Psych 1000 Exam 3 Study Guide
Psych 1000 Exam 3 Study Guide PSYC 1010
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marie Markoff on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Cannon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Chapter 12 Emotions, Stress, and Health Emotion: Arousal, behavior, and cognition ● Someone cuts you off while driving, you feel nmotions are a mix of: ○ Expressive behavior(yelling, accelerating) ○ Bodily arousa (sweat, pounding heart) ○ Conscious experience thoughts, feelings ie “what a bad driver!”) An emotion is a full body/mind/behavior response to a situation 4 Theories of emotion: the arousal and cognition “chicken and egg debates” James Lange Theory: ● Body arousal happens first ● Then the cognitive awareness and label for the feeling: I’m angry ● Emotion is our conscious awareness of our physiological responses to stimuli ‘ CannonBard Theory ● We have a conscious/cognitive experience of an emotion at the same time as our body is responding SchachterSinger Two Factor theory ● Emotion = body plus a cognitive level ● emotions do not exist until we add a label to whatever body sensations we are feeling ● A label completes an emotion ● Spillover effectemotions are contagious. If you see someone acting happy, you are likely to as well. Robert Zajonc, Joseph LeDoux, Richard Lazarus: Emotions w/o awareness/cognition ● Theory: some emotional reactions especially fears and dislikes develop in a “low road” through the brain, skipping conscious thought. ● In one study, people showed an amygdala response to certain images (fearful eyes) without being aware of the image or their reaction Embodied Emotion ● The role of the autonomic nervous system ● The physiological arousal felt during various emotions is orchestrated by the sympathetic nervous system which triggers activity and changes in various organs ● It is difficult to see differences in emotions from tracking heart rate, breathing, and perspiration. Ie anger and fear look the same. ● Some small differences in brain activity ○ Positiv emotions correlate wlef frontal lobe activity ○ Negative emotions correlate wrightfrontal lobe activity Emotional Expression ● Are there universal forms of emotional expression seen on human faces across all cultures ● Are there differences person to person? Detecting emotion in others ● People read a great deal of emotional content in the eyes and in the face ● We are primed to quickly detect negative emotions ● Those who have been abused are biased toward seeing fearful faces as angry Gender and Emotional expression and Detection ● Women are more skilled at detecting emotions in others and reading non verbal behavior ● Females are more likely to describe themselves as empathetic and more likely to express empathy ○ Male and female film viewers did not differ much in self reported emotions or physiological responses but the women’s fahowedmuch more emotion Culture and emotional expression: Are there universally recognized emotions ● There are universally understood facial expressions ● People blind from birth show the same facial expressions as sighted people ● Cultures do differ in how much emotion is expressed Emotion detection and context cues ● How can you tell what emotion someone is feeling? ● Context Linking emotions and expressive behaviors ● Facial Feedback Effect ○ Facial position and muscle changes can alter which emotion we feel Behavior feedback effect: ○ behavior can influence our own and others thoughts, feelings, and actions Is experienced emotion as universal as expressed emotion? ● Yes Closer look at anger: ● A flash of anger gives us energy and initiative to take action ● Persistent anger can be harmful to our bodies ● Controlled expressions of anger promote reconciliation rather than retaliation ● A non accusing statement of feeling ○ The catharsis myth: we can reduce anger by “releasing” it (hostile outbursts) ○ In most cases, expressing anger breeds more anger. This myth is false. ○ How to cope: wait ○ Forgiveness calms the body Closer look at happiness: ● Happy people are better decision makers, cooperate more easily, live healthier ● The feel good do good phenomenon ○ when you feel good, you’re more likely to be generous and helpful Positive Psychology ● Study of what leads to happiness and well being External vs. Internal Locus of Control Locus of control ● do you see yourself as controlling or as controlled by your environment? ● Internal Locus of controI control my circumstances ○ Achieve more in school and work ○ Better at coping with stress ○ Less risk for depression ● External locus of contro chance or outside forces determine my fate ○ Less motivation to achieve ○ Anxiety about what might happen A stressor ● Something you decide is overwhelming ● You decide if you can change it or not Self Control Resource, Skill, Trait ● The ability to control impulses and delay gratification ● Uses brain energy ● Individual differences ● The Marshmallow Study: self control of kids Promoting Health: Social Support ● Having close relationships is associated with improved