ARH 252 - Test 1 Study Guide
ARH 252 - Test 1 Study Guide ARH 252 - Online
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mina Lubel on Saturday February 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 252 - Online at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jenny Tucker in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 1154 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art I in Art at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/14/15
EXAM TWO STUDY GUIDE STYLISTIC PERIODS Cycladic Minoan Mycenaean Greek Geometric Greek Orientalizing Greek Archaic Greek Classical Greek Early amp High Classical Greek Late Classical Greek Hellenistic Etruscan wermpwmpowgt CYCLADIC 0 Refers to art from the CYCLADES Islands 0 What are identifying characteristic of Cycladic sculptures Marble as primary material Abstract sleek streamlined simple geometric shapes triangles Cycladic female idols are typically seen with their arms folded across their abdomens 0 Probably represent Pregnancy 0 Cycladic sculptures of males are often depicted playing Lyre MINOAN 0 Refers to art from the island of Crete Called Minoan after the legendary ruler of Crete King Minos 0 Their isolated location on an island provided a natural barrier from opposing enemies and also dictated the overall openair architectural scheme 0 The epic Greek writer Homer wrote of King Minos but scholars long believed the now legendary figure was fictitious However by the 19th century it was confirmed to be true The Palace at Knossos was the traditional residence of King Minos and survived in Greek legend as the labyrinth of the halfman halfbull monster the Minotaur of Crete 0 The Palace at Knossos is classified architecturally as a Labyrinth and means double ax which is a recurring motif in the palace Minoans employed the durable True Fresco technique to paint on the walls of the palace 0 How does the Bullleaping fresco re ect the Minoan lifestyle Depicts scenes of everyday life Hunting shing etc etc I ARH 252 What does the Harvester Vase depict Workers returning from the eld dancing screaming showing exuberance What does the Minoan Snake Goddess represent Religious practices There is a tendency depicting human figures with cinched waists Within Minoan figure representation Many frescoes have been found on the island of Santorini called Thera Thira by the Greeks in both private homes as well as public buildings However these frescoes were not discovered until 1967 due to a volcanic eruption in ca 1500 BCE that buried these artifacts Spring Fresco is considered the first known example of Pure Landscape Painting and captures the essence of the island s surroundings rather than being a realistic portrayal of nature MYCENAEAN Location is important when considering the Mycenaeans Compare their location with that of the Minoans How does location dictate the visual characteristics of each region Homer described Mycenae as being rich in gold Period also called Late Helladic after Hellenes the Greek name for Greece The Mycenaean culture was more militaristic than the Minoans e The citadel at Tiryns contains huge roughly cut stone blocks a process referred to as Cyclopean named after the mythical oneeyed giants Also at the Citadel at Tiryns are corbeled galleries of walls Corbelling means formed by the piling of stone blocks and horizontal courses cantilevered inward until forming an arch The Lion Gate from Mycenae features three architectural elements Corbeled Arch Post and Lintel and Relieving Triangle Please also understand the definition of these three elements The imagery of the lions on the Lion Gate suggested the strength and authority of the Mycenaeans The Treasury ofAtreus is architecturally classified as a Tholos Tomb tholoi which is a beehived shaped tomb ARH 252 I 0 The interior of the Treasury of Atreus is composed of corbeled courses of stone blocks laid on a circular base It remained the largest dome in the world until the construction of the Pantheon by the Ancient Romans 0 The Mycenaean F unerary Mask is made using a beaten metal technique called Repousse Technique push out 0 The Mycenaean civilization approximately disappeared in ca 1200 BCE yet scholars are not definitively able to answer why GREEK gGEOMETRICg 0 A style that evolved in the 8th century BCE 0 Primarily contains pottery amp smallscale sculptures 0 The Geometric period is called such because of the overwhelming geometric patterning of objects from this time period 0 Dipylon Geometric Krater functioned as a VASE and also contains a small opening at the bottom of the vessel that would have held libations to honor the dead GREEK g ORIENTALIZING The major characteristic of this period are the in uences from the