Test Review 3
Test Review 3 Comm 1302
Popular in Intro to Comm Theory
Popular in Communication
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Krystal Sookdeo on Saturday February 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 1302 at University of Houston taught by Jae in Summer2014. Since its upload, it has received 217 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comm Theory in Communication at University of Houston.
Reviews for Test Review 3
Same time next week teach? Can't wait for next weeks notes!
-Evangeline Kub PhD
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/14/15
Chapter 7 Social Cognitive Theories Attribution Theory Heider Kelley Focuses on the ways in which people infer the cause of their own and others39 behaviors We want to know and explain why people behave as they do To accomplish this we infer causes attempts to determine the cause of behavior We do that so we feel comfortable that we know what is going on People are quotnaive scientistsquot In everyday activities people engage in a relatively unsophisticated version of the observation and analysis that social scientists use when conducting lab experiments Based on such observation and analysis people attempt to assign causation and meaning to the actions of others as well as of themselves Causal attributions or inferences that we make about others39 behaviors in uence how we behave toward others eg Jae laughed out loud so much in the middle of conversation Possible explanations or causal inferences He has a sense of humor He is a guy who always tries to draw attention from people A rm attribution gt Affects how we respond to Jae His friend or story was really funny A stimulus attribution The circumstance under which the conversation took place was hilarious A circumstance attribution Fundamental attribution error one of the most persistent ndings is a tendency to attribute the cause of events to personal qualitiesdispositions Highcontext culture HCC members are for example predisposed toward situational features and situation ally based explanations Low context culture LCC members are predisposed toward dispositional characteristics and dispositionally based explanations In initial intercultural interactions HCC and LCC communicators will seek out information deemed salient in each culture eg Social backgrounddemographic info for HCC vs Personalindividual info for LCC quotUltimate attribution errorquot We view negative acts committed by out group members as a stable trait of the out group and view positive acts committed by out group members as exceptions to normal behavior Communication Accommodation Theory Giles Examines underlying motivations and consequences of shifts in communication behavior Two premises During communication people try to accommodate or adjust their style of speech to others They do this in order to gain approval to increase communication ef ciency and to maintain positive social identity with the person to whom they are talking There are two accommodation strategies convergence and divergence Convergence is a strategy by which we adapt our communication behavior in such a way as to become more similar to another person eg talking alike Powerless individuals tend to adopt the verbal and nonverbal styles of those with power 0 Females may use communication convergence in order to quotsay the right thingquot and to quotfit inquot among organizational superiors usually males a potentially double bind quotspeak like a man but act like a lady Interviewees often shift their speech rate and duration to sound likable to an interviewer Sales people often converge their speech styles with those of customers Divergence is accentuating the verbal and nonverbal differences between speakers It is often enacted to underscore social differences or maintain a social distance Some strategies of divergence Maintenance or under accommodation persisting in your original communication style regardless of the communication behavior of the other People with strong ethnic pride often use maintenance to underscore that identity and distinctiveness Over accommodation demeaning or patronizing talk in which excessive concern is paid to vocal clarity or amplitude message simpli cation or repetition Chapter 7 Social Cognitive Theories Part 2 Theory of cognitive dissonance Festinger Assumption People are more comfortable with consistency or homeostasisbalance than they are with inconsistency Attitude change can result from information that disrupts this balance These cognitive elements act as an interrelated system and each element will have one of three kinds of relationships with the others ie Cognitions relate to one another in 3 ways Null or irrelevant relationship where neither element affects the other Consistent or consonant relationship where one element follows reinforces or bolsters the other Things go together Inconsistent or dissonant relationship where one element would not be expected to follow from the other Dissonance produces a tension or stress that creates pressure to change The more dissonance the greater the pressure to change Dissonance may be reduced in a number of ways a We may change one or more of the dissonant elements a behavior an attitude or a perception New elements may be added to the cognitive system in order to add more weight to one side or the other The dissonant elements may be rede ned as less or unimportant Consonant information may be sougm We may reduce dissonance by distorting or misinterpreting the information involved Post decisional dissonance or quotbuyer39s remorsequot The amount of dissonance experienced as a result of a decision depends on several factors 0 The importance of decision The more important the decision the more dissonance is expected to result 0 The attractiveness of the chosen alternative The less attractive the chosen alternative the greater the dissonance The attractiveness of the unchosen alternative The greater the perceived attractiveness of the notchosen alternative the greater the dissonance Forced compliance or being induced to do or say something contrary to our beliefs or values The more dif cult an initiation into a group the greater the person39s commitment to the group the more social support one receives eg from a friend for a decision the greater the commitment to that decision The greater the amount of