health and longevity ● Social support calms, reduces blood pressure and stress hormones ● Confiding in others helps manage painful feelings Aerobic exercise and Mental Health ● Exercise reduces the risk of heart disease, cognitive decline and dementia and early death ● Aerobic exercise reduces depression and anxiety and improves management of stress Lifestyle Modification ● Survivors of heart attacks lifestyle modification ● Control group diet, medication, and exercise advice ○ Result: modifying lifestyle led to reduced heart attack rates Religious Involvement and Health ● Religiously active people tend to live longer than those who are not ● Healthy lifestyle behaviors ● Social support ● Hope for the future ● Feelings of acceptance ● relaxed meditation of prayer Chapter 14: Social Psychology ● How do individuals think about, influence, and relate to other people? ● How we think about other people ● How they influence our behaviors ● How we treat other people Attribution: identifying causes ● Attribution ○ A conclusion about the cause of an observed behavior/event. Ie “why didn’t she come out tonight?” Or “why did I get a bad grade?” Situational attribution ● Attributing things to a situation. Ie “maybe his alarm didn’t go off” Dispositional Attribution ● Something innate having to do with someone’s personality “He’s late because he is lazy” Attribution theory: ● We explain others’ behaviors Social thinking ● The fundamental attribution error: ● When we think about other people’s behavior, we go too far in assuming that a person’s behavior is caused by their personality ● We think a behavior demonstrates a trait Emotional effects of Attribution ● Someone cuts in front of you how we explain someone’s behavior affects how we react to it Attitudes and actions ● How you think about people influences your behaviors ● Attitudes affect public policies ● Attitudes affect our actions Do actions affect attitudes?: The foot in the door phenomenon ○ Small compliance turns into a large one ○ Once you start something, you are more likely to keep with it Role playing affects attitudes ● Ie Stanford Prison Experiment participants adopted the roles they were assigned ● In arranged marriages, people often come to have a deep love for their partner ● Actors say they lose themselves in roles Cognitive Dissonance ● When our actions and attitudes are different ● Cognitive Dissonance Theory ○ We try to resolve the dissonance by changing our attitudes to fit our actions Social Influence ● Social situations have many ways of influencing our behavior, attitudes, beliefs, and decisions. ● Conformity ○ Adjusting our behavior or thinking to go along with a group standard Some mimicry is automatic: ● yawning, arm folding, adopting grammar ○ Empathetic shifts in mood ○ Adopting coping style of parents and peers ○ Copycat school shootings and suicides Responding to social norms ● Asch Conformity studies: one third of people will agree with the obvious mistruths to go along with the group What makes you more likely to conform? ● When you are not firmly committed to one set of beliefs or style of behavior ● The group is medium sized and unanimous ● You admire the group’s status ● If you feel insecure or closely watched ● Your culture encourages respect for norms Two types of social influence ● Normative Social Influence ○ We go along with others in pursuit of social approval Informational social influence: ● Going along with others because groups provide information ● Ie deciding which side of the road to drive on Milgram’s Obedience Study ● How would people respond to direct commands? ● More than 60% of participants gave the full amount of shock even though they thought that the participant was hurt because they were told to What factors increase obedience? ● Someone with authority ● Someone associated with a prestigious institution ● Someone standing close by ● When they are in the same room as you ● No role models for defiance ● When under pressure to conform or obey, ordinary, principled people will say and do things they never would have believed they would do Social Facilitation ● Strengthened performance in the presence of others ● Increases motivation for those who are confident Social Loafing ● Do you hate group projects because others free ride on your efforts? ● Social loafing is the tendency of people in a group to show less effort when not held individually accountable ● Deindividuation: loss of self awareness and self restraint ● Group participation makes people both aroused and anonymous Group polarization ● The beliefs/attitudes you bring to a group grow stronger and more polarized as you discuss them with like minded others ● In pursuit of social harmony, groups will make decisions without an open exchange of ideas The power of individuals ● Committed individuals can sway the majority and make history (ie Ghandi) Social Relations ● Social psychologists also study the psychological components Prejudice ○ An unsatisfied (usually negative) attitude toward a group. ○ Beliefs (stereotypes) ○ Emotions (hostility) ○ Levels of prejudice