Near East amp Egypt hence the name Orientalizing The style emerged in the 7th century BCE primarily because of the acceleration of Greek trade with the East 0 Mantiklos Apollo is a votive offering statuette dedicated by the unknown man named Mantiklos to Apollo god of sun and light The nude figure of the Mantiklos Apollo shows a growing interest in the human form 0 The Lady of Auxerre is an example of a freestanding female statue called a Kore a Greek word meaning young woman or maiden Statues of these females are clothed for reasons of propriety GREEK ARCHAIC amp TRANSITION TO CLASSICAL 0 The term Archaic is used to re ect the in uences and characteristics of artworks from this period 0 Peplos Kore was thought to be a votive offering statue dedicated to Athena goddess of wisdom amp warfare Kouros is the Greek word for Young man These figures are always nude re ecting the Greek interest in the naked human form I ARH 252 0 The Kouros shows an interest in Egyptian statuary and is thought to have functioned as a The Francois Vase is named after It was found in an Etruscan tomb The two artists who made the pot and painted it were and 0 is the artist who is considered to be the master potter of the blackfigure technique is the artist credited with the invention of the redfigure style of pottery His vase Achilles and Ajac Playing a Dice Game is a vase with both blackfigure and redfigure styles which is a technique called O Most early Greek temples did not survive because they were built of and 0 However during the Archaic period was used as it was a more permanent material Greek temples function differently than other religious shrines For example the Greeks would gather as opposed to to worship 0 There are three architectural orders within Greek architectural plans They are and 0 The major differences between the Doric and Ionic orders are the shape of the capitals and the treatment of the frieze 0 Within the Doric and Ionic order there are two major courses the entablature and the column Within the entablature there are three parts the the and the 0 The frieze of the Doric Order is divided into two architectural elements The amp The shaft of both Doric and Ionic columns featuresthe vertical ridges called 0 The Temple of Hera I is located in The columns of the temple feature which is a swelling in the shaft of the column GREEK gEARLY amp HIGH CLASSICAL ARH 252 I 0 The beginning of the Classical period is marked by the defeat of the Persian invaders of Greece by the Hellenic citystates 0 The Early and High Classical periods are seen as the heyday of classic Greek sculpture and architecture 0 The transition from the Archaic to Classical style is most present in the disappearance of the archaic smile 0 The Kritios Boy features the counter positioning of the body about its central axis which is also known as It gives the figure a sense of life and motion 0 Compare the sculptural figures of the Archaic period with that of the Early Classical period Identify the major stylistic shift into more naturalistic figure representation The Riace Warrior employs a more pronounced contrapposto It was thought to have been lost at sea while traveling from Greece to Rome 0 The Riace Warrior is an example of hollowcasting bronze sculpture 0 The Doryphoros was created by the artist who wrote his treatise Canon which recorded the principles for depicting the standard of perfection 0 The Acropolis was destroyed in 480 BCE when the invaded Athens The buildings of the Acropolis were reconstructed because of the efforts of an Athenian statesman and general 0 The Parthenon the temple of was designed by architects amp 0 The original statue of Athena Parthenos was created by the artist who was also the sculptor in charge of the Parthenon s decoration The sculpture of Athena was made of ivory and gold technique also called 0 The frieze of the Parthenon features several mythological battles one of which is the battle between the amp a northern Greek tribe and halfhuman halfhorse creatures These mythological battles alluded to the recent victory over the Persians 0 The Panathenaic Festival frieze is an Ionic frieze located on the Parthenon It depicts the festival that took place every four years in Athens to honor the goddess The Erechtheion on the Acropolis is named after the Athenian king I ARH 252 GREEK LATE CLASSICAL In the 4th century BCE the Peloponnesian War was the catalyst for political upheaval in Greece causing a profound impact on the psyche of the Greeks and therefore the art they produced Therefore the Late Classical style is exemplary of this shift During this time there is a shift from idealized sculpture of the High Classical period to the real world of appearancesincluding