Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide GSC 111
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hailey Rooney on Saturday February 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GSC 111 at University of Miami taught by Larry Peterson in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see Earth System History in Geology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/14/15
GSC 111 Exam 1 Study Guide Nicolas Steno Father of Geology Principle of Original Horizontality Law of Superposition Catastrophism theory that Earth was affected in the past by sudden violent events Neptunism theory universal ocean in which all rocks were formed Charles Lyell another Father of Geology wrote Principles of Geology Rock Classification System 0 PrimitivePrimary Urgebirge Series intrusive igneous rocks considered to be the first precipitates from the ocean before the emergence of land 0 Transitional Ubergangsgebirge Deries limestones and sequences of greywackes that were the first orderly deposits from the ocean universal formations extending without interruption around the world 0 SecondaryStratified Flotz Series remaining stratified fossiliferous rocks and associated trap rocks represent the emergence of mountains from the ocean and formed from the resulting products of erosion O AlluvialTertiary Aufgeschwemmte Series poorly consolidated sands gravels and clays formed by the withdrawl of the oceans from the continents Fossil any recognizable evidence of preexisting life Halflives amp radioactive decay as U decays each half life the decayed U is replaced by stable Pb 0 Fundamental equation N Noe39aa ml da t I Lambda is the decay constant Oldest rock found on Earth s surface is about 403 billion years old Continental Crust 0 Density 27 gcm3 0 Consists mostly of granite rich in quartz and feldspar 0 Approximately 55km thick Oceanic Crust 0 Density 29 gcm3 0 Consists mostly of basalt 0 Approximately 10 km thick Mantle 0 Density 45 gcm3 0 2835 km thickness 1761 miles 0 Contains 70 of Earth s mass and 83 of its volume 0 Temperature 15003000 degrees Celsius 0 Rich in MgFe silicates peridotite Outer Core 0 Density ll5 gcm3 0 Approximately 2400 km thick 0 Temperature 4000 degrees Celsius 0 Liquid and mostly FeNi composition Inner Core 0 Density 13 gcm3 0 Approximately 1070 km thick 665 miles 0 Temperature 5000 degrees Celsius 0 Solid and rich in Fe and Ni Seismology physical evidence gathered through seismic waves 0 Pwaves Primary faster can travel through liquid I Leftright particle motion 0 Swaves SecondaryShear can t travel through liquid I Updown particle motion 0 The velocities of both increase as the density of the medium increases Moho crustmantle boundary seismic velocity increases Lithosphere crust and upper mantle that act together as a rigid plate layer Asthenosphere upper part of the mantle below the lithosphere plastic and easily deformed Isostacy principle of mass balance or compensation Alfred Wegener continental drift concept of single land mass called Pangaea Evidence of continental drift 0 Geographic fit geological correspondence Similarities between distinctive rocks and geological structures in South American and Africa 0 Paleontology fossils of similar age found on both sides of the Atlantic 0 Paleoclimatology similar ancient world climate as concluded from analysis of rock and fossil records Precision Depth Recorder PDR piezoelectric transducer emits a sound at regular intervals hydrophone records the returning signal and then determines depth Sea oor Spreading 0 Midocean ridges are spreading centers where new sea oor is created 0 Molten material in the mantle moves up to the lithosphere moves along it then sinks down as it cools and becomes more dense I If the magma breaks through the crust underwater volcanoes form eventually resulting in mountain ranges midocean ridges Evidence of Sea oor Spreading 0 Earthquakes correspond to plate boundaries 0 Volcanic activity is linked to plate tectonic processes most volcanoes located near convergent plate boundaries where subduction is occurring Earthquakes only occur along the transform fault between ridge crust segments Sea oor Magnetic Anomalies 0 Black stripes are positive anomalies where the magnetic field is more strong 0 White stripes are negative anomalies where the field is weaker 0 Igneous rocks containing magnetic minerals preserve a weak remnant magnetism that records the direction and orientation of Earth s magnetic field at that time sea oor spreading moves material off either side of the ridge and replaces it with new material creates a symmetric pattern of magnetic polarity GLOMAR Challenger used for deep sea drilling project Rocks on the sea oor are much younger than those on land proving that sea oor does form at spreading centers 0 Thermal elevation ocean ridges exist because newly formed lithosphere is hot and less dense 0 Plate Boundaries 0 Divergent plates spread apart magma rises from the mantle and up out of the lithosphere forming new oceanic crust causes sea oor spreading I Newly forming divergent plate boundary is causing continental breakup in the East African Rift Valley I Iceland is a volcanic country splittingrifting along the spreading center 0 Convergent two plates converge and oceanic crust is subducted under the continental crust forming a trench I Two continental plates converging are not subducted because they are light rather the crust buckles and is pushed up or sideways 0 Caused the formation of the Himalayas I Ring of Fire lots of earthquakes and volcanoes 0 TransformFault two plates slide horizontally past one another mostly on the ocean oor I Result in shallow earthquakes I San Andreas fault zone Pacific Plate grinding past the North American Plate in California for the past 10 million years at 5 cmyear 0 Ophiolite section of oceanic