CSR 344 Final exam study guide ch
CSR 344 Final exam study guide ch CSR 404
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandrea Tuccori on Saturday February 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CSR 404 at Purdue University taught by mohan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see alex tuccori in Computer Programming at Purdue University.
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CSR 344 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 5 Perception Cognition and Emotion Perception the process by which individuals connect to their environment A quotsensemaking process where people interpret their environment so they can respond appropriately Perceptual Distortion by generalization Stereotyping and Halo Effects 0 Perceptual distortion by generalization small amounts of information are used to draw large conclusions about individuals 0 Stereotyping o Occurs when an individual assigns attributes to another solely on the basis of the other s membership in a particular social or demographic category 0 Very common and highly resistant to change 0 Halo effects 0 Occur when an individual generalizes about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute ofan individual ie smilinggthonest 0 Very similar to stereotyping Selective Perception and Projection o Perceptual distortion that involves anticipating certain attributes and qualities in another person 0 Selective perception o The perceiver singles out information that supports a prior belief but lters out contrary information o Perpetuates stereotypes or halo effects 0 Projection 0 People assign to others the characteristics or feelings that they possess themselves 0 Arises out of a need to protect one39s own selfconcept Framing o Frames 0 Are the perspectives or points of view that people use when they gather information and solve problems 0 Represent the subjective mechanism through which people evaluate and make sense out of situations 0 Lead people to pursue or avoid subsequent actions 0 Focus shape and organize the world around us 0 Make sense of complex realities and organize them in terms that are meaningful to us 0 Two or more people involved in the same situation often see it or de ne it in different ways ie How extroverts or introverts see a room full of people 0 Outcome predisposition to achieving a speci c result or outcome How Frames Work in Negotiation o Negotiators can use more than one frame Mismatches in frames between parties are sources of con ict The different frames are likely to lead to very different discussions between parties Parties negotiate differently depending on the frame Speci c frames may be likely to be used with certain types of issues Particular types of frames may lead to particular types of agreements Parties are likely to assume a particular frame because of their values personality power background and social context Cognitive Biases in Negotiation In this section we examine how negotiators use information to make decisions Negotiators have a tendency to make systematic errors when they process information These errors collectively labeled cognitive biases tend to impede negotiator performance 1 Irrational escalation of commitment Negotiators maintain commitment to a course of action even when that commitment constitutes irrational behavior It is due in part to biases in individual perception and judgment 2 Mythical xedpie beliefs Negotiators assume that all negotiations not just some involve a xed pie Assume there is no possibility for integrative settlements and mutually bene cial tradeoffs 3 Anchoring and adjustment The effect of the standard or anchor against which subsequent adjustments gains or losses are measured The anchor might be based on faulty or incomplete information thus be misleading Example Asking price for a real state appraiser 4 Issue framing and risk The way an issue is framed in uences how negotiators perceive risk and behave in relation to it Example negotiating to gain riskaverse versus not to lose risk seeking 5 Availability of information Operates when information that is presented in vivid or attentiongetting ways becomes easy to recall Becomes central and critical in evaluating events and options 6 The winner s curse The tendency to settle quickly on an item and then subsequently feel discomfort about a win that comes too easily Could I have gotten a better deal Is there something wrong with the itemoption 7 Overcon dence The tendency of negotiators to believe that their ability to be correct or accurate is greater than is actually true Overcon dence has a doubleedged effect It increase the degree to which negotiators support positions or options that are incorrect or inappropriate It can lead negotiators to discount the worth or validity of the judgments of others 8 The law of small numbers The tendency of people to draw conclusions from small sample sizes The smaller sample the greater the possibility that past lessons will be erroneously used to infer what will happen in the future 9 Selfserving biases CSR 344 Final Exam Study Guide People often explain another person s behavior by making attributions either to the person or to the situation There is a tendency to Overestimate the role of personal or internal factors ability mood effort Underestimate the role of situational or external factors other people luck Example student arriving late 10 Endowment effect The tendency to overvalue something you own or believe you possess can lead to in ated estimations of value that interfere with reaching a good deal 11 lgnoring others cognitions Negotiators don t bother to ask about the other party s perceptions and thoughts This leaves them to work with incomplete information and thus produces faulty results 12 Reactive devaluation The process of devaluing the other party s concessions simply because the other party made them Reactive devaluation leads negotiators to Minimize the magnitude of a concession made by a disliked other Reduce their willingness to respond with a concession of equal size or Seek even more from the other party once a concession has been made Mood Emotion and Negotiation The distinction between mood and emotion is based on three characteristics Speci city Intensity Duration Mood states are more diffused less intense and more enduring than emotion states Negotiations create both positive and negative emotions Positive emotions generally have positive consequences for negotiations They are more likely to lead the parties toward more integrative processes They create a positive attitude toward the other side They promote persistence in addressing issues and concerns in the negotiation Aspects of the negotiation process can lead to positive emotions Positive feelings result from fair procedures during negotiation Positive