imperfections Weary Herakles created by the sculptor is exemplary of the new Late Classical style Specifically he is a god depicted as weak and tiredcharacteristics completely absent in preVious periods Also taking place during the Late Classical period the Macedonian king conquered the mainland of Greece The Battle of was the battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian king 0 is the sculptor credited with introducing the female nude into Greek sculpture which is seen in his sculpture the GREEK HELLENISTIC The Hellenistic period was ushered in by the death of in 323 BCE It lasted nearly three centuries and closed with the death of and During this time Greece had expanded its borders to the Near East and Egypt 0 The Hellenistic period also marks the transition of Greek to Roman control beginning with the defeat of the Macedonian army by Roman general By 151 BCE the Roman Empire had gained full control of Hellenistic Greece 0 What are the characteristics of Hellenistic art 0 The Altar of Zeus located in features a dramatic altar on an elevated platform The subject portrayed around the frieze is the battle between the and the How do the Visual characteristics of the altar align with the characteristics of the Hellenistic period 0 The Nike ofSamothrace represents Athena Nike goddess of 0 The sculptures of the Hellenistic period are far more emotional dramatic and ultimately re ectively of the chaos of Hellenistic Greece 0 Both the Seated Boxer and the Laocoon and His Sons demonstrate the Hellenistic fascination with pain and agony ARH 252 I Please understand the story of Laocoon his role with the Trojan Horse event and his fate under the gods ETRUSCAN The Etruscans resided in the country The area of Tuscany that the Etruscans inhabited was rich in and called it Etruscan culture was contemporaneous with the Greeks and which allowed for ourishing export trade The design of the Etruscan temple was first described by the Roman architect Etruscan temples were made of what materials How is this material re ective of the Etruscans immediate natural resources What are the similarities and differences between Greek amp Etruscan temples The Sarcophagus with Reclining Couple shows the Etruscans banqueting in the reclining position as in uenced by the Greeks What does this say about the equality of women in Etruria Etruscan tombs also known as were modeled after The Capitoline SheWolf shows the Etruscans were known for their bronze figures during the Classical period It is believed to have been made for the city of after it became a republic as the wolf was their political mascot The babies underneath the wolf are the brothers amp The Sarcophagus 0f Lars Pulena was made of It is believed to be symptomatic of the declining economy of Etruria because he seems to lack confidence in a prosperous afterlife Aule Metele is also known as because he has an oratorical gesture Following several sacks on Etrucan citystates all Etruscans were given citizenship in 89 BCE Terms Aegan quotpreclassical civilizationquot Amphora two handed jar typically used to store wine or oil long neck IA 0 00000 RH 252 Black gure pottery silhouetting of dark figures against light background of natural orangereddish color clay Bueno Fresco quottrue frescoquot When paint is applied to wet plaster wall plaster and paint then dry binding together making painting part of wall Capital Uppermost member of a column serving as a transition from the shaft to the lintel Caryatid a female statue functions as a supporting column Column A vertical weightcarrying architectural member circular in crosssection and consisting of a shaft capital and base Contrapposto weight shift or counterpositioning of body from central axis Corbeled arch formed by piling stone blocks in horizontal courses cantilevered inward until the two walls meet in an arch Corinthian Greek column style most elaborate of the columns A more ornate form than Doric or Ionic and strictly speaking it is not an order Cycladic art The art is made out of white marble is very simple and geogmetric looking no writings potteries complexfortified units housing Cyclopaean Masonry A method of stone construction named after the mythical Cyclopes that uses massive irregular blocks without mortar Doric Greek column style squared off at top simplest form One of two systems or orders of architecture within ancient Greece Dromos Passage leading to a tholos tomb Entablature Part of a building above the columns and below the roof The entablature has three parts architrave frieze and pediment Entasis An apparent swelling in the shaft of a column Fibula clasp or safety pin used to clasp a woman39s gown at shoulder Fluting Vertical channeling roughly