Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PHIL 150A1
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley Ruhe on Friday February 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Shaun Nichols in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 391 views. For similar materials see Philosophical Perspectives on the Individual in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
Epistemology cont amp Berker 02142015 The evil genius can deceive you of everything but your existence 0 l I think therefore I am Descartes 2nd meditations o selfverifying just thinking it veri es it s truth you can t think if you don t exist Descartes foundation Method of subtraction Subtract things that could be the result of deception to determine one s nature Descartes must either explain why this method works for the self amp not other things or why it applies to all things Otherwise it doesn t make sense 0 Clarity principle l that which is clearly and distinctly perceived is certain Descartes legacy Goal of Meditations l to achieve a secure foundation 0 Attempts this by arguing for the existence of God then saying he would never deceive us 0 Most enduring legacy is one he never embraced l Cartesian skepticism courtesy of the evil genius amp dreaming arguments that show we can never have undoubtable knowledge of the external world BERKELEY l there is a physical world outside our minds beyond what we can directly sense Descartes is a realist Cartesian skeptic can be a realist because a Cartesian skeptic merely says we do not have undoubtabe knowledge not that it doesn t exist all together l representational theory of the mind 0 Many ideas in your mind represent things in the world 0 Ex our perception of a computer represents a real computer l knowledge comes from reason all knowledge amp ideas comes from experiences 0 The mind starts as a blank slate tabula rasa until we have expedences Empiricists impressed by progress in empirical sciences like physics 0 Elegantly simple Barkeley s Combats atheism amp skepticism Rejects realism representational theory of mind rationalism Embraces empiricism 0 Ideas are mental images that come from the senses or imagination Images not just visual ex smell taste 0 Imagination manipulates images 0 Every object we think has this property 0 The object is thought of 0 Thus an object must be thought of to exist 0 Or at least we cannot conceive mindindependent objects objects that don t exist Argument doesn t work cause quotbeing thought ofquot is not an essential property of objects 0 NOT the evil genius argument l there is no physical world just ideas amp minds 0 Ex what we perceive about an idea is all that exists not the table itself 0 Exists in your mind not the external world 0 NOT the evil genius argument God doesn t deceive us philosophers deceive us into thinking there s an external world 0 and says it provides evidence in a simpler way than Descarte s realism o Descarte God created the external world and our perception of the external world 0 Berkely Why would God also need to create the external world if all he needs to do is create our perception He only creates perception Philosophers have concluded that there s no more evidence to disregard idealism than realism just because the argument for a theory is bad doesn t mean the theory itself is bad Epistemology l the theory of knowledge What are good ways to acquire knowledge How do people acquire knowledge 0 Naturalized Epistemology What s knowledge What is required to obtain knowledge 0 Conceptual analysis What can we really know 0 Skepticism knowledge is impossible What is knowledge Knowledge a justi ed true belief Looming con ict 0 Before philosophical re ections it seems we know a lot 0 But our notion of knowledge is demanding Rene Descartes Sought foundation for knowledge Rationalist all knowledge comes from reason quotMeditations on First philosophy 1641quot trusted philosophical reason more than empirical evidence l if you can doubt it then you don t know it 0 challenges strict knowledge of the external world not because it isn t true or he doesn t believe but rather the belief is not justi ed suggested knowledge from the senses should be examined 0 3 arguments 0 challenges validity of knowledge from the senses o senses have been deceptive my senses have deceived me in the past therefore we open the door to doubt and senses no longer provide indubitable knowledge a ex MullerLyer illusion l have had experiences of ordinary things while dreaming There is no absolute way to guarantee I m awake Therefore I don t have indubitable knowledge that I m currently awake I Continued l therefore I can never be sure my sensory experiences are valid because I cannot prove that I am awake o For any sensory experience l have it s possible that it came from an evil genius o lfl cant tell if an experience is from the external world or an evil genius then the experience does not provide concrete knowledge of the external world I cant tell if it s the evil genius or not 0 Conclusion Sensory experience does not give me indubitable knowledge of the external world l we lack genuine knowledge that the external world exists 0 Freud on Religion 0 Never attempts to prove religious beliefs are false Argues that beliefs are not justi ed but rather based on what we want to believe 0 Claims religion is an illusion based on wishful thinking