Midterm 1 Study Guide
Midterm 1 Study Guide PSY 304
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andy Siemens on Friday February 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 304 at University of Oregon taught by Matt Smear in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see BioPsychology in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
Quiz 1 Study Guide Andy Siemens Chapter 1 An Introduction to Brain and Behavior Biopsychology the study of the biology and physiology of behavior Aristotle 350 BC believed that thought movement and sensation occurred in the heart and that the brain was just a cooling system Hippocrates 400 BC ascribed mental function to the brain and is known for the Hippocratic Oath Galen 150 AD used evidence observations of gladiators with head trauma to determine that the brain was responsible for cognition Descartes 17th century mechanical explanations of re ex behavior when foot is by re signal is sent to the brain and another signal returns to the foot causing contractionwithdrawal Also responsible for the theory of dualism material nervous system and a nonmaterial soul for free will and moral choice Galvani 18th century used frog legs to provide evidence of electrical nervous signals Helmholtz 19th century measured rate of nerve conduction and saw that nerve conduction was slower than wire conduction Muller 19th century thought that all cells use electrical conduction Fritsch amp Hitzig 19th century discovered the motor cortex by stimulating a various parts of a dog brain Broca 19th century discovered that injury to certain regions of the brain rendered people in able to talk clearly This reinforced the localization of function theory which asserts that different regions specialize in speci c behaviors Phrenology the idea that speci c behaviors feelings and personality traits were controlled by discrete regions of the brain While many beliefs were wrong this lead to the localization of function Cajal 19th century performed anatomical studies of the brain with the golgi stain and established the neuronal doctrine which suggested that all cells in the brain are separate Ontogeny the process by which an individual changes in the course of its lifetime Neuroplasticity the ability of the nervous system to change in response to environmental experiences Without neuroplasticity we wouldn t be able to learn and remember Adult neurogenesis the creation of new neurons in the brain of an adult Consciousness the personal private awareness of our emotions interventions thoughts and experiences z a x quot l 9 r r r 7 V r 7 V n S 11 1 his Behavmmivannbles livbau inml i nlenenllion Quiz 1 Study Guide Andy Siemens Somatic Intervention alter a structurefunction of the brainbody and analyze behavioral changes Administer a hormone and analyze mating behavior Electrically stimulate region of the brain and analyze movements Behavioral Intervention altercontrol behavior and analyze structurefunction changes Put male in presence of female and analyze hormone levels Present visual stimulus and analyze electrical activity in the brain Correlations allow scientists to determine what things are linked However it does NOT say anything about causality Positive correlation both go updown Negative correlation one up the other down Chapter 2 Cells and Structures Neurons nerve cells the cells that compose the neuronal circuits of the nervous system Neurons are composed of dendrites which receive sensory input from other neurons a cell bodysoma that integrates all of the incoming signals an axon that conducts the cells output information and an axon terminalbouton that transmit the signal to other cells Motoneurons large with long axons that synapse on muscles to cause muscular contraction Sensory Neurons directly affected by environmental changes light heat odor touch Interneurons short axons that communicate information from one neuron to another Multipolar neuron many dendrites and a single axon off the cell body Bipolar neuron cell body that has one axon and one dendrite coming off it Unipolar neuron single branch coming off the cell body that extends in two directions Glial cells nonneuronal brain cells that provide structural nutritional and other types of support Oligodendrocytes CNS amp Schwann Cells PNS wrap around axons to provide myelin which insulate axons prevent potassium leakage and increase conduction Oligodendrocytes are able to provide myelin to multiple axons while Schwann cells can only myelinate one axon because they wrap around the axon Astrocytes regulate blood ow by sensing local neuronal activity They also recycle neurotransmitter and regulate synapse formation Microglial Cells tiny mobile glial cells that clean up debris and interact with the immune system Neuronal Doctrine