 • Cellular respiration cycles o Glycolysis-sugar breakdown (cytoplasm) o Acetyl-CoA synthesizes (mitochondria) o Citric acid cycle-occurs in mitochondria o Oxidative phosphorylation-occurs in mitochondria • Glycolysis-C H O + 6O à 6CO + 6H O + ATP 6 12 6 2 2 2 - • Carbohydrates are broken down through catabolism-produces e carriers that can produce a lot of ATP • Substrate level phosphorylation-substrate and enzyme and DNA bind • Stage 1-Glycoloysis o “ATP consumption”-glucose is unreactive but can work by converting 2ATP à 2ADP o “Cleave”- P-6C-P à 2 3C-P o Reduction- 2NAD à 2NADH o Oxidation-2 inorganic phosphate groups o Substrate level phosphorylation- 2 P-3C-P + 4ADP à 2 3C + 2P + ATP i o Made two ATP and two NADH and one glucose à two pyruvate • Electron carriers + - o NAD -nicotimamide adenine dinucleotide, can add two e and become NADH (high energy), two nucleotide groups bonded at peptide groups o FAD-Flavinadenine dinucleotide + 2e à FADH (high energy form) 2 • Mitochondria-outer membrane and inner membrane with matrix in the center • Synthesis of acetyl-CoA-two pyruvates lose 2 CO mole2ules (oxidation) and becomes + CH 3O-CoA with 2NAD à 2 NADH (reduction) • Stage 3-Citric Acid Cycle o 2 acetyl-CoA feed into cycle separately o Occurs in matrix of mitochondria o Products-2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH , lost C as CO 2- 2 • Oxidative phosphorylation-oxidizes e carrier that we have been reducing (FADH and 2 NADH) o This allows us to make ATP from ADP o Occurs in mitochondria o Complex 1 accepts e from NADH à NAD + - o Complex 1 hands e to Complex 2 to Complex 3 and are eventually taken by O gas to2 reduce it to water at Complex 4 o All complexes have to be situated between matrix and inner membrane o Electrons lose energy as it is passed land and O is a2 atom that can take up low energy electrons + o NADH à NAD gives electrons to Complex 1 o FADH à 2AD gives electrons to Complex 2 o H ions are pumped across the membrane into inner membrane in Complex 1,3, and 4 (active transport) and H are moved with gradient in ATP synthase to build ATP when + ATP synthase spins (spins when H is passed through and the rotational energy converts ADP + P i ATP o 32 total ATP are produced through cellular respiration (32 from breakdown of NADH and FADH 225 ATP from every NADH oxidized and 1 ATP for every 1.5 ATP for every FADH 2xidized, two from breakdown of of glucose, and two from citric acid cycle) • Fermentation-process of producing energy without oxygen (done by humans) o Glucose is oxidized by the reduction of NAD , two ATP molecules are produced + + o 2 pyruvates from glycolysis oxidizes 2 NADH + 2 H à NAD and lactic acid o Lactic acid causes muscle spasms after a lot of build up inhibiting you to move and forcing you to catch your breathe • Alcoholic fermentation-done by plants o Glycolysis is the same o 2 pyruvates lose 2 CO an2 are reacted with acetaldehyde before oxidizing 2 NADH and produces 2 ethanol o Used to make beverages as well as production and raising of bread (yeast ferments and releases carbon dioxide to lighten the bread and alcohol is baked out) • Anaerobic respiration-fermentation • Storage of energy o Glycogen-storage in glucose in animals, has a protein center with long branching chains of glucose, glucose molecules can be broken down one at a time, humans can have 3 pounds of glycogen in the liver and some more in muscles o Starch-storage of glucose in plant cells in granules in plant cells o Glucose can be broken down to glucose 6-phosphate and release ATP then to fructose 6- phosphate then to the cellular respiration cycle • Oxidation of fatty acids o Acetyl CoA reduces NAD and FAD to create 4 ATP and acetyl CoA is broken from fatty acid chain and the acetyl CoA goes into citric cycle o A lot more energy can be stored in fats than in glycogen and carbohydrates • Cells control their actions in the cell o Glucose à Glucose 6-phosphate à Fructose 6-phosphate à can be used in other ways, starting molecule for many synthesizes à cellular respiration o Kinase-any enzyme that puts a phosphate group onto a molecule o Phosphofructose kinase mechanism Topic 8 • Photosynthesis-CO +2H O à2C H O 6+ 12 6 2 o Oxidation H O à2O 2 o Reduction CO à C2H O 6 12 6 • Chloroplasts hold thylakoid membrane • Photosynthesis o H O 2oes into thylakoid and oxidizes from sunlight into O (bypr2duct) o NADPH and ATP are produced from oxidation o NADPH and ATP go into Calvin cycle where CO is red2ced to C H O 6 12 6 o Chlorophyll absorbs all visible light but the most absorption at red resulting in a green color o When electrons in a plant absorb light and become excited as they return to the ground state they