feelings result from favorable social comparison Negative emotions generally have negative consequences for negotiations They may lead parties to de ne the situation as competitive or distributive They may undermine a negotiator s ability to analyze the situation accurately which adversely affects individual outcomes They may lead parties to escalate the con ict They may lead parties to retaliate and may thwart integrative outcomes Not all negative emotions have the same effect Aspects of the negotiation process can lead to negative emotions Negative emotions may result from a competitive mindset Negative emotions may result from an impasse Negative emotions may result from the prospect of beginning a negotiation Effects of positive and negative emotion Positive feelings may generate negative outcomes Negative feelings may elicit bene cial outcomes Emotions can be used strategically as negotiation maneuvers Chapter 6 Communication What is Communicated during Negotiation 1 Offers countero ers and motives The communication of o ers is a dynamic process The offer process is interactive Various internal and external factors drive the interaction and motivate a bargainer to change his or her offer 2 Information about alternatives The existence of a BATNA changes several things in a negotiation Negotiators with attractive BATNAs set higher reservation prices for themselves than those without attractive BATNAs Negotiators whose counterparts had attractive BATNAs set lower resistance points for themselves and When both parties were aware of the attractive BATNA that one of the negotiators had that negotiator received a more positive negotiation outcome 3 Information about outcomes Negotiators should be cautious about sharing their outcomes or even their positive reactions to outcomes with the other Party This is especially important if they are going to negotiate with that party again in the future 4 Social accounts The method used by negotiators to explain things to the other party especially when negotiators need to justify bad news Three types of explanations are important Sitkin and Bies 1993 Explanations of mitigating circumstances negotiators had no choice in taking the positions they did Explanations of exonerating circumstances negotiators explain their positions from a broader perspective Reframing explanations outcomes can be explained by changing the context 5 Communication about process This can involve how well the process is going or what procedures might be adopted to improve the situation Communication in Negotiation 3 Key Questions CSR 344 Final Exam Study Guide Does it matter what is said early in the process What negotiators do in the rst half of the process has a signi cant impact on their ability to generate integrative solutions with high joint gains ls more information always better There is evidence that having more information does not automatically translate into better outcomes How People Communicate in Negotiation Use of language Operates at two levels Logical level proposals offers Pragmatic level semantics syntax style How parties communicate depends on the ability of the speaker to encode thoughts properly as well as on the ability of the listener to understand and decode the intended messages A negotiator s choice of words may not only signal a position but also shape and predict it Use of nonverbal communication There are three important attending behaviors Making eye contact Adjusting body position Nonverbally encouraging or discouraging what the other says Your body language shapes who you are Social bandwidth distinguishes one communication channel from another the ability of a channel to carry and convey subtle social and relational cues from sender to receive Use of Questions 2 basic catergories Manageable questions cause attention or prepare the other person s thinking for further questions quotMay I ask you a questionquot getting information o quotHow much will this costquot generating thoughts quotDo you have any suggestions for improving thisquot Unmanageabe questions cause dif culty quotWhere did you get that dumb ideaquot give information quotDidn t you know we couldn t afford thisquot bring the discussion to a false conclusion quotDon t you think we have talked about this enoughquot Listening three major forms Passive listening Receiving the message while providing no feedback to the sender Acknowledgment Receivers nod their heads maintain eye contact or interject responses Active listening Receivers restate or paraphrase the sender s message in their own language Role reversal Negotiators understand the other party s positions by actively arguing these positions until the other party is convinced that he or she is understood Role reversal is a useful tool for improving communication and the accurate understanding and appreciation of the other party s position Special Communication Considerations at the Close of Negotiations Avoiding fatal mistakes Keep track of what you expect to happen Guard yourself against selfserving expectations Review the lessons from feedback for similar decisions in the future Achieving closure Avoid surrendering important information needlessly Refrain from making quotdumb remarksquot Chapter 7 Finding and Using Negotiation Power Seeking power in negotiation arises from one of two perceptions 1 The negotiator believes he or she currently has less powerthan the other party 2 The negotiator believes he or she needs more power than the other party to increase the probability of securing a desired outcome Negotiators employ tactics designed to create power equalization or minimize the other party s ability to dominate the relationship Major Sources of Power How People Acquire Power 1 Informational sources of power 2 Personal sources of power 3 Power based on position in an organization 4 Relationshipbased sources of power 5 Contextual sources of power 1 Informational Sources of Power Information is the most common source of power Derived from the negotiator s ability to assemble and organize data to support his or her position arguments or desired outcomes A tool to challenge the other party s position or desired outcomes or to undermine the effectiveness of the other39s negotiating arguments CSR 344 Final Exam Study Guide Power derived from expertise is a special form of information power Expert power is given to those who are seen as having achieved some level of command and mastery of a body of information 2 Power Based on Personality and Individual Difference Personal orientation Cognitive orientation Ideologies about power unitary radical pluralist Motivational orientation Speci c motives to use power Disposition and skills Orientation to cooperationcompetition Moral orientation moral views about power and its use 3 Power Based on