effort put into a task the more one will rationalize the value of the task Symbolic lnteractionism Mead Blumer Humans communicate through symbols The most human and humanizing activity that people can engage in is talking to each other Human act toward people or things on the basis of the meanings they assign to those people or things Meaning arises out of the social interaction that people have with each other We engage in svmbolic naming during our social interaction An individual39s interpretation of symbols is modi ed by his or her own thouoht processes or minding Minding is an inner dialogue used to test alternatives rehearse actions and anticipate reactions before responding it39s selftalk it39s the pause that39s re ective a quottwosecond delayquot while we ponder next move The self is re ections in a looking glass We paint our selfportrait with brush strokes that come from taking the role ofthe other imagining how we look to another person The mental image is called the lookingglass self the objective self or quotmequot a The quotIquot is the impulsive spontaneous creative and unpredictable aspect of the self it39s forever elusive b The quotmequot is the obiective self the image of selfseen in the looking glass of other people39s reactions The self is tied to generalized otherand signi cant others A Generalized other is an organized set of information that the individual carries in hisher head about what the general expectation and attitudes of the social group are We consult with this generalized other whenever we try to gure out how to behave or how to evaluate our behavior in a social situation Chapter 8 Organization Communication Theories Theory of organizing and Sense making Weick 1979 1995 Organizing activities Le a series of double interacts interlocking behaviors cycles are primarily to reduce eduivocalitv or uncertainty of information or message that consists of complicationcomplexity ambiguityconfusion and lack of predictability In general as eguivocality increases use of interlocked behavior cvcles ie double interactcommunication increases in an effort to reduce the equivocality Organizing and sense making consist of four major stages a Ecoooica chanoe refers to differences discontinuities or other variables in the environment that engage attention quotchaosquot enactable environment for sensemaking gtPeope become aware of things when they don39t run smoothly attention becomes active when change or difference is noticed Enactmentis the de nition of a situation in terms of its uncertainty Registering equivocal information from outsideenvironmental problem isolating some changes for closer attention noticing and bracketing paying attention to stimuli and acknowledging that equivocality exists ie inventing the perceived environment Selection involves the imposition of various structures on enacted equivocal displays in an attempt to reduce their equivocality Selection is often retrospective sensemaking process How can I know what I think until I see what I say Retention further reduces equivocality by deciding what aspects of the process eg behaviors interpretations will be saved for future use eg institutional memory Identi cation amp Unobtrusive Control Theory Cheney Tompkins Edwards Cheney 1 Identi cation occurs when individuals become aware of their common ground or when they feel connected attached or loyal Identi cation is achieved through communication Four strategies a Common ground b Identi cation by antithesis c Assumed quotwequot d Unifying symbols Assumed quotwequot Statements that distinguish the company as a quotwequot from nonorganizational forces the litheyll eg newsletter public presentations meetings discussions Identi cation becomes an effective mechanism in regulatingcontrolling worker behavior eg decision making The stronger the identi cation the more limitingnarrowing the choice in the alternatives when making decisions a subtle form of control Other ndings As employees identify more with their Organizations they tend to stay longer atcommitted to the organization be more cooperative with other members go the extra mile on behalf of the Organization citizenship behavior be more motivated to work hard to help Achieve organizational goals Unobtrusive Control Edwards Tompkins amp Cheney Control is about an exercise or act of achieving a goal There are 4 types of control a Simple control use of direct arbitrary personal open power b Technical control use of machinery and technology eg physical apparatus of the workplace c Bureaucratic control use of organizational structurehierarchy rule of law or criteria d Concertive control Use of interpersonal relationships and teamwork utilization of common understanding of values objectives and means of achievement eg identi cation shared premises ideology culture Historical evolution from simple technical bureaucratic to concertive control which is Least obtrusive or observable but most subtle and complex 3 The theory of unobtrusive control deals primarily with the ways in which control is managed within the concertive control system The ethical or value premises of organizational decisions Organizations actively m eg orientations house organs training programs and the like offer incentives eg wages bonus vacation and the like exert the authoritv of people with legitimate power to employees to accept these general premises Chapter 8 Organization Communication Theories Part 2 Socialization or Assimilation Perspective Jablin Socialization Active organizational attempts to help members learn appropriate behaviors norms and values Socialization stages Anticipatory socialization vocational amp organizational Encounter Metamorphosis ExitDisengagement Key information sources Family Peers and friends School Media especially TV Webinternet Parttime jobs Realistic iob previews RJPs Wanous lnformational materials used in the early stages of personnel recruitment or selection to offer the potential job applicants an accurate sense on both positive and negative aspects of the job Maior issues Sensemaking activities Unfreezing of existing attitudes and behaviors lnitiation to expectations of quotsigni cant othersquot Overall the key issue is to reduce uncertainties about all aspects of organizational life Types of information souaht bv newcomers Mier amp jabin Referent What39s required to functionperform on