can change Roots of prejudice ● Social Inequality when some groups have fewer resources and opportunities than others ● The Justworld phenomenon ○ Those doing well must have done something right, so those suffering must have done something wrong. Us vs. Them: Ingroups, outgroups ● Even if people are randomly assigned to groups: our natural drive to belong leads to ingroup bias. Cognitive roots of prejudice ● Forming categories ● The power of vivid cases ● “Just world” belief The Other Race effect ● One way we simplify our world is to categorize ● In categorizing people into groups, we often stereotype them ● “They” look and act alike, but “we” are more diverse. ● Other race effect: we have greater recognition for our own race faces Judging based on vivid cases ● We don’t always rely on statistics. ● Vivid cases always come to mind ● Ie: the majority of Muslim people are not terrorists, but we jump to a vivid case (9/11) and think that all Muslims are terrorists. ● The ability Heuristic ○ Stereotypes that are based on vivid cases Confirmation Bias ● We are not likely to look for counterexamples to our stereotypes Hindsight Bias ● “They should have known better” Cognitive dissonance ● Changing your attitude to fit with your actions Aggression ● Any behavior intended to harm another person ● Biological Factors: ○ Genetic factors (heredity) ○ Neural factors (stimulation on amygdala; underactive frontal lobes) ○ Biochemistry: testosterone, alcohol Psychological Factors ● Frustrationaggression principle ○ Averse stimuli can evoke hostility (hot weather, dehydration) ○ Reinforcement (sometimes aggression works) ○ Modeling (when parents scream and hit, they are modeling violence) Aggression in Media ● Aggression portrayed in video, music, TV, and other media follows and teaches us social scripts (how to behave in any social situation) ● When we are in new situations, uncertain how to behave, we rely on social scripts Effects of Social Scripts: ● Studies: exposure to violence and sexual aggression on TV ● Sexual aggression seems less serious ● Believing the rape myth ● Increased acceptance of the use of coercion in sexual relations ● Increased punitive behavior toward women More media effects on aggression ● Active roleplaying in video games ● Playing positive games can increase reallife prosocial behavior ● Violent video games ○ Can prime aggressive thoughts and decrease empathy ○ Not a “release” for aggressive impulses ○ Desensitization to violence Understanding Attraction ● Why do we fall in love with some people but not others? ● Proximity ○ Mere exposure effect (more exposure leads to liking) ● Physical Attractiveness ○ Different cultural standards ○ Some universal aspects of attractiveness ● Similarity ○ Shared attitudes, beliefs, interests (even age, race, religion, education etc) Romantic Love ● May start off with physical attraction ● Then has a phase of passionate love ● Grows into companionate love ● Mae closer by equity and self disclosure Keys to a lasting love relationship ● Equity both people are giving ● Selfdisclosure being open about yourself ● Positive interactions and support Altruism Unselfish regard for the welfare of other people; giving without expecting anything in return ● Strongly influenced by parenting ● If your parents spend a lot of time in volunteer activities, you will be more likely to ● Attention, appraisal, social role (assuming responsibility), taking action ● The Bystander Effect ○ Fewer people help when others are available ○ The more people are around, the less likely anyone will help ○ Diffusion of responsibility ○ Strongest predictor of helping is if we’re in a good mood Conflict ● A perceived incompatibility in goals, ideas, and actions between people and groups ● Those in conflict tend to form diabolical images of one another Peacemaking: the 4 C’s ● Contact ○ Exposure, interaction, familiarity ● Cooperation ○ Shared goals ● Communication ○ Sometimes with mediators ● Conciliation ○ Give in a little and acknowledge and admit that you want to fix things ○ Put your guard down, be more open minded Chapter 13 Personality Ways of looking at the self: Personality ● A person’s individual characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors ● Persisting over time and across situations Freud ● He “discovered” the unconscious ● People came to him with problems like a numb hand, and he attributed it to the unconscious mind. ● Free association if he had someone freely talk, he would find a hint of the subconscious ● the “problem” was that you had sexual tensions ● His name for his theory and his treatment technique: psychoanalysis ● “Freudian slips” “hello my beheaded, I mean, my beloved” Freud’s Personality Iceberg ● Personality arises from conflict between impulse and restraint ○ Id (pleasure) ○ Ego (reality) ○ Superego (our moral compass) ○ The ego is the mediator Freud’s theory of Psychosexual Stages ● The id is focused on the needs of erogenous zones, sensitive areas of the body ● People can get fixated at one stage ● Stages: ○ Oral (018 months) pleasure centers on the mouth ○ If you did not make it through this stage, you always need a cigarette in your mouth Male development issues ● “The Oedipus complex” boys in the phallic stage develop unconscious sexual desires for their mothers and view their fathers as a rival. ● Resolution: boys identify with their fathers rather than seeing them as a rival Defense Mechanisms (Freud) ● We are anxious about our unacceptable impulses, so the ego represses this anxiety with the help of defense mechanisms (unconsciously distort reality) Assessing the unconscious: ● Freud tried to get unconscious themes to be projected into the conscious world through free association and dream analysis ● Dream analysis ○ Skyscraper = penis ● Projective tests ○ Ambiguous prompts should reveal the inner workings of your mind ○ Ie. thematic apperception test: view ambiguous pictures and make up stories about them ○ Rorschach test: “what do you see in these ink blots?” ○ Problem: results don’t link well to traits and different raters get different results (low validity and low reliability) Evidence has updated Freud’s ideas: ● Development is life long ● Peers have more influence on personality ● Dreams as well as “Freudian slips” don’t reveal deep unconscious conflicts and wishes ● Traumatic memories are usually intensely remembered, not repressed ● Few objective observations, few testable hypotheses ● Gender and sexual orientation seems to be more a function of genetics Humanistic theories of Personality ● The “third force” in psychology ● 1st force freud ● 2nd force behaviorism (no free will, you are a product of your environment) ● 3rd force: ○ They studied healthy people and the conditions that support healthy lifesty es ● Maslow: the self actualizing person ○ People are motivated to keep moving up a hierarchy of needs ○ self transcendence ● Carl Rogers ● 3 conditions that facilitate growth and fulfillment ● If our selfconcept is positive, we tend to act and perceive the world positively ● The 3 conditions: ○ genuineness, acceptance, and empathy Critiquing the Humanist Perspective ● Encouraging selfindulgence, self centeredness ● The human capacity for evil ● Rogers saw “evil” as a social phenomenon, not an individual trait ● Humanist response: selfacceptance is not the end; it then allows us to move on and do good in the world and loving and caring for others. Trait theory of personality ● Trait ○ A characteristic pattern of behavior or a predisposition to feel and act a certain way. Ie honest, shy, hard working ● Trait theory of personality ○ We are made up of a collection of traits that can be identified and measured, traits that differ from person to person ● Factor analysis and the Eysencks’ personality dimensions ○ Compass of stable, unstable, extraverted, and introverted ○ Identify statistically correlated clusters of behavior ● Traits; rooted in biology? ● Brain: ○ extraverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low ○ Introverts have too much brain arousal so they seek less stimulation ● Body ○ The trait of shyness appears to be related to high autonomic system reactivity (an easily triggered alarm system) ● Genes ○ Selective breeding of animals, can select for traits (shyness, sociability, etc.) suggesting genetic roots for these traits. The big 5 personality dimensions: ● Conscientiousness ● Agreeableness ● Openness ● Extraversion ● Neuroticism Questions about traits ● Stability ○ Change over the lifespan; not much. With time, personality traits become more stable ○ Everyone in adulthood becomes more conscientious and agreeable ○ Genes account for 50% of the variation for most traits Predictive value: do traits predict behavior? ● Conscientiousness grades, healthy lifestyle behaviors ● Extraversion a lot of time spent in social activities ● happiness low neuroticism, high extraversion, agreeableness ● Marital satisfaction The personsituation controversy Are your behaviors due to situations or stable traits? ● Specific behaviors can vary in different situations ● We change interests, careers relationships ● Averaging your behavior across many occasions does reveal distinct traits ● Personality traits can even predict mortality and divorce ● A room can reflect the personality of the person who lives there ● The setup and contents of a rom can also shape personality Social cognitive perspective ● Albert Bandura believes personality is: ● The result of an interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context (conditioning or observing others) How do we interpret and respond to external events? How do those responses shape us? How do our memories expectations, schemas, influence our behavior patterns? How do personality and social environment mutually influence each other? Reciprocal Determinism ● Reciprocal: a back and forth influence ● Personality is shaped by: traits, behaviors, environment ○ Internal Personal factors: (thoughts and feelings about risky activities) ○ Environmental factors: (rock climbing friends) ○ Behavior: learning to rock climb ● Ie: feelings of academic inferiority, don’t bother trying hard in school, poor grades ● 3 specific ways in which individuals and environments interact ○ 1. Different people choose different environments ○ 2. Our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events ○ 3. Our personalities help create situations to which we react Chapter 15 Psychological disorders ● What does it mean to have a mental disorder? ● Defining and classifying disorders ● Psychological disorder: ○ A syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion, regulation, or behavior ● Syndrome ○ A collection of symptoms that go together, not just a single symptom ● Disturbed (dysfunctional) ○ Thoughts, emotions, or behaviors are maladaptive: they interfere with day to day life ○ Functional impairment ○ Symptoms cause distress Is ADHD a disorder? ● Is it deviant? ● Is it distressful? ● Is there dysfunction? Understanding the nature of psychological disorders ● One reason to diagnose a disorder is to make decisions about treating the problem ● To treat a disorder, it helps to understand the nature/cause of the psychological symptoms Pinel’s new approach ● Philippe Pinel proposed that madness is not demonic possession, but a sickness of the mind ● Emphasized “moral treatment” ● Came up with the first insane asylum ● From the humane view to the scientific view of the mentally ill: ○ provided a place for them to be, but did not help to cure them ● The discovery that the disease of syphilis causes mental symptoms by infecting the brain suggested a medical model for mental illnesses The medical model ● The medical world began searching for physical causes and treatments of mental disorders The biopsychosocial approach ● Biological influences ○ Evolution ○ Individual genes ○ Brain structure and chemistry ● Psychological influences ○ Stress ○ trauma Classifying psychological disorders ● Classification orders and describes symptoms The diagnostic and statistical manual ● It’s easier to count cases of autism if we have a clear definition ● The DSM is used to justify payment for treatment ● It is consistent with diagnoses used by medical doctors worldwide Risk and protective factors for mental disorders ● Risk factors: academic failure, birth complications, living in poverty ● Protective factors: aerobic exercise, economic independence, effective parenting etc. Anxiety disorders ● GAD: generalized anxiety disorder ● Emotionalcognitive symptoms ○ Excessive and uncontrollable worry ● Physical symptoms ○ Autonomic arousal (trembling, sweating, fidgeting, etc) ● Panic disorder ○ “Panic attacks” ○ Minuteslong episodes of intense fear which may include feelings of terror, chest pains, trembling, feeling faint, or other frightening sensati ns ○ A feeling or need to escape ● Agoraphobia ○ Fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult when panic strikes ● Specific phobia ○ Intense fear of something specific ○ Persistent and unreasonable fear of an object or situation, and an intense desire to avoid it ○ Functional impairment ● Some fears and phobias ○ Social anxiety disorder: an intense fear of being watched and judged by others ● OCD ○ Persistence of unwanted, repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and actions (compulsions) that interfere with everyday living and causes distress PTSD: About 515% of people who experience trauma have four weeks to a lifetime of: Intrusive, distressing recollections of the event Nightmares Social withdrawal Feelings of intense fear Understanding Anxiety Disorders: Explanations from different perspectives: Classical conditioning overgeneralizing a conditioned response Learned associations: associate a certain object/place with a feeling of fear (little Albert) ● Sometimes, such a conditioned response becomes overgeneralized Operant conditioning:rewarding avoidance ● Feel anxious in a situation? Leave. ● Avoidance reduces anxiety and reinforce to get over it you have to break the association of scariness! Observational learning: worrying like a parent ● Both humans and monkeys can learn fears by watching others! Evolutionary: surviving by avoiding dangers ● Human phobic objects: Snakes, heights, darkness, closed spaces ● Similar but nonphobic objects: Fish, low places, light, open spaces < because there is no danger!! ● Dangerous yet nonphobic subjects: Guns, electric wiring, cars < all are perceived to be better understood It is an adapted survival method!! Cognitive appraisals : uncertainty is danger ● Worried thoughts, interpretations, appraisals, beliefs, predictions, hypervigilance ● Perceived loss of control, sense of helplessness Examples of cognitions that can worsen anxiety: Cognitive errors, irrational beliefs, mistaken appraisals, etc. Genetics: Twin studies: very similar anxiety rates Families: fearfulness runs in families Inborn sensitive, highstrung temperament The Brain: Overarousal of brain areas involved in impulse control and habitual behaviors Traumatic experiences can burn fear circuits into the brain MOOD DISORDERS : Major Depressive Disorders: The presence of at least 5 of the following symptoms over a twoweek period: Chronic depressed mood Dramatically