Ramon y Cajal showed that neurons are not continuous instead each cell is individualized and the neurons are connected through the synapse gap between neurons where information is passed Quiz 1 Study Guide Andy Siemens Presynaptic membrane composed of the axon terminalbouton from the presynaptic neuron Postsynaptic membrane composed of the dendrites or cell body of the postsynaptic neuron Synaptic cleft the gap 2040 nm separating the prepostsynaptic neuron Information is passed through the synaptic cleft as neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft in vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane of the presynaptic neuron The neurotransmitter molecules then bind to receptors in the postsynaptic membrane and alter the excitation level of the postsynaptic membrane Axon Hillock integrates signals from the dendritescell body and converts the signals to electrical impulses that travel down the axon The axon carries material in both directions Rapid electrical transport toward the axon terminal and slower transportation of substances between the cell body and terminal Central Nervous System CNS composed of the brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System PNS everything else The PNS consists of nerves collections of axons bundled together Motor Nerves efferent transmit information from the CNS to muscles and glands Sensory Nerves afferent convey information from the body back to the CNS Somatic controls voluntary muscle and transmits sensory information spinal and cranial nerves Spinal nerves have motor nerves that project off the ventral spinal cord to the organs and sensory nerves that enter the dorsal part of the spinal cord Cranial Nerves can be motor sensory or both olfactory optic vegus etc Most project to head Autonomic controls involuntary muscle Sympathetic quot ght or ight responses for immediate action increased blood pressure pupil dilation etc Parasympathetic quotrest and digest helps the body relax and reverses the sympathetic system Sagittal Plane divides the body into left and right halves Coronal Plane divides the body into vertical plane with front and back Horizontal Plane divides the body into upper and lower parts Medial towards the middleinside Lateral towards the outside Ipsilateral on the same side as Quiz 1 Study Guide Andy Siemens Contralateral on the opposite side Superior above Inferior below Anteriorrostral the head end Posteriorcaudal the backfeet Dorsal back top of the head Ventral front bottom of the head Afferent Neuron carries information from PNS to CNS Efferent Neuron carries information from CNS to PNS Gray matter mostly cell bodies and dendrites receive and process information White mater mostly fatty myelin around axons transmits information Limbic system involved in learning and memory Amygdala involved in emotional regulation and the perception of odor Hippocampus amp fornix important for learning and memory Thalamus directs virtually all incoming sensory information to the appropriate regions Hypothalamus involved in hunger thirst sex temperature regulation etc Also controls the pituitary gland and thus controls the body s hormonal systems Corpus Callosum white matter tract connecting the two hemispheres Medulla marks the transition between the brain and the spinal cord Cerebrospinal Fluid the uid that lls cerebral ventricles and bathes the brain acting as a shock absorber while providing nutrients and signaling chemicals CTCAT amp MRI provide highresolution brain images PET fMRI amp MEG are functional tests that provide maps of brain activity during behavior Forebrain contains the telencephalon and diencephalon Telencephalon contains the cerebral hemispheres cortex amp white matter for sensor motor and cognitive processing Contains the limbic system for emotions motivation learning amp memory Contains the basal ganglia for motor control and reward Limbic System contains the amygdala emotions amp fear and the hippocampus learningmemory and spatial navigation Basal Ganglia control of movements action selection and reward learning via dopamine Diencephalon buried underneathwithin the telencephalon Contains the thalamus which is a relay station to and from the cortex Contains the Quiz 1 Study Guide Andy Siemens hypothalamus which regulates basic drives ght ight feed fuck etc and the pituitary gland Midbrain contains the mesencephalon Mesencephalon contains the Tectum dorsal and Tegmentum ventral Tectum contains the superior colliculi regulates eye movement and the inferior colliculi for auditory processing locating objects from sound Tegmentum contains the periaqueductal gray matter pain regulation by controlling opioid red nucleus amp substantia nigra motor control and reticular formation sleep arousal attention amp movement up im