not false ideas Genealogy of religion historical development 0 Goal I chart the origin of religion 0 Stage 1 people born into a cruel world so they personify evil forces 0 Illness evil spirit in one s body 0 Stage 2 l science gradually replaces personi ed forces 0 God offers relief 0 Stage 3 l divine intervention now miracles 0 Religion becomes rewarding good deeds amp punishing bad deeds Character of religious beliefs 0 Religious beliefs developed to appeal to our psychological wants 0 2 factors 0 divine justice escape from death l we believe in compensation because that s what we WANT o monotheism l we have a longing for a father gure our earthly fathers aren t good enough so we imagine a better one Religion amp reason 0 Do people believe in religion for good reasons 0 3 foundations for religious beliefs most common responses o ancestors believed them 0 there s proof 0 it is forbidden to question conclusion l religious beliefs not based on reason oCommon explanations for religious beliefs are illogical so there must be something going on psychologically oTherefore religious beliefs are illusions 0 Wish ful llment theory l strength in religion lies in the strength of the wish 0 A belief is an illusion if 0 The product of our wishes 0 Not based on rational grounds 0 A belief is a delusion if 0 It s the result of wishful thinking 0 It s false 0 A belief is an error if it s false Freud amp denetic arguments l the false argument that a belief is false if it has unsupported origins o Freud does not commit this fallacy o But he does say that this theory should undermine our con dence in our beliefs if we recognize the basis of our religious beliefs then our attitudes may change Freud s genetic argument o if the basis for one s belief is foolish then the belief is unjusti ed 1 beliefs arise from wish ful llment they satisfy our desires 2 beliefs that arise from wish ful llment are not rationally warranted they are wishful thinking 3 therefore religious beliefs are not rationally warranted Agrees that argument is valid if premises are true but he challenges both premises 0 Premise 1 no evidence as to how beliefs arise hard to gure out basis of beliefs not wish ful llment because there are many downsides to religion 0 Premise 2 Freud needs to prove that if a belief arises from wish ful llment that it is unreliable cause wish ful llment is not always unreliable What if god gives us the desire that cause wish ful llment o Premise 3 Freud offers no proof that the reasons people establish their beliefs are not aimed at the truth 1 Prove there must be something that created the universe 2 Prove the creator has the properties of the JudeoChristian image of God UNI l Aquinas39 1st cause argument There are sequences of causes in the world Nothing causes itself The strong of causes cannot extend in nitely back in time main point that most nd issue with There must be a 1st cause which is God Samuel Clarke 0 More subtle Model 1 Dependent being Dependent being Dependent being r A Go Model 2 Dependent being Model Dependent being 2 Dependent being Dependent being Dependent being 0 Some like because there s always something previous to explain 0 BUT there s no explanation for why the theory exists so overall Model 2 is ABSURD William Rowe 1 Everything is either dependent or selfexistent 2 Not every being is a dependent being o If every being was dependent then it would be an in nite series like Model 2 Clarke with no explanation Therefore there must be at least 1 independent being because nothing exists without reason 3 There exists a selfexistent being The argument is valid Are the premises true 0Nothing is true unless there is a speci c reason or explanation o Rowe s rendition l everything that exists must either be explained by something else or itself 0 quotthere must be an explanation a of the existence of any being and b of any positive fact whateverquot Summary Either there is a selfexistent being for why the universe exists or there is no explanation But there has to be an explanation because nothing exists without reason Therefore there must be a being whose existence explains itself PhHosophy Philos sophia methods subject matter Methods 1 o Deductive l if premises are true then conclusion must be true even if it s all false Ex Lassie is a cat all cats are hairless therefore Lassie is hairless Premises can be a Scienti c ndingstheories n Religious convictions n lntuitions 3 main subjects of Philosophy Epistemology l study of knowledge 0 What is knowledge How do we acquire knowledge Etc 0 Skepticism I belief that you never know enough If you think you know a lot there s so much more to know so you really know nothing Metaphysics l the study of reality 0 Basic questions Do dogs exist Do bananas exist 0 Hard questions Does God exist Do minds exist 0 Further questions What is the nature of the thing that exists 0 Value theory l the study of value 0 Ex goodbad rightwrong beautifulugly 0 Ethics study of right amp wrong Metaethics what is the nature of morality ls morality relative to cultural beliefs Etc Normative ethics what are the right moral principles to follow Applied ethics l speci c ethical problems 0 Ex animal welfare abortion Arguments l deductive include premises Help support a theory 0 Theory I beliefexplanation of something that is not yet proven to be fact
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