Position in an Organization Two major sources of power in an organization A Legitimate Power Power grounded in the title duties and responsibilities of a job description and level within an organization hierarchy People can acquire legitimate power in several ways at birth election to a designated of ce appointment or promotion It depends on the willingness of followers to acknowledge the legitimacy of the organizational structure and the system of rules and regulations that empowers its leaders Two major sources of power in an organization B Resource Control Power People who control resources have the capacity to give them to someone who will do what they want and withhold them or take them away from someone who doesn t do what they want Important organizational resources include Money in its various forms Supplies Human capital Time Equipment Critical services Interpersonal support 4 Power Based on Relationships Goal interdependence How parties view their goals and how interdependent they are Referent power Based on an appeal to common experiences common past common fate or membership in the same groups Networks Power is derived from whatever ows through that particular location in the structure usually information and resources Key aspects of networks Tie strength An indication of the strength or quality of relationships with others Tie content The resource that passes along the tie with the other person The more the content the stronger the relationship and the more trust and respect created for each other Network structure The overall set of relationships within a social system Aspects of network structure that determine power include Centrality Criticality and relevance Flexibility Visibility Membership in a coalition 5 Contextual Sources of Power Power is based in the context situation or environment in which negotiations take place BATNAs They offer a negotiator signi cant power because she now has a choice between accepting the other party s proposal or the alternative deal Culture shapes what kinds of power are seen as legitimate and illegitimate Culture both organizational and national often translates into deeply embedded structural inequalities in a society Agents constituencies and external audiences All these parties can become actively involved in pressuring others Negotiations become signi cantly more complex when negotiators are representing others views Dealing with Others Who Have More Power Never do an allornothing deal Make the other party smaller Make yourself bigger Build momentum through doing deals in sequence Use the power of competition to leverage power Constrain yourself Good information is always a source of power Ask many questions to gain more information Do what you can to manage the process CSR 344 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 8 Ethics in Negotiation Ethics Are broadly applied social standards for what is right or wrong in a particular situation or a process for setting those standards Grow out of particular philosophies which De ne the nature of the world in which we live Prescribe rules for living together There are four standards for evaluating strategies and tactics in business and negotiation a Endresult ethics Choose a course of action on the basis of results I expect to achieve b Duty Ethics Choose a course of action on the basis of my duty to uphold appropriate rules and principles c Social contract ethics Choose a course of action on the basis of the norms values and strategy of my organization or community d Personalistic ethics Choose a course of action on the basis of my personal convictions Process of Analyzing a Moral Problem Larue Hosmer 2003 First develop a complete understanding of the moral problem at hand Determine economic outcomes of potential courses of action Consideration the legal requirements that bear on the situation Assess the ethical obligations to other involved parties regarding what is quot right and just and fair quot ethical reasoning Questions of Ethical Conduct that Arises in Negotiation Using ethically ambiguous tactics It39s mostly all about the truth These tactics may or may not be improper depending on an individual39s ethical reasoning and circumstances Arriving at a clear precise effective negotiated agreement depends on the willingness of the parties to share accurate information about their own preferences priorities and interests Deception in negotiation can rise to the level of legally actionable fraud What ethically ambiguous tactics are there Traditional competitive bargaining Emotional manipulation Misrepresentation Bluf ng Misrepresentation to opponent s network Inappropriate information collection The rst two are likely to be used and are seen as appropriate and effective The other four are generally seen as inappropriate and unethical in negotiation Deception by omission versus commission Omission failing to disclose information that would bene t the other Commission actually lying about the commonvalue issue Why Use Deceptive Tactics Motives and Consequences The power motive The purpose of using ethically ambiguous negotiating tactics ie lies is to increase the negotiator s power in the bargaining environment Other motives to behave unethically Negotiators are more likely to see ethically ambiguous tactics as appropriate and to use them if they anticipate that the other s expected motivation would be more competitive The Consequences of Unethical Conduct 1 A negotiator who employs an unethical tactic will experience positive or negative consequences depending on Effectiveness whether the tactic is effective Reactions of others how the other person constituencies and audiences evaluate the tactic Reactions of self how the negotiator evaluates the tactic feels about using the tactic Explanations and Justi cations The primary purpose of explanations and justi cations is To rationalize explain or excuse the behavior To verbalize some good legitimate reason why this tactic was necessary Rationalizations for Unethical Conduct The tactic was unavoidable The tactic was harmless The tactic will help to avoid negative consequences The tactic will produce good consequences or the tactic is altruistically motivated quotThey had it comingquot or quotThey deserve itquot or quotI m just getting my duequot quotThey were going to do it anyway so I will do it rst quotHe started itquot o The tactic is fair or appropriate to the situation How Can Negotiators Deal With the Other Party s Use of Deception Ask probing questions Phrase questions in different ways Force the other party to lie or back off Test the other party quotCallquot the tactic Ignore the tactic Discuss what you see and offer to help the other party change to more honest behaviors Respond in kind
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