iliculm Pulm umma 7 7 7 mll39ml39 mgrEH 9m Manumnphnlin L l 39 39 ruiiculml r a r r n t 1539 immailnom g J Elifm l F H 393 quot1 mil39 5quot l PTnammlm i nlnr39lnr if 39i if v nalsan w JFK 3521 V rail1 sueslam mam Wei1m 5 l at Hindbrain contains the metencephalon pons and cerebellum and myelencephalon Metencephalon contains the cerebellum little brain and the pons Cerebellum responsible for muscle coordination sensorimotor integration and coordinating sensory input with motor output Pons routes information to the cerebellum and contains cell bodies of cranial nerves Myelencephalon the most posterior part of the brain and contains the medulla oblongata cardiovascularrespiratory regulation and the reticular formation Quiz 1 Study Guide Forebralin phamn v Midiblrain Mesencepha on Hlndbralan white mailer Precentral gyrus Frontal lobe Olfactory bulb Sylvian fissure Cerebellum Brainstem Parietall F39rnntalwluib 39 Dine ccipital f Ilube quotGU rpus xGEIIUEUIM Piineall LEFT Hglam IllIiEMIIESPHIEHiE 7 I H V a Tempura l II EDE xM Ildibm39am Thalliamu J H yp h a lamug lljfacmw bu lb e FEIiG HT Lateral gen cuma e HIEMEHISPHEHE mucllieus me ThalliamuShEHH 39 Optic ii39lr za P tu tary gland I Meduua 2 a I Pidilu awf glllan d f f Mdbrain Pans MGerebellum L Mediulla quot Spinal mm Andy Siemens Quiz 1 Study Guide Andy Siemens puma 71quot still Law mm r mg 1mmva F W j 39 l 7 h l dlUEEHFUFfEENTEE ljr mrm 7 p quot p l ri paraatat cariazs 7 spatial aaanciatinn araa 39 5cm udaw 5am atcacnanw Emma aanmdaw 39 REELEI amen Erma quot ama at guildI 139 yFHS are rbal aasa ciatian auraa Jilllll aw Ul39 il l Unitu W Emitka g ME r frr m a carm H P W A quot1 anaa vallitianal aasvaciatiun area WIan FEELJF39IEIE W EiLlflll l F mama CHEW Hm iafcrinr Kamaam ah Hiaual a l tl i t araa H H3 1 ml r s w 2 aahm iahnr i fthM gnala nw MIMIii Longitudinal Fissure separates the left and right hemispheres Central Sulcus separates the frontal and parietal lobes Sylvain Fissure separates the frontal and temporal lobes Visual Cortex important for seeing Parietal Cortex important for spatial recognition Primary Somatosensory Cortex map of the body for sensory function posterior to central sulcus Primary Motor Cortex contains a map of the body for muscle contraction anterior to central sulcus The brain is covered by the skull and meninges and then bathed in Cerebral Spinal Fluid which allows the brain to oat Cerebral Spinal Fluid contained in the ventricles produced in the choroid plexus medial and arachnoid mater lateral reduces of the weight of the brain by allowing it to oat protects the brain from injury by absorbing some of the impact and clears out metabolic waste Chapter 3 Neuronhysiology Membrane voltage is the difference in charge across the lipid bilayer membrane For most cells the resting membrane potential is 70mV For a resting cell the interior has a high concentration of organic anions and of potassium while the extracellular uid contains a high concentration of sodium chloride and calcium Diffusion net movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low For example potassium wants to ow out of the cell and sodium wants to ow into the cell when the cell is at rest Electrostatic Forces opposite charges attract like charges repel Consequently potassium wants to stay in the cell and sodium wants to enter the cell Sodium Potassium Pump the pump uses ATP to pump 3 sodium out of the cell while pumping 2 potassium into the cell The net effect is a 1 charge contribution Quiz 1 Study Guide Andy Siemens to the inside of the cell therefore helping establish the negative membrane potential while building up the electrochemical gradient that is essential for the action potential The membrane potential is established by the NaK pump diffusion and electrostatic forces When the cell is at rest diffusion allows potassium to exit the cell through the potassium leak channels but the electrostatic forces pull potassium back into the cell When this process is at equilibrium with the pump the membrane potential is 70 mV Subthreshold stimulus depolarizes the membrane but the depolarization decrements with distance Voltage gated channels are sensitive to the membrane voltage and open at some set threshold allowing for rapid changes in membrane potential by letting ions through Myelinated axons allow for salutatory jumping conduction of the axon potential The AP regenerates itself at the Nodes of Ranvier which have a high concentration of sodium and potassium voltage gated channels Myelination decreases capacitance and conduction increased resistance by preventing the leakage of potassium which forces depolarization down the axon Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune disease where oligodendrocytes CNS and Schwann cells PNS are attacked and killed Consequently