End of the Cold War
1 END OF THE COLD WAR
I. How did dissident movements contribute to the Cold War’s end II. How did economic dissatisfaction contribute to the cold war’s end? III. How did the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union contribute to the cold wars end?
A. End of the cold war
a. November 9, 1989 promise question, berlin wall fell and war ended
b. People didn’t think the war would happen
c. Why did the end happen?
i. The three study questions are what contributed to its end.
d. Countries involved in the cold war
i. Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Hungary,
ii. Yugoslavia escaped SU sphere but still had same government iii. These are tied together by soviet domination and a military alliance which was very important If you want to learn more check out How much money do women make for every dollar a man makes?
1. WTU: Warsaw treaty organization or Warsaw pact
2. This was under soviet domination and all had to
3. The famous western counter part is the NATO
4. NATO: north Atlantic treaty organization
5. Held countries of Western Europe together under
command of the US. Still exists today.
e. Political and economic systems of eastern Europe
i. Authoritarian (single-party rule)
We also discuss several other topics like How to predict the covalent bond strength?
1. Had own single communist party each
2. Called themselves communist or socialist but all were
Bolshevik/ Leninist and the revolutionary vanguard.
ii. Command economy
II. Study Question 2
A. Dissident Movements
a. Dissident: a term from this part of history, an E. European phenomena. This comes from the word dissent. We also discuss several other topics like Where and how the insecticide can be used?
i. Dissent: to disagree
ii. Dissident: someone who dissented or diasagreed with the
ruling communist party.
1. This was a very brave thing to do at the time
2. The governments regularly arrested dissidents.
3. Thousands in prison on the eve of the cold war We also discuss several other topics like The radio dj says “sometimes this hour. i’ll be giving away a pair of tickets to the adele concert to one lucky caller.” this is an example of which type of reinforcement schedule?
b. Dissident Movements emerged in the 70s and 80s
i. Crushing of Prague Sprint in 1968 is when it started
ii. This was a new way to protest by expressing dissatisfaction. iii. Happened in significant numbers
iv. Never large numbers of dissidents in these countries
v. Impact was large, though.
vi. Very important because they kept hope alive for change. vii. The movements mentioned in last lecture:
1. The brontosaurus movement
2. Polish ecology club
a. Years following Prague Spring of 1968
i. Gained a new leader: Gustav Husak
1. Maid leader of Czech communist party 1969-1987
2. Chosen mainly by Soviet Union because of his loyalty
unlike the prior leader.
3. Didn’t like dissidents
ii. International document created:
1. Helsinki Accords
a. International document about human rights Don't forget about the age old question of Kelps are brown seaweeds. how are kelps different from other brown seaweeds?
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b. Any government that signed was committing
itself to respecting human rights.
c. Signed 1975
d. Spelled out wat human rights meant
- Right to freedom of expression
- Right to live in freedom from fear
especially fear of ones’ government
e. Signed in Helsinki, Finland
f. Signed 1975 by 35 different governments
g. All of the governments of eastern Europe
including soviet union signed this
h. This committed themselves to respecting human
i. The commitment on paper didn’t translate in
b. The Plastic People of the Universe
i. Rock and roll band
ii. Origins in Czech in 1968
iii. 1960s was a time of freedom for the Czechoslovakians
iv. Leader: Ivan Jirous, nicknamed “Magor” which means blockhead
1. Trained in art history
2. Taught him the power of culture as a powerful tool
3. Used music as a tool for resistance
4. Influenced by frank zappa
v. Once Prague spring was crushed, PPOTU were made illegal to play along with other rock bands
1. Illegal because they often sung songs against the party
2. Songs critical of SU
3. Communist leaders thought rock had a band influence
on young people and this made tem lose their morals
4. They didn’t stop playing so they went underground
and played illegally. This isn’t easy for a rock band
because it’s loud with a bunch of people.
5. Didn’t take long before they were caught
6. Magor was arrested many times and spent a lot of time
in jail. Other members of the band were regularly
arrested along with audience members.
7. They were not respecting the Helsinki Accord
c. Charter 77
i. A very important dissident movement
ii. One of the 2 movements that had the greatest impact
iii. Promise question
iv. Received name from a document that appeared in January 1977 aka the name
v. Protects the right for the plastics to play music of their choice aka human rights
vi. Leader: Vaclav Havel
1. First president of Czech after the cold war
2. He was vitally important to the people
3. Main author of charter 77
vii. This reminded people that the SU and others signed the Helsinki Accords
viii. Pointed out that the arrests meant the government was violating the Helsinki Accords
ix. Declared the Charter 77 was illegal because it was dissenting their policies
x. Havel was arrested
xi. Copies circulated around the country in the 70s and 80s
xii. People who agreed were invited to sign their name to the document
xiii. Signing the document was very brave. Only about 10,000 people signed it which was a lot for such a brave thing.