reduced interest or pleasure in activities And also: Reduces appetite or weight, fatigue, agitation, feeling worthless, excessive guilt, etc. Bipolar Disorder : Swinging mood between depression and mania Depressed mood: Stuck with feeling "down" (same as MDD) Mania: Euphoric, giddy, easily irritated, extremely overactive and impulsive Depression is everywhere #1 reason people seek mental health services Appears world wide Women's risk of depression is nearly double that of men's Understanding Mood Disorders: Why does it affect some people and not others? Evidence of genetic influences: Twin/adoption studies DNA linkage analysis reveals depressed gene regions Especially bipolar and schizophrenia, like 80% The brain: Depressive states: diminished brain active, left frontal love less active, reduced norepinephrine and serotonin Mania: overabundant norepinephrine SocialCognitive: discounting positive information and assuming the worst about self, situation, and the future Low selfesteem Learned helplessness Rumination (stuck focusing on what's bad) Depressive Explanatory Style:table, global, internal Whereas successful coping would describe an issue as:emporary, specific, and external Depression's vicious cycle: Stressful experience > negative explanatory style > depressed mood > cognitive and behavioral changes > stressful experiences Suicide and SelfInjury Each year, 800,000 people commit suicide Typically when the depression begins to lift Gender differences: females are more likely to attempt, males are more likely to succeed (tend to use more lethal means) Often an impulsive act:: environmental barriers can save lives Nonsuicidal selfinjury: distraction from pain, form of selfpunishment, sending a message Schizophrenia ● Psychosis refers to a mental split from reality and rationality ● Antipsychotic drugs are for schizophrenia ○ Disturbed perceptions (hallucinations) seeing things that aren’t there ○ Disorganized thinking (delusions) false thinking ○ Disorganized speech word salad, no meaning ○ Inappropriate emotions ● Positive symptoms of schizophrenia the added symptoms that come with schizophrenia ○ Presence of problematic behaviors ○ Hallucinations ○ Delusions ● Negative symptoms absence of normality ○ Absence of healthy behaviors ○ Flat affect ○ Reduced social interaction Onset and development of schizophrenia ● Onset ○ Late adolescence or early adulthood ● Prevalence ○ Nearly 1 in 100 people ○ Slightly more men than women Course of Schizophrenia ● Acute ○ Positive symptoms appear after a major stressor ○ Recovery is likely Chronic ○ Develops slowly with more negative symptoms ○ Much more difficult to treat ○ Leads to poverty and social problems In the brain of a schizophrenic, abnormal brain structure and activity ● Too many dopamine/D4 receptors ● Poor coordination of neural firing frontal lobes ● The thalamus fires during hallucinations as if real sensations were being received ● Thalamus is active when there is nothing sensory ● There is general shrinking of many brain areas Understanding schizophrenia ● Are there biological risk factors affecting early development? Biological risk factors ● Low birth rate ● Maternal diabetes ● Older paternal age ● Famine ● Oxygen deprived during delivery ● Maternal virus during midpregnancy Genetic risks ● Identical twins are likely to both develop schizophrenia if one of them has it ● If an identical twin has schizophrenia, the cotwin’s chance of having it are 6 in 10 if they share a placenta. ● Separate placenta: 1 in 10 ● Research shows many genes linked to schizophrenia, but it may take environmental factors to turn on those genes Socialpsychological factors such as parenting do notcause schizophrenia Other disorders Dissociative Disorders ● A person’s conscious awareness dissociates (separates) from painful memories, thoughts, and feelings ● Dissociative Identity disorder (D.I.D) ○ Development of distinct and alternating personalities ● Real or not? ○ real: different personalities have different brainwave patterns; handedness ○ A way to cope with anxiety and abuse ● Not real?: an extreme form of playing a role ○ A recent cultural construction ○ Created or worsened by therapists encouraging people to think of different parts of themselves ○ Created by therapists searching for something Not everyone agrees it exists Eating disorders Characteristics ● Unrealistic body image and extreme body ideal ● A desire to control food and the body when one’s situation can’t be controlled Anorexia Nervosa ● Compulsion to lose weight ● True certainty of being fat when they are significantly overweight Bulimia Nervosa ● Binge eating and then purging ● Laxatives, vomiting, exercise Bingeeating disorder ● Bingeing without the purging Family factors ● Having a mother focused on her weight and the child’s weight ● Negative self evaluation in the family ● For bulimia, if childhood obesity runs in the family ● For anorexia, if families are competitive, high achieving, and protective Cultural factors ● Unrealistic ideals of body appearance
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