semicircular used principally on columns Frieze Part of the entablature between the architrave and the cornice Ionic Greek column style two rounded swirls on edges One of two systems or orders of architecture within ancient Greece Korekorai pl Maiden young woman Term for a generalized figure of a young woman usually clothedas seen in greek sculpture Archaic meaning greek statue 000000 000000 ARH 252 I Kouroskouroi pl young man Term used to describe sculptures of generalized idealized young men Archaic meaning is greek statue Krater a large vase used to mix water and wine big mouth with no neck Labyrinth A maze seen in the Minoan palace at Knossos Lekythos bottle containing perfumed oil funeral object Linear A Aegan writing that was the earlier form Linear B Aegan writing that has been deciphered Lion Gate Mycenaean most famous art is mycenaean 3 elements present corbeled arch post amp lintel and relieving triangle Lyre common musical instrument at the time sort of like a harp Meander An ornamental pattern of contiguous straight lines joined usually at right angles Metope The panel between the triglyphs in a Doric frieze often sculpted in relief Minotaur A mythical beast that is half man and half bull that inhibited Knossos Pediment The triangular space at the end of a building formed by the ends of the sloping roof ornamental space Peplos A simple long woolen belted garment worn by ancient Greek women Redfigure pottery silhouetting of light orange reddish color figures against a black background with painted linear details Relieving triangle triangular opening above lintel and lightens the weight on the lintel Repouss Formed in relief by beating a metal plate from the back Sir Arthur Evans a British archaeologist that excavated on Crete Island in 1900s Syros Very important Cycladic site lots of art was found here Tholos beehive shaped tomb with a circular plan Tiryns Citadel Mycenaean buildings 45 constructions located in Tiryns Greece technique thick solid walls enclose structure made out of large blocks Triglyph A triple projecting grooved member of a Doric frieze that alternates with metopes Tumulus tumuli pl multichambered tomb specific to Etruscans Greek Gods and Goddesses Aphrodite goddess of love and beauty daughter of Zeus and another nymph Dione Apollo god of sun light amp music the Son of Zeus I ARH 252 Ares god of war son of Zeus and Hera Artemis goddess of the hunt of wild animals twin sister of Apollo Athena goddess of wisdom and warfare Demeter goddess of grain Third sister of Zeus Dionysos god of wine Son of Zeus and a mortal woman Eros childgod of love Son of Aphrodite and Ares Hades god of the underworld Hera goddess of marriage Wife and sister of Zeus Hermes messenger of the gods Son of Zeus and another nymph Poseidon god of the sea controlled the waves storms and earthquakes with a trident pitchfork Zeus King of the gods ruled by the sky Pericles the general and leader of Athens in the golden classical age Parthenon built as a Greek temple dedicated to goddess Athena converted to Christian church in honor of the Virgin Mary turned into a Turkish mosque blown up when used for storing ammuniton of the Ottomans Warrior Taking Leave 1st time correct representation of human form in profile on 2D Deaedalic Style rigid looking style that is very characteristic of the early Greek sculpture Archaic smile the slight smile on the figurines and statues very slight with upcurved mouth Polykleitos not only an artist but also a theorist wrote book named The Canon uestions Which of the three Aegan cultures had no writing Cycladic Which of the three Aegan cultures had both Linear A and B writings Minoan The early culture on Crete was named MINOAN after King Minos from the Greek mythology Which of the three Aegan cultures had Linear B writings Mycenaean There are two evidences of writing in Minoan culture Linear A amp Linear B Minoan art was first discovered on the island of Crete In minoan art men are rendered in than the women Darker ARH 252 I Minoan art uses the technique True Fresco Lots of art of ocean life art shows that they enjoyed their lives Minoan Minoan 1st example of sculpture in the round FREE STANDING Snake Goddess common minoan characteristics fair skin narrow waste large breasts Harvesters vase is known as a because its surface is covered with an everyday scene Relief Sculpture The Agean civilizations are known as the Bronze Age Two systems or orders of architecture within ancient Greece Doric and Ionic A vase painting technique in which the pot was first covered in a layer of find white clay over which black glaze was applied to outline figures Other colors like brown red and purple were applied to the paint after firing White Ground Technique