xiv. Many people were arrested
xv. At the eve of the end of the war, many were imprisoned for signing the document
xvi. Contributed to the crumbling of communist rule
xvii. Kept hope alive
xviii. Encouraged people to call for the end of single party rule and bring democratic rule
III. Study Question 2 (II): How did economic dissatisfaction contribute to the cold war’s end?
A. Economic Dissatisfaction
a. Command economies
i. Government control all aspects of economy
b. Very lousy economies
i. Lack of motivation to produce goods
c. Produced shortage economies
i. Lack of basic consumer goods like food and toilet paper
d. Gave attention to heavy industry in Black Triangle not consumer good production
B. Poland, 1970
a. December 1970, workers strikes broke out throughout Poland b. Very shocking event for Polish communist party because they saw themselves as representing and helping the workers
c. Strikes broke out in December because government announced they were raising food prices.
i. Protested the increase in cost of living for people already struggling to get by
d. When price raises were declares, Edvard Gierek, the leader of the communist party, didn’t try to throw them into jail in 1970. i. Instead of jailing them, he tried to negotiate to return them to work
ii. Made 2 promises:
1. Pay hike for workers
2. More consumer goods would be made available like
iii. Tried to live up to these and could live up to the first promise but not the second because the economy wasn’t strong
iv. Food grew even more scarce so opposition against Gierek grew
e. More strikes happened in 1976
i. Gierek wasn’t negotiating this time
ii. Gierek ordered strikers to be arrested
iii. This lessened income to feed children and families
iv. A group formed in Poland: KOR
C. KOR: committee for the workers’ defense
a. Formed to help striking workers.
b. Very important dissident group in Poland but not the most important c. Formed 1976 with a specific goal
i. Formed to collect funds for families of striking workers
ii. Given to wives to feed the children
iii. This kept men from feeling bad about striking
d. The members weren’t workers, they were intellectuals and students e. KOR was an intellectual dissident movement and collaborated with the workers which built an alliance; this was a powerful
f. Gierek and other leaders declared KOR illegal
g. They went underground and continued
h. Kept hope alive and encouraged people to call for democratic rule i. Made the economy worse
j. Especially bad in 1980
i. Polish economic dissatisfaction grew more intense
D. July 1980
a. Rose price of food again
b. More strikes!
c. Strongest and most organized center was polish city Gdansk (German name is Danzig)
i. This is a port city in north Poland
ii. Still were major ship building happens and for other parts of eastern Europe
iii. Strikes broke out throughout Poland
iv. Learned a lot from previous strikes so they learned to
d. Summer 1980, organized into committees
i. These were called inter-factory strike committees
ii. All factories through Poland came to have these
iii. Operated on local level in factories to address grievances of individual workers.
iv. Became organized enough to have a national meeting and elect representatives.
v. In Gdansk, created one unified national body of striking
workers to represent all the workers. This was called the
e. Solidarity and Charter 77 were the 2 most important dissident movements in Europe.
f. Leader of Solidarity: Lech Walesa
i. Electrician by training in Gdansk for ships
g. Elected president of Poland after the war
h. Solidarity founded in September 1980
i. Sept 1980-dec 1981, communist party didn’t know what to do so they left them alone
j. Leading communist party weren’t prepared to jail the members. This was a good time for the Poles and they enjoyed it.
k. December 1981, SU told them it was time to crack the whip l. New person in charge to run the government of Poland was General Wojciech Jaruzelski
m. Establish Marshall rule in Poland aka military rule over Poland i. Members were arrested and jailed
ii. Thousands of members of Solidarity were arrested, some got away and established underground networks
n. This still didn’t stop Solidarity
o. Through 1980s, Solidarity kept hope alive.
IV. Study Question 3 (III): How did the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union contribute to the cold wars end?
A. The arms race between SU and US
a. Been going since end of WWII
b. Heated up in late 1970s
i. One reason: 1977 SU developed a new type of nuclear missile and started placing them through eastern Europe
ii. SS-20s. this was a mobile nuclear missile making it hard for US to find and count them
iii. US responded by placing minute men missiles ICBMs through Western Europe and US.
c. Heated more in 1983
i. Strategic defense initiative “star wars program” by
ii. Protective barrier of satellites to find coming missiles and deflect them
iii. This scared SU
B. Mikhail Gorbachev was the last leader of SU
a. Learned of star wars program
b. Decided there was no way SU could afford to participate in space race
c. Decided to end arms race
d. Admitted the SU economy was in bad shape
e. Instead of competing, he decided to start dismantling soviet military
f. Focused on lessening soviet troops in east Europe
g. Went from ½ mill troops in E. Europe
h. December 1988, he announced the SU was going to withdrawal troops from eastern Europe as well as WTO troops
i. When they opened berlin wall, there were no soviet troops to stop them.