the job Appraisal What39s required to functionperform successfully on the job Relational Nature of relationships with others Extent of tting into social environment social affective support others39 personality characteristics others39 likes and dislikes managing role con icts personal goals overcoming anxieties con rming a new selfimage feelings about particular coworkers and supervisors etc Socialization strategies Van Maanen amp Schein Institutionalized socialization re ects a more structured elaborateformalized program of socialization time frame sequence of activities role boundaries usually collective etc encourage newcomers to passively accept preset roles and maintains the status quo Individualized socialization re ects a relative absence of structure Findings on newcomer adiustment lnstitutionalizedstructured vs individualizedunstructured socialization lei role innovation ess role con ict ess stress symptoms ess intention to quit more job satisfaction more organizational commitment more organizational identi cation Learning new values and behaviors Schein Pivotal those which are essential to the organization most institutionalized required Relevantthose which are desirable but not absolutely necessary to adopt Peripheralthose which are not seen as necessary or even desirable but are permitted Three Models 0 a Structural equivalence model 0 b Social in uence model 0 c Erosion model Social in uence model A Social information from others with whom one communicates superiors subordinates and peers affects one39s job attitudes and perceptions of the task B Information from colleagues about a decision to leave or stay at a similarjob is likely to in uence one39s turnover decision Disengagement cues An mwillingness to perform organizational citizenship behaviors eg helping staying late to complete tasks being thoughtfulconsiderate sportsmanship Messages that motivate a peer to exit eg time to move on better opportunities less stressful environment better pay challenging environmenttask Poor performance lateness absenteeism Discretionarytargeted message to the superior coworker third parties like customers and competing organizations family members Expicit dissatisfaction with or disidenti cation with particular individual group organization etc Chapter 9 Mass Communication Theories the process of communicating through a medium to a typically large audience Overview Mass communication MC theories embrace interpersonal group organizational and its own unique concerns MC is a primarily 20th century concern brought about because of the development and proliferation of forms of mass and mediated communication MC re ects the growth in the US population requiring the ability to communicate with lots of people across the nation MC contains messages not addressed to speci c individuals but to speci c audiences MC audiences are often heterogeneous but perhaps becoming more homogeneous are often anonymous or unknown to the sourcecommunicator are connected by a unique technology eg radio TV motion pictures Internet book Typically little or no feedback from audiences interaction takes place in MC DvsFunctions of mass communication Lasswel Wright a Surveillance Surveying the environment and providing newsworthy information eg news about impending danger informed decision or panic b Correlation Interpreting information about the environment and editorializing or prescribing how people should react to those events eg numerous alternative political views sophistication vs confusion c Transmission ofcuture Binding time across generations by educating people about information values and social norms eg quotstandardizedquot view of culture homogenizing vs loss of regional ethnic subcultural diversity d Entertainment Amusing people without necessarily offering any other functional values eg entertaining programs such as sitcoms and sports enjoyment vs distraction from social participation and interaction dependency on a medium for all entertainment needs Magic bullet theory Hypodermic needle theory Lasswel Asserts that any powerful stimulus such as a mass media message can provoke a uniform reaction or response from a given organism such as an audience Mass media could in uence a very large group of people directlv and uniformlv by shooting quotbulletquot or injecting quotneedlequot them with appropriate messages designed to trigger a desired response Propaganda model Load messages aim and re and produce dominant and direct effects Moderate or minimal effects on audience 0 Challenges to the magic bullet theory 0 Media effects on an audience are moderate or minimal mediated by other variables eg situational and attitudinal factors 0 Individuals react too differently to the same media content 0 Individuals have different needs values attitudes motivations moods personalities Reinforcement theorv Kapper a People are selective in what they watch what they attend to what they think and how they react eg Super Bowl vs a documentary on a war b They seek to con rm rather than discon rm their thoughts attitudes feelings values etc c They attend think retain recall and use information and persuasive in uence in ways that suggest they are more likely to reinforce what they want to think rather than to be merely manipulated by MC d MC is neither a necessary nor sufficient cause of audience effects The media are onlv one of manv contributing causes of audience effects ie personality attitudes values etc Any medium lasts until it is replaced by a better and more useful medium Communication determinism theory Peope decide which medium is best because of how it serves them Each medium is more than a channel it is also a way of thinking and organization message impressions eg a movie TV vs Theater vs Smart Phone vs Etc Twostep ow theorv of mass communication effect Katz amp Lazarsfeld Thus the twostep ow of mass communication effect was theorized 1 Individuals who pay close attention to the mass media and its messages receive information They are called quotooinion leadersquot 2 Opinion leaders then pass informationmedia content along to others through informal interpersonal communication including their own interpretation Characteristics of Opinion leaders Are issue or topic sensitive Are heavy media users 0 Are selective in media use attention to messages interpretation of messages and willingness