the AP travels much slower down the axon causing lots of problems In addition plaques are created which is when white matter turns brown In order for an action potential to occur the summation of IPSPs and EPSPs at the axon hillock must result in depolarization to threshold voltage At this point both the sodium and potassium voltage gated channels open however the potassium channel opens much slower Sodium ions rush into the axon and depolarize adjacent areas of the axon causing further activation of more voltage gated channels As sodium rushes in the membrane depolarizes however the sodium channels are only brie y open before they close and enter the refractory state where they have to wait to reset before they can re again By this time the potassium channels are fully open and allow for potassium to leave the cell so the cell can repolarize Because the potassium channels are slow to close the cell hyperpolarizes leading to the relative refractory period where the cell is able to re another action potential but it requires a greater stimulus to reach threshold When the AP reaches the boutons the depolarization opens calcium channels allowing calcium to rush in and bind to proteins on vesicles The binding of calcium signals for the fusion of the vesicle with the membrane allowing for the release of neurotransmitter to the synaptic cleft The NT diffuses across the cleft to the postsynaptic membrane where it binds to receptors that lead to IPSPs or EPSPs Ionotropic receptor neurotransmitter binding directly opens ion channels Metabotropic receptor neurotransmitter binding creates a cascade of events that eventually opens ion channels elsewhere on the postsynaptic membrane Neurotransmitter is removed from the synaptic cleft by reuptake and degradation Quiz 1 Study Guide Andy Siemens Reuptake proteins bind the NT from the cleft and bring it back into the presynaptic neuron so it can be repackaged in vesicles ie serotonin reuptake proteins Degradation enzymes break down NT rendering the NT inactive ie acetylcholinesterase Neuronal Integration if incoming signals is in uenced by spatial and temporal summation Spatial Summation integration of EPSPsIPSPs that occur in different locations of the dendrites or cell body The closer the incoming signal is to the axon hillock the stronger the signal will be Temporal Summation integration of EPSPsIPSPs that occur at different times If the time lapse between incoming signals is short enough the signals can be additive Methods of studying brain function 1 MRI provides structural image of the brain with depiction of neuronal activity based on oxygen demand at different regions Pros can be used on humans and can see the entire brain Cons BOLD blood oxygen level dependent is an indirect measure of neuronal activity and there is poor temporalspatial resolution 2 EEG place electrodes on the head to record electrical signals Pros can be used on humans and the temporal resolution is great Cons poor spatial recognition can t reconstruct the brain 3 Single Unit Recording insert an electrode into the brain that can measure a neurons activity if it is close enough Pros excellent spatialtemporal resolution and it measures action potentials Cons human use is limited and you can only study one neuron at a time 4 Calcium Imaging sensor changes uorescence when calcium enters The sensor is based of GFP which is inserted into the genome Pros single neuron spatial resolution and you can record many neurons at the same time Cons can t use on humans temporal resolution isn t as good as EEG Methods to Manipulate Neuronal Activity 1 Lesions making inferences from loss of function regions tumors strokes injury Pros has provided scientists with most of what we know about the brain Cons experimenter doesn t have control of sizelocation of the lesion and brain regions don t function in isolation they function in networks Also plasticity can allow for restored function with time 2 Microstimulation delivering electrical stimulus with electrodes Pros excellent temporal resolution Cons invasive limited human use and nonselective neuronal stimulation Quiz 1 Study Guide Andy Siemens 3 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation TMS a brief but intense magnetic pulse temporally inactivating a region of the brain Pros noninvasive with excellent temporal resolution Cons poor spatial resolution and it s unclear what exactly its doing to inactivate the region 4 Optogenetics control of neuronal activity with light using light activated channels This method has been used to create false memories and abolish cocaine seeking behavior Pros excellent temporal resolution can target neuronal populations based on gene expression Cons can t use on humans
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