They didn39t use glues or mortars when making a corbeled vault all about amp weight Balance 3 ways of spanning an archway post amp lintel corbeled arch arch ARH 252 EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE EXAM FORMAT 1 ii iii Part 1 Slide Identification identify the artist title of artwork location if architecture and stylistic period Part 11 Matching match terms from slide list with their definition Part III Multiplechoice questions about specific details from artworks historical events and other pertinent information STYLISTIC PERIODS QZZFW HFQWWPOW Paleolithic Neolithic Sumerian Akkadian NeoSumerian Babylonian Assyrian NeoBabylonian Egyptian Predynastic Egyptian Early Dynastic Egyptian Old Kingdom Egyptian Middle Kingdom Egyptian New Kingdom Egyptian Amarna Period Egyptian PostAmama Period PALEOLITHIC The Old Stone Age is also known as the PALEOLITHIC period Paleolithic art highlights the nomadic and huntergatherer lifestyle of the prehistoric era Prehistory is identified as the time period before man s recording of history The object titled REPRESENTATION is an example of the Paleolithic man s observation and recognition of the natural world and himself Cave paintings and sculptures primarily contain images of females and animals Female images Venus figures are thought to have functioned as fertility figures Venus 0f Willendorf is an example of FREESTANDING SCULPTURE Freestanding figures carved or modeled in three dimensions Venus ofLaussel is an example of RELIEF SCULPTURE Figure projecting from a background of which they are part By layering the animal figures in cave paintings Paleolithic artists were able to convey movement Observation of the natural world is seen in the animal art of this period The Paleolithic cave painting titled RHINOCEROS WOUNDED MAN AND DISEMBOWELED BISON contains a rare appearance of man ARH 252 MESOLITHIC is the Middle Stone Age when the ice that covered much of northern Europe began to melt while the climate grew warmer This phenomenon led to the period now called the Neolithic period NEOLITHIC NEOLITHIC is known as the New Stone Age Hunters and gatherers settled into more stationary communities The Neolithic man implemented farming irrigation systems and stockbreeding Occurred first in the region of ANATOLIA AND MESOPOTAMIA The structure SEDENTARY SOCIETIES is exemplary of the necessity to fortify and protect fixed settlements during the Neolithic period The first fortified city and the human skull with restored features comes from IIERICHO Stonehenge is a Neolithic monument located at EUROPE Stonehenge is made using monumental stones called SARSEN STONES BLUESTONES Stonehenge is comprised of an inner ring and outer ring of stones The inner ring is comprised of the stone SARSEN MEGALITHS and the outer ring is comprised of the stone TRILITHONS SARSEN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST SUMERIAN Located in MESOPOTAMIA translates as the land between Tigris amp Euphrates Rivers Developed first form of writing called CUNEIFORM Sumerians worshipped many gods a practice which is called POLYTHEISM A monumental platform that supports a temple is called a ZIGGURAT These monumental platforms protected the temple from Shrine rooms in Mesopotamian temples are called CELLA The characteristics of Sumerian arte include abnormally large eyes that indicate fixation on gods stylization combined with relatively naturalistic details combination of frontal and profile views called use of horizontal bands or rows called and an artistic convention equating size with status called HIERARCHY OF SCALE A gift of gratitude given to a deity is called a VOTIVE OFFERING seen prominently in the artwork WARKA VASE Type of art created when the artist depicts what they actually see Type of art created when the artist depicts what they knows to be true and renders distinguishing properties rather than what they actually see ARH 252 AKKADIAN 0 Akkadian kings desired vast empires while their rulers were elevated to godlike status 0 A carved stone slab used to mark graves or to commemorate historical events is a STELE famously used in the artwork NARIN SIN NEOSUMERIAN 0 The NeoSumerian period is categorized as a revival of Sumerian culture in Mesopotamia 0 The ZIGGURAT AT UR is structure exemplary of the return of Sumerian rule It is one of the largest in this region 0 The NeoSumerian ruler that is most identified with the return of Sumerian rule is GUDEA OF LAGASH 0 The art during the rule of Gudea is exemplary of a return to the small votive statuettes of early Sumerian rule rather than the large and impressive sculptures of the Akkadians BABYLONIAN 0 The most famous Babylonian ruler who is known for his law code HAMMURABI 0 