Test 2 Review
Test 2 Review Comm 1302
Popular in Intro to Comm Theory
Popular in Communication
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Krystal Sookdeo on Saturday February 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 1302 at University of Houston taught by Jae in Summer2014. Since its upload, it has received 153 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comm Theory in Communication at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/14/15
Chapter 4 Information and Systems Defining information Any objective not subjective facts and figures eg the number of students in class Something a person does not already know Devito Difference in the amount of uncertainty before and after a message Data an individual or social unit uses in its attempt to adapt to its environment in order to reduce uncertainty and achieve gratification Weiner Open svstems theorv 0 Based on general systems theory 0 Bertlanffy Bouding Katz amp Kahn 0 Descriptive A system Q ls an entity that is by definition composed of two or more interrelated or interdependent parts or elements subsystems Wholeness or Holism Gestalt Q The whole is NOT just the sum of the parts 0 The system itself can be explained only as a totality Q Holism is the opposite of elementalism which views the total as sum of its individual parts 0 When baking a bread the ingredients are the subsystems Entropy Amount of disorganization that exists in a system Lack of predictability Amount of uncertainty Randomness Q Eguifinality Q A system can reach quotthe same final state from differing initial conditions and by a variety of pathsquot 0 The same end state may be achieved via many different means paths or trajectories 0 Social organizations can accomplish their objectives with diverse inputs and with varying internal conditions more than one way to achieve the same goals Chapter 4 Information and Systems Part 2 look at media richness theory 0 Basic Premise 0 To survive and grow organizations must be able to cope with workrelated uncertainty 0 Q The essence of information processing is the gathering transmitting storing and using of information 0 Bounded rationalitv Simon 1945 0 Descriptive approach 0 Organizations and individuals quotadministrative manwomenquot can never be perfectly rational in their decision making because their members have limited physical and mental information processing abilities Q A Cannot search for and obtain all the available information and usually have to act on the basis of incomplete information about possible courses of action and their consequences 0 B Are able to explore only a limited number of alternatives not all possibilities relating to any given decision 0 C Are unable to attach accurate values to outcomes the consequences of action lie in the future Consequently individuals and organizations settle for a quotbounded rationalityquot of quotgood enoughquot or quotsatisficingquot decisions based on limited search and information As information or raw data is processed through the organization successive summarizing aggregating and editing a form of message filtering or modification take place based on their concerns or frames of reference eg different functionsunitslevels Consequently inferences reasoned conclusions rather than actual information or raw data are transmitted As a result incomplete andor distorted information typically influence decision making 0 activey explore frames of reference 0 chaenge the assumptions underlying the options that are proposed to them and 0 get opinions from all parties affected by the decisions they make Monday Notes Tompkins n 1960s and 1970s NASA director Wernher von Braun asked each lab director to submit a onepage summary of the week39s progress and problems every Monday morning Two basic responses organizational design to the greater task uncertainty are a reduce the need for information processing or 2 increase the capacity to process information Nature of message 0 a Routinesimple straightforward rational logical and contain no surprises and operate on the established common frame of reference on the issue 0 b Nonroutinehave greater potential for misunderstanding are often characterized by time pressure ambiguity and surprises no common frame of reference eg novel situations Rules in the selection of media 0 1 Send nonroutine difficult communication through a rich mediumpreferably facetoface Q 2 Send routine simple communication through a lean medium 0 3 Use rich media to extend your presence throughout the organization 0 4 Use rich media for implementing company strategy 0 5 Don39t let media censor information about critical issues use multiple media 0 6 Evaluate new communication technology as a single channel in the media spectrum questionable CHAPTER 5 Persuasion Persuasion Q Addresses the human incentive to influence and be influenced quotI will tell you whathowwhen to feeldosayquot quotTell me whathowwhen to feeldosayquot 0 Defining Persuasion Q quotThe use of messages to modify behavior by using some combination of coercive force and appeals that affect reason and emotionquot Miller 0 quotThe process of influencing attitudes and behaviorsquot Devito Q The processes of social influence through the interaction of knowledge attitude and behavior 0 0 Relationships among Knowledde Attitude Behavior 0 1 Attitudes predict behaviors Q eg ads attitudes about a productservice gt purchase behavior I like it buy 0 2 Behaviors predict attitudes Q eg I keep buying it I must like it Q 3 Knowledge K attitude A and behaviorpractice B may interact one another Valente Paredes amp Poppe Q KAB traditional learning model We acquire informationknowledge We use it to form an attitude That attitude guides our behaviors O 0 Basic Assumptions in persuasion Q Receiver exposure attention perception and retention are selective ie We see hear attend perceive and retain what we want to 0 Reactions