crust that was obducted rather than subducted 0 Hotspot mantle thermal plume rises up 0 The molten material cools and settles as the ocean lithosphere moves separate islands are formed I This is how Hawaii formed 0 Plate motion 0 Magma rising to the surface pushes ridges apart 0 Mantle convection slow movement of mantle in a circular motion caused by convection currents carrying the heat from the interior of Earth to the surface 0 Slab pull colder denser slabs subduct under a less dense plate as the slab pulls down the weight of the subducted portion continues to pull the rest of the plate 0 Precambrian Eon encompasses 88 of Earthy history 0 Big Bang is a theory of the expansion of the Universe 0 Red shift provides evidence a red shift of the Doppler effect results from the perceived wavelengths of light of an object that s moving away 0 Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation CMBR leftover radiation from an early stage in the development of the universe 0 Dated to about 137 billion years ago 0 Planet constraints 0 Dynamical circle the Sn in the same direction and lie in the plane of the Sun s rotation 0 Compositional solid inner planets Terrestrial gaseous and icy outer planets Jovian 0 Planet formation Solar Nebula Theory 0 Stars form from gases and dust in supernovas or during galaxy collisions 0 Gravitational attractions between material create protoplanets 0 The mass of the protoplanet results in further accretion of matter into a planetoid 0 Young planets start out in a liquid state then heavy elements start to sink concentrating the radioactive elements in the center 0 Sun and Solar System formation formed from the collapse of a cloud of dust and gas 0 Slowly rotating centrifugal force formed an accretion disk matter transferred to center 0 Rotation speed increased cloud heated up gas compressed and made the particles speed up increased the temperature of the gas and dust particles 0 Accretion processes 0 Gravitational energy I heat 0 Differentiation and density stratification 0 Iron and nickel move downward and form a dense core iron other metals oxygen and silicon form the mantle lightest components for the upper crust 0 Outgassing 0 Earth is approximately 46 billion years old 0 Moon formed from a collision with a Mars sized body 0 Archaean Eon 46 25 bya 0 Hadean 46 38 bya crust and ocean formation and meteorite bombardment 0 Ocean and atmosphere in place early in the Archaean 0 First atmosphere hydrogen and helium 0 Second atmosphere H20 vapor H He C02 CH4 NH3 H2S hydrogen and helium would have mostly escaped to space 0 Exposed rocks of the Canadian Shield revealed the first important developments in Precambrian chronology in the Great Lakes Region 0 Banded Iron Formations found during certain intervals of the Precambrian 0 Isotopic age province large region of rocks of a similar age 0 Terrane Precambrian shield grown through accretion from the inside out 0 Greenstone Belt thick sequences of deformed and metamorphosed sediment with lots of volcanic ash often deposited as turbidites form long linear belts Granitesgranodiorite batholiths only form on the continents Felsic rocks contain feldspar and other metals granites are in this category Mafic rocks Mg Fe basalt 0 Ultramafic rocks more Mg Fe mantle 0 Granitic magmas formed by partial melting of the subducting ocean crust clab and overlying mantle lighter materials rise with the magma and cool below the surface to form granitic rocks 0 Greenhouse Effect Atmosphere absorbs and emits terrestrial but is transparent to solar 0 Development of first life on Earth to more complex life Synthesis of simple organic molecular building blocks Polymerization assembly of building blocks into chains RNA development allows replication Emergence of genetically encoded protein synthesis Emergence of DNA for information storage Last Universal Common Ancestor LUCA the first cell Origin of the eukaryotic cell Origin of multicellular life 9 Cambrian Explosion 10 Origin of humans 0 Stanley Miller did experiments on the origin of life 0 Life was around 35 billion years ago 0 Carbon has 2 stable isotopes and l radioactive Carbonl2 is the most abundant OOO OOOUlIgtUJNP 0 Photosynthesis fractionates stable carbon isotopes Stromatolites sedimentary structures created by microbial mats 0 Layers cyanobacteria I photosynthetic bacteria I anaerobic bacteria and archaeans First recorded appearance of eukaryotes was 18 bya Ediacara fauna first complex softbodied animals 600 mya up to 60 cm in size 0 Triradial symmetry seen in many discshaped Ediacaran animals Many living stromatolites found in Shark Bay Australia 0 Also discovered in Exuma Islands Bahamas Great Oxidation Event changes in atmospheric composition driven by the early biologic dynamics of earth affect the trends in the rock story Precambrian Banded Iron Formation BIF formation 0 Rain and weathering wash iron ions into the water 02 from stromatolites reacts with the iron iron rich layers form on the sea oor with iron poor jasper quartz in between Stromatolites released free oxygen into seawater oxygen reacted with the iron in seawater and caused it to precipitate as iron oxide minerals ocean ran out of iron to react with the oxygen so oxygen began to escape into the atmosphere 0 Stopped the formation of BIFs DNA in mitochondria indicate that it may have been an independent organism at one time Laminated sediments show no trace of burrowing suggesting that no multicellular life existed until the late Precambrian Continents formed a supercontinent Rodinia during the Precambrian l bya 0 North America called Laurentia Precambrian climate 0 Sun wasn t as bright 30 less output than now 0 Faint Early Sun Paradox sun was much dimmer than it is now yet the Earth was still warm and not frozen over
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