to yield to messages 0 Are connected to audience members through interpersonal communication 0 Hold prestige and other kinds of in uence in the network of information transmission Chapter 9 Mass Communication Theories Part 2 Cultivation theory Gerbner The theory asserts that the media especially television in uence our view of reality too much TV makes you think that the world is a dangerous and frightening place quotCultivation differentialquot Heavy viewers are more likely to be in uenced by television viewing than are light viewers 0 Heavy viewing leads to mainstreaming homogenization of diverse perceptions of social reality or culture 0 Heavy viewers believe in a reality that is consistent with the one shown on television Mean world syndrome the belief that the world is a mean dangerous and frightening place which can instill in people a fear of violent crime despite the fact that very few people less than 1 are ever exposed to violence in their everyday lives The in uence of the media39s messages on perceptions of reality is intensi ed when what people see on television is what they see in life an ampli cation of the cultivation effect Resonance Agenda setting theory McCombs amp Shaw The media have the ability to tell us what issues are important The ability of the media to establish what is important or salient is agenda setting ls the creation of public awareness and salience of issuestopics by the news media ls the ability of the mass media to structure audience cognitions and to effect change among existing cognitions Agendasetting occurs because news outlets must be selective serving as gatekeepers of information in what they report Reporters and editors are gatekeepers who determine what information gets through from events to readers listeners and viewers Media can be powerful in in uencing the public agenda but it is not always so The power of the media depends on its credibility on particular issues at particular times Tabloid vs New York Times It depends too on the extent of shared values between media and public liberals with New York Times conservatives with Wall Street Journal The in uence of the media also depends on the public s need for guidance higher need more uncertain more susceptible to media agenda Agendasetting effects 0 m occurs when the public agenda remains intact with little in uence by the media Tax Health Education Media agendas are established by a Pressures from within media organizations gteg quotGatekeepersquot News editors Middle aged Caucasian males Media elite Spin doctorsmedia handlers Public relations professional Interest addredations Clusters of people who demand center stage for their one overriding concern Uses and Grati cations Rubin Katz Palmgreen Tan Focuses on what media usersaudiences do with media not what media messages do to audiences Assumptions Audience members actively seek out the mass media and content to satisfy their needs and expectations Aternate choices are available to gratify the needs or motives of the individual Needs Cognitive needs strengthening information knowledge and understanding of our environment Desire to know what is useful and gratifying b Affect needs strengthening aesthetic pleasurable and emotional experiences Desire to be entertained c Personal integrative needs strengthening credibility con dence stability and status of the individual Desire to understand selfefficacy and selfesteem d Social integrative needs strengthening contact with family friends and the world desire to t in or affiliation e Escapist needs escape tension release forget Desire to quotgetawayquot Two kinds of TV viewers A timeconsuming habitual information seeker watches TV for ritualized use a more frequent generalized user of TV who has high regard for TV uses TV primarily as a diversion Instrumental use exhibits a natural liking for a TV program or programs uses media content primarily for information is more selective and goaloriented when watching TV Three types of media activity a Preactivity a deliberate selection of certain media to gratify intellectual needs eg choice of newscasts b Durativity psychological attentiveness or involvement exhibited during a TV viewing experience eg trying to gure out the plot or ending of a dramatic program on TV for certain intellectual and emotional grati cation c Post activity attending to a mediated message after exposure to it because of perceived personal or interpersonal value eg seek out the information for small talk with friends about the messageinformation There are 4 lifestyles that characterize different types of media use a Disengaged homemaker primarily female middleaged lower in ed and income lowest in need for arousal stimulation did not use the media for informational purposes but for companionship and to pass the time ritualized media user Outgoing activists female somewhat young welleducated a good income less likely to be married highest in need for stimulation enjoy staying informed and were primarily printmedia users watch little amount of TV least grati ed by cable TV Restrained activists older highest ed female majority married relatively high income low need for sensation but high need for intellectual stimulation exhibit strong informational needs and viewed themselves as opinion leaders heavy users of both print media and TV primarily instrumental users Working class climbers primarily male lower in ed and income and middleaged mostly married somewhat male chauvinistic male from blue collar or low level white collar occupations ambitious and selfcon dent but not engaging in an activist lifestyle low in need for intellectual stimulation highest user ofTV and satisfaction with cable TV more ritualized than instrumental users Critical and cultural theories A brief comment Critically looks at the role that the media play in creating symbols and images that can oppress marginalized groups 0 Political textuality such as right left or feminist concerns how media producers encode messages and the way audiences decode them 0 Elites seek to create a hegemony a preferred way of thinking and acting that privileges them even to the disadvantage of the persons targeted eg Fox News Media are the instruments of the power elite the media39s messages are constructed and delivered with one goal in mind capitalism
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'