to messages are affected by selfinterest and by the extent to which the opinions or actions are thought to produce harms or benefits 0 Selective perception Q Hastorf A H amp Cantril H 1954 They saw a game A case study Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 491 129134 doi101037h0057880 Q A very rough football game between Dartmouth and Princeton 1951 0 Members of each university39s fraternities or clubs watched the same gamefilm 0 Many versions of a game is possible Different people experience the game differently because of different purposes and other quotselectivitiesquot 0 Other Assumptions 0 People can m attempts at persuasive influence 0 People are capable of selfpersuasion eg talk yourself into it 0 Some persuasive influence occurs as people acquire the terministic screens of their language eg norms values preferences behavioral intentions embedded in language or idioms freedom happiness privacy justice 0 0 quotLearning Attitudes Theorvquot of Persuasion Q Yale group McGuire 0 Key premise 0 People learn attitudes that lead to rewarding outcomes and avoid choices that are not rewarding Thus persuaders39 job is to provide information that helps persons learn attitudes Q Inhibiting factors messages that lead to careful evaluation and decrease learning that attitudes are rewarding 0 Key variables from the communication process model 0 Source 0 Receiver s perceptions of the speaker affect the impact of the speaker s message 0 Focused on source credibility Q 1 Source credibility is tied to perceptions of expertise trustworthiness or affiliation with positive groups 0 2 Message 0 Fear appeals 0 Order effects the sequence in which message points are presented as part of a total message 0 Primacy effec stronger points are presented early in a message or campaign eg set the tone 0 Recencv effect stronger points are presented at the end of a message or campaign eg most damaging claims about the opponent at the end of a campaign no time to refute Chapter 5 Persuasion Part 2 Elaboration likelihood theory ELT Petty and Cacioppo Q Elaboration is the extent to which one engages in active critical thinking about arguments and issues involves cognitive processes such as evaluation recall critical judgment and inferential judgment When processing via the central route 0 Arguments of the message are carefully or critically evaluated elaboration likelihood is high Q Attitude change is less likely to occur but if it does it is more likely to be enduringpermanent and more likely to affect your behavior for a long time When processing via the peripheral route 0 Arguments are not carefully evaluated elaboration is low 0 One tends to be influenced more by simple external cues peripheral matters or nonargumentative appeals such as speakersource credibility impression and liking O Chance is more likely to occur but it is likely to be temporary it has relatively little effect on how you actually act 0 The likelihood of elaboration depends on two primary factors motivation and m 0 Motivation is affected by three things 0 Involvement I When lowinvolved voters cast their votes they often relied on peripheral cues such as l candidate appearance eg physical attractiveness l endorsements eg names of wellknown groups American Bar Association Fraternal Order of Police l names eg familiar smooth sounding names like Hart Fairchild Jae l slogans eg social justice family values 0 Diversity of argument the number of arguments and sources leads to a higher motivation to evaluate the message Q The need for coonition the general enjoyment of thinking present in some people increases motivation 0 Ability can be affected by a variety of factors such as distraction or insufficient knowledge Social Judgment Theory Sherif 0 Looks at how we judge or evaluate socialpersuasive messages and how the judgment will affect our own belief system 0 I We do not evaluate a message purely on the merits of the arguments Instead we compare the advocated position with our attitudes and then determine whether we should accept the position advocated in the message we can never escape our own points of view We sort our levels of acceptance into three latitudes O Latitude of reiection is the range of statements on an issue one finds unacceptable offensive Social judgment theory predicts that messages falling within the latitude of acceptance facilitate attitude change If a message is judged to lie within the latitude of reiection attitude change will be reduced or nonexistent and in fact a boomerang effect may occur in which the discrepant message actually reinforce the recipient s original attitude The contrast effect occurs when individuals judge a message to be farther from their own view than it actually is eg An overestimation of the difference from a foe 900 F after a month of 1000 F feelssounds quotcoolquot even though 900 F is actually quite hot Chapter 5 Persuasion Part 3 Social Cognitive Theory Bandura Key premises Behavioral change is made possible by a personal sense of control If people believe that they can take action to solve a problem instrumentally they become more inclined to do so and feel more committed to the decision A The person the behavior and the environment are all inseparably entwined interact one another to create learningchanging of behavior or attitude in an individual Triadic reciprocal determinism 1 Personal factors in the form of cognition affect and biological events sensoryneural systems physical structures age race sex physical attractiveness etc 2 Behavior 3 Environmental factors B Learning of behavior or attitude takes place through several specific processes Mastery learning Vicarious experiences imitation modeling role playing observations Social persuasion Emotional arousal 2 Vicarious learning from observing others perform tasks Modeing imitations observations role playing Learning by witnessing or learning about similar others