transfer their energy to neighboring electrons o Photosystem II-when chlorophylls are hit with light they transfer their energy until if gets to the reaction center where the electron leaves the molecule (solar energy à chemical potential energy) o Light hits photosystem II and electron leaves and goes into photosystem I (molecule still needs electron which comes from oxidation of H O) 2 + + o Photosystem I uses electrons to create NADPH from NADP and H o The Z energy transfer o Electrons come from breakdown of water o Photosystem I and II are in membrane between stroma and lumen o ATP synthase works the same as in cellular respiration + o Cyclic electron transport-photosystem I only, allows H transport and the creation of ATP, occurred in evolution first + o When there is too much sunlight there isn’t enough NADP in the cell to catch the electrons being passed through the linear transport system and electrons react with O 2 and produce reactive oxygen species, partially reduced oxygen looking for more electrons taking them from the membrane, DNA, and other molecules § Reactive oxygen can react with antioxidants to produce water § Xanthophyll reduce the rate at which electrons are sent through the transport system o Calvin cycle-ribose-1,5-biphosphate-carboxylation, CO comes2in and turns RuBP to 3- phosphoglycerate and that is reduced to triosephosphate and produces ATP and + + H /NADP (from ADP and P, NADPH) • Calvin/Benson experiment-used radioactive carbon ( CO ) and g2ve it sunlight, their 14 experiment showed that a short exposure to CO and l2ght results in only 3-PGA which means that was what was created first • Photorespiration-occurs because rubisco (used in Calvin cycle) cause drop in efficiency, ribulose-1,5-phosphate reacts with O to2form CO 3-P2A and 2-phospholgycoate • Maximum 4% theoretical yield from sunlight in the form of potential carbohydrates o 60% is outside range o 8% is converted to heat o 8% is reflected or transmitted o 20% is lost in photorespiration • Mitochondria and chloroplasts o Semiautonomous-semi-independent, not part of endomembrane system o Lynn Margulis-thought that the mitochondria and chloroplasts were bacteria that found their way into the cell (endocytosis) (now it’s a theory-Endosymbiotic theory) o Supporting evidence-circular DNA, ribosomes are 60s while outside organelle, divide by binary fission (independent of cell division), if mitochondria is lost cell cannot create one o Can’t grow outside of cell o Proteins needed by mitochondria are coded by nuclear genes (common for intercellular parasites) o Assumed mitochondria was engulfed by former prokaryotic cell o Horizontal gene transfer-evolution by adopting new genetic information o Vertical evolution-natural selection Topic 9 • Signal cell à signal molecule à receptor molecules à receptor cell o The signal binds with receptor and it is activated o The signal is transmitted to the interior of the cell by a signal transduction pathway o Cell responds and releases signal • Types of signaling o Endocrine signaling-hormones help regulate by being released into blood circulation and can go anywhere in the body (insulin-made in pancreas) o Paracrine signaling-local signaling receptor cell is close to signal cell (use to move toward reproduction) o Autocrine signaling-one cell can make signal molecules and hit receptors on the same cell (ex. Cancer cells) • Growth factors o Serum (liquid blood after clots) allowed growth of fibroblasts and they didn’t go as fast in plasma o Platelet-derived growth factor • Types of signaling o Jutacrine signaling-immunsystem, sets up immunresponse • Ligand-signaling molecule coming from outside of the cell that binds to something inside/outside that cell that alters ligand • Ligand binding site-binds with ligand and sets up signal transduction pathway • Polar-signaling molecules affect changes yet don’t get into the cell • Steroid hormones are non-polar and can get into cell through plasma membrane and binds/activates the cytoplasmic receptors and this turns on a specific set of genes by a form of transcription • 3 types of cell receptor proteins o G-protein couple receptors-GDP becomes active when comes in contact with a receptor that has reacted with a ligand and GDP à GTP and activates signal pathway (GDP can only move on inside of the plasma membrane) o Receptor kinase-need two ligands to interact with two receptors to start signal, attract 6 total phosphates when reacted (cross-phosphorylate one another) and produce signal o Ligand-gated ion channel-channel that requires a ligand to interact with it to be activated and allow flow of molecules


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