The Babylonian sun god who appears on the Law Stele of Hammurabi is SHAMASH ASSYRIAN 0 KING ASHURNASIRPAL was the ruler associated with the rise of Assyrian power His royal citadel is located at KALHU 0 The main artistic themes found within Assyrian art are warfare amp lion hunting 0 The Assyrians cultivated an image of THEMSELVES AS MERCILESS to anyone who dared oppose them 0 The winged humanheaded bull is the LAMASSU It was originally located at the DAR SHARRUKIN NEGBABYLONIAN 0 The most renowned NeoBabylonian ruler was NEBUCHADNEZZAR 0 Monuments in Babylon such as ISHTAR GATE were decorated with beautiful bright blue bricks 0 The Ishtar Gate depicts the dragon of MARDUK and NABU as well as the bull of ADAD EGYPTIAN 0 Within Ancient Egypt rulers were referred to as PHARAOHS 0 The earliest form of writing in Egypt was called HIEROGLYPHS which are pictures symbolizing words n ARH 252 The discovery of the ROSETTA STONE in the 18th century CE finally allowed scholars to translate hieroglyphs The Egyptian sun god who reigned supreme was called AMEN OR RE Sometime referred to as Ra Other important Egyptians gods were SHU PRIMARY MALE FORCE TEFNUT PRIMARY FEMALE FORCE and GEB EARTH Created during the Predynastic period the PALETTE OF KING NARMER documents the unification of Upper amp Lower Egypt Egyptian artworks are often divided into horizontal bands also known as an REGISTERS Egyptians believed the deceased had to be physically preserved and therefore invented a burial process called MUMMIFICATION thus allowing the KA spirit or life force that continued after death to have a home Egyptians desired to be buried with earthly possessions while wall paintings in the tomb contained images of recreation The earliest forms of Egyptian tombs are called MASTABA which are singlestory mud brick structures with underground burial chambers Djoser s PYRAMID is made using several mastabas of decreasing size stacked on top of a basic mastaba The architect of this structure from the Early Dynastic period was MESOPOTAMIA The next major development in pyramid design was the GREAT PYRAMIDS Three pyramids were built at GIZEH honoring the pharaohs KHUFU KHAFRE and MENKAURE of the 4th Dynasty The triangular shape of the pyramid is known as a BENBEN and symbolizes the SUN The GREAT SPHINX is to represent the pharaoh Khafre The Sphinx combines human intelligence with the immense strength and authority of the king of beasts The Great Pyramids are an example of this type of masonry Khafre Enthroned is a large statue made of DIORITE hard black stone How is the pharaoh depicted A well develoned flawless bodv and perfect face Egvnm considered ideal Dronortions annronrigte for representing their godkings The Seated Scribe and are good examples of sculptures made for lowerranking individuals in Egypt Why are they more naturalistic Compare the Seated Scribe with Khrafre Enthroned How does social hierarchy dictate the depiction of each figure In the Middle Kingdom ROCK CUT tombs replaced the great pyramids of the Old Kingdom The HYKSOS tribe invaded Egypt in 17th century BCE Egypt was divided for 200 years before the pharaohs of the New Kingdom reestablished control ARH 252 The New Kingdom is notable for the rule of a very important female pharaoh named HATSHEPSUT What is the function of this kind of temple Celebrated her reign divine birth and successful expedition to Mingdom of Punt of the red seg The type of relief sculpture used by the Egyptians is known as PALLETE OF NARMER sunken relief because the artist cuts the design into the surface so that the highest projecting parts of the image are no higher than the surface itself The walls of tombs were covered with reliefs and paintings Most were created using a painting technique called FRESSO SECCO a less durable counterpart of the TRUE FRESCO The Amarna period is associated with the pharaoh Amenhotep IV who changed his name to AKHENATON He famously introduced a new monotheistic religion based on asun disk god he called ATON He moved the Egyptian capital to Tell elAmarna and renamed it UKARNAK Nothing is known of the origin of his ideas and this period was ultimately shortlived How was Akhenaton most commonly depicted How are these features seen as a stylistic shift from the traditional Egyptian artworks Mllels the suppression of traditional religion His wife s name was NERFERTITI and her portrait was made by THUTMOSE The most famous pharaoh of the PostAmarna period TUTANKHAMEN died at the age of 18 He is seen as a minor figure in Egyptian history but the discovery of his perfectly preserved tomb in the year by British archaeologist HOWARD CARTER solidified his place in popular history
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