successful or exemplary behaviors or experiences eg friends coworkers supervisors 2 Selfefficacy is a belief about what one is capable of doing it is not the same as knowing what to do Theory of Reasoned Action Fishbein amp Ajzen Key premise To predict behavior we need to consider both likes and dislikes attitudes and people39s natural tendency to want to please others norms Assumes that people rationally and consciously calculate the costs and benefits of engaging in a particular action think carefully about how significant others will view the behavior There are 4 components in the theory Attitude toward the behavior or action Subjective norms Behavioral intention Behavior A Attitude toward the behavior is a learned predisposition to respond unfavorably and consistently with respect to the behavior or a situation object etc B Subjective norms social pressures consist of two components normative beliefs and motivation to comply Normative beliefs is the sense of what others would prefer for us to believe do or chose While the theory predicts behavioral intentions it does not necessarily predict actual behavior because people don t always behave in accordance with their intentions Chapter 6 lnterpersonal Part 1 Interpersonal communication Refers to Dvadic interaction in which people codefine and negotiate relationships by using communication styles rules and strategies know this definition for the test A dyad is an interaction between two people A dyad exists usually in a network of other dyads Social penetration theory Altman amp Taylor selfdisclosure and intimacy Social penetration is assumed to take place as relational partners share information Psychological disclosure is specific information about individual traits feelings attitudes and personal data Social penetration is the process of relying less on general cultural and sociological information and more on psychological information 1 Penetration involves communicating about topics that are deeper or more personal depth 2 Social penetration involves communicating about a broader range of topics at each level of intimacy breadth 3 At each level of social penetration ie each layer the partners must decide based on the costs and rewards of increasing intimacy whether to proceed to a deeper level social exchange theory Penetration is rapid at the start but slows down quickly as the tightly wrapped inner layers are reached analogy of onion more tears Social penetration or relational development proceeds through four stages in a cyclical back andforth nature Orientation is when only very public information is exchanged impersonal cultural sociological data Exploratory affective exchange is when deeper disclosure takes place We now start to reveal ourselves expressing personal attitudes about Affective exchange is when critical and evaluative feedback takes place centers on feelings at a deeper level yet Stable exchange is highly imitative and psychological allows partners to predict each other s actions and responses In social penetration theory relationships are believed to dissolve in the reverse order in which they develop in a pattern of decreasing intimacy Depenetration is a gradual process of layerbylayer withdrawal Social exchange theory Kelley amp Thibaut Premise We like a relationship with persons who are rewarding and avoid those that are unreasonably cos y Comparison level of alternatives CLalt quota theory of economic behaviorquot Comparing the outcome to those from alternate relationships available an quotexternalquot comparison is the worst outcome a person will accept and still stay in a relationship Battered wife svndrome A battered wife often remains with her abusive husband because the option of being alone in the world appears worse she is likely to end the relationship only when she perceives an outside alternative that promises a better life Critigues Social penetration and social exchange theories 0 Human interaction is not a purely rational process like the economic theory 0 Openness disclosure may at times not be the best option in a relationship 0 Intimacy may at times not be the ultimate goal of a relationship 0 O 0 Chapter 6 lnterpersonal Part 2 O 0 Uncertainty Reduction Theory 0 Berger 0 Primarily addresses the basic process of how we gain knowledge about other people 0 Kev Assumptions 0 Uncertainty refers to the number of possible alternative ways of behaving and believing when strangers meet 0 Uncertainty is presumed to be uncomfortable and therefore motivational O Uncertainty occurs when there is lots of information or lots of ways to interpret the information 0 Uncertainty is the greatest when people want to predict outcomes something that belongs to the future 0 Uncertainty is increased by the knowledge that people can act in many ways and that various interpretations of actions are possible O Q 1 The need to know more about another person is heightened Q When we expect to have future encounters with the person we know we will see himher again 0 When we see high incentive values especially rewarding or costly ones they have something we want or don39t want to lose 0 Q When we come across deviant or unpredictable behaviors of others Heshe acts in a unusual or unexpected way deviates from conventions rules norms eg too much praises and compliments in the first meeting ulterior motives more closer attentionmonitoring O 0 A2 As nonverval affiliative exoressiveness increases uncertainty levels will decrease in an initial interaction situation In addition decreases in uncertainty level will cause increases in nonverbal affiliative expressiveness Q nonverbal expression of interest and attention such as direct eye contact head nods pleasantness of voice sitting closer touching more etc 0 Interactive strategies involve direct facetoface communication with the other person 0 eg interrogation and selfdisclosure reveal something about yourself which in turn may lead the other person to disclose in return lawprinciple of reciprocity O Q 1 Members of high context cultures who rely on the contextsituation to interpret events are apt to use nonverbal cues and information about a person39s background to reduce uncertainty 0 2 Members of low context cultures who rely on the explicit verbal content of messages are more apt to ask guestions related to experience attitudes and beliefs to reduce uncertainty 0 Q Predictedoutcome value theory 0 Sunnafrank 1986 0 Suggests that we seek information about others not to reduce uncertainty per se but to predict whether future interaction will be positive or negative Interactional view Palo Alto Group Bateson Watzlawick Relations are produced and maintained by interaction One cannot not communicate even no talking it still considered communicationa relationship can never end Every communication has a content and a relationship aspect Content or report what is said is largely verbal Relationship or command how it39s said is largely nonverbal eg You39re late Content is about m whereas relationship refers to the other39s lack of responsibility Communicators punctuate interactional sequences to understand them 0 Interaction can be either complementary or symmetrical Q 1 ln symmetrical interaction the communicators39 powercontrol differences are minimized and in complementary interaction the communicators39 differences are maximized 0 Healthy relationships are presumed to have both types of interaction Q Reframing is the way to change the rules of the game and change the definition of relationship 0 Reframing is the process of instituting change by stepping outside of a situation and reinterpretino what it means Look at things in a new light 0 0 Chapter 6 lnterpersonal Part 3 Q Relational Dialectics Baxter Montgomery 0 We maintain a dynamic equilibrium in our relationships in the face of many possible types of tensions Q A contradiction is formed whenever two tendencies or forces are interdependent dialectical principle of unity yet mutually negate one another the dialectical principle of nega on There are three basic contradictions that beset almost every relational pair ntegrationseparation connectautonomous includeexclude Stabilitychange predictablenovel conventionalunique Expressionprivacy openclosed revealconceal Segmentation is a separation tactic by which partners compartmentalize different aspects of their relationships 0 eg lnterject novelty into predictablecommitted relationshipsmost happy 0 0 Interaction stages 0 Knapp 0 Relationship development is characterized by two processes of quotcoming togetherquot and quotcoming apartquot each process having 5 different stages 0 Coming Together 0 1 Initiating 0 Usually m processes involved in first interactions or encounters with friends and strangers 2 Experimenting Trying to discover the unknown kind of sniffing 3 Intensifying Close friends Greater personal selfdisclosure and secrets Informal address 4 Integrating ndividual personalities fuse or coalesce A kind of coupling 5 Bonding A public ritual that announces to the world that commitments have been formally contracted 0 Circumscribing O Constricted communication careful control of information exchange on safe areas only public and superficial topics or aspects in communication eg Different public vs private behaviors preparty silence empty gazes feel of exhausting during the party smiling couple made in heaven and afterpartv behaviors replay of preparty behaviors Did you have a good time on your trip What time will dinner be ready 0 Relational Dissolution 0 Duck 0 Process of breaking up of a relationship by the voluntary activity of at least one pa y Q Grave dressinq involves the personal accountsstories of the breakup to others after it has occurred 0 Costescalation is a unilateral tactic of behaving in a way that makes it more difficult for the other person to continue the relationship attempts to make the relationship unattractive to the partner 0 0 Chapter 6 lnterpersonal Part 3 O Q Nonverbal Elements of Interaction O Q Kinesics ls bodily activity or body language 0 Emblems have clear verbal translation quotVquot for victory quotOquot for money etc Proxemics is use of space 0 Personal 0 18 inches to 4 feet 0 A handshake distance the distance most couples stand in public 0 Soft voice Hall 1959 We exist inside an invisible quotbubblequot or personal soace use of space is highly cultural eg Arabs of the same sex stand much closer than North Americans An Arab entering an elevator may stand right next to another person even though no one else is in the elevator People in the USA still stand in line and have elaborate quotrules of queuingquot ie cutting in line saving places etc xachrnnin time Mtime i eeeeee e Pitime a Dein ene thing at a air IQ manyr thinge at timr eeee Time is treated ae Time ie treated ae net highly tangibl ie very tangible saved spent waete iet crawling kiiled and running eat preset eitien t eitjen a Reueee the ela teg Expands the eenteat DTiE t twa r rte twa r pepe human reiiatienehipe and tarniy Mirth Eureean Angle Latin American th iAsmeriean Eaet Aeian Mediterranean GreekeETume Expectancy violations theory Burgoon Addresses how we evaluate and react when our expectations about verbal and nonverbal behaviors are violated Expectancy is what people predict will happen rather than what they desire in the other person39s behavior Human interaction is assumed to be driven by expectancies We then interpret and evaluate the violation often based on the communicator reward valence ie smiles head nods physical attractiveness attitude similarity social economic status credibility competence etc Examples of violations 0 Relational transgressions are violations of the perceived rules of the relationship Examples include having an affair deception or being disloyal O
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