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Study Guide for Exam 1 Bio 110

by: Monica Weisenbach

Study Guide for Exam 1 Bio 110 BIO110

Marketplace > University of Massachusetts > Biology > BIO110 > Study Guide for Exam 1 Bio 110
Monica Weisenbach
GPA 3.819
Introductory Biology for Science Majors
Christiane Healey

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About this Document

This is a study guide for the upcoming Exam 1. It covers everything from the lectures and a bit from the discussions. Hope this helps!
Introductory Biology for Science Majors
Christiane Healey
Study Guide
Umass Amherst, amherst, bio 110, Study Guide, Exam 1
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monica Weisenbach on Saturday February 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO110 at University of Massachusetts taught by Christiane Healey in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 675 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for Science Majors in Biology at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 02/14/15
Study Guide for Exam 1 Basics What are the characteristics of living things DNA inheritance aka reproduction of some sort At least one cell Capability to respond to environmental stimuli reactions Capability to take and use material from the surrounding environment eating for example Ability to repairheal and grow Ability to evolve and adapt to surroundings on an individual or community basis behaviorally and physically think Galapagos finches Maintain homeostasis a constant environment in the body Scientific Method how do scientists accomplish anything Observation where your idea comes fromwhat you ve noticed Question what are you going to test Hypothesisieses what might be an explanation or occur in the experiment Prediction lfthen statement about what might happen and why ExperimentObservation do something a controlled experiment or a study period or something of the like to test out your prediction Result did what you predict happen Did you get a useful result If no try again Theory vs Hypothesis ln science a hypothesis is a guess while a theory has evidence to back it up Control The control can be used as a baseline to measure any changes when the variable isinUoduced The control can also be used to ensure that only one variable is being tested something has to make sure that the test itself isn t influencing results Color Vision As humans we have frichromatic vision which means we have three cone cell types Each is sensitive to a different set of wavelengths roughly red green and blue In the brain the signals are combined to create all the colors we see Cone cells which are photoreceptor cells which sit across the membrane have a protein called opsin The light waves hit the opsin which relays the signal to the cell which then relays that signal to the brain The signal of opsin is binary either on or off but the entire cell can transmit a weak or strong signal based on how many opsin are activated Opsin can be either Shortwave sensitive Mediumwave sensitive and Longwave sensitive creating the three types of cone cell The other type of photoreceptor cell is the rod Rods sense dark and light shade Membranes Outer Segment jlnner Segment ucleus Mitochondria Cells All organisms have at least one cell The most common organisms are the onecelled ones Multicellular creatures all develop from one cell that divides Human cells are diploid meaning having double the number of chromosomes Humans have 46 in total 2 copies of 23 chromosomes Some animals have more or less depending on the number of genes and if a chromosome has broken up Cells contain organelles which are membranebound parts of the cell analogous to organs in a human body only eukaryotic cells have them The membranes are made of a phospholipid biIayer which is hydrophobic water resistant inside and outside Fluid membraneFluid mosaic membranes can fuse and stick together easily Organelles float in the cytosol which is the liquid part of the cell Some important organelles are The nucleus This contains the DNA which is vital for all life functions At the center is the nucleolus which codes for ribosomes and the like Mitochondria the powerhouse of the cell Makes ATP which is an energy molecule Cytoskeleton long strands that give the cell shape and helps move stuff around Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum ER handles secretory and membrane proteins Smooth ER important in the production of lipids the detoxification of harmful substances calcium storage breaking down glycogen for fuel the exact function depends on the type and location of cell Golgi Apparatus or Body or Complex sorts and modifies lipids from the Smooth ER and proteins from the Rough ER before packaging them in vesicles and exporting them to destinations Vesicle membrane bubbles that transport stuff through the cell The Endomembrane System is the system of organelles with continuous membranes the nucleus both ERs and the Golgi Apparatus are part of this system Cells go through a process of dividing for reproduction maintenance of the body by replacing old cells and for growth and development The cell cycle has two phases the Mitotic Phase and lnterphase Mitotic Phase lasts about 10 of the time In mitosis the genetic material is divided up you may remember this vaguely from high school with all the different stages In cytokinesis the cytoplasm is divided and two daughter cells are born lnterphase lasts about 90 of the time Cell growth and differentiation occur in this phase If the cell is going to divide DNA is synthesized copied in the S phase After the DNA is synthesized the number of chromosomes in the cell is 98 M HT c There are 3 checkpoints in the cell cycle before division Checkpoint 1 Gt gtgtS Is the DNA undamaged and ready to be copied Checkpoint 2 G2ltltM Has the DNA been completely and accurately copied Checkpoint 3 Metaphase Anaphase Are the chromosomes attached to spindles at the equator of the cell If yes then good If no then the problem needs to be fixed or cell cycle will not con nue Most cells we can see do not divide but rather there are other cells that make them DNAProteins DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid while RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid James Watson and Francis Crick are credited with discovering DNA as they figured out the backbone and pairing system in their 1953 paper Less credit is given to Rosalind Franklin who took pictures of DNA that showed the spiraling structure and whose work was shown to and used by Watson and Crick by one of Franklin s colleagues without her consent Both DNA and RNA are formed by nucleotide building blocks Each nucleotide has a sugar and phosphate group that make up the backbone and a base that is capable of bonding to another base There are 4 bases for DNA adenine A guanine G cytosine C and thymine T C binds with G and A binds with T or with uracil U which is only present in RNA DNA is formed of antiparallel strands there s a 5 end and a 3 end and the strands are arranged so that the 5 end is matched with the 3 end A chromosome is a complete DNA molecule Humans have 23 different chromosomes and two of each making 46 in total Extra copies of chromosomes or lack of copies can have possibly detrimental effects ranging from the fetus not developing to Down s Syndrome 3 copies of chromosome 21 A gene is a stretch of DNA that encodes a protein Three DNA bases are a codon as they code for a specific amino acid although many amino acids have more than one codon The codon code is nearly universal among all living things Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and there 20 different ones The amino acids form peptide chains basically just a string of amino acids Proteins are made of lots of peptide chains twisted and wrapped together proteins have four levels of structure Some proteins are enzymes which catalyze reactions makes them easier To create a protein first the DNA must be read in a process called Transcription RNA polymerase begins reading at the piece of promoter DNA It reads through the bases until the terminator DNA creating a string of mRNA The mRNA which stands for messenger RNA leaves the nucleus through one of its pores and goes into the cytosol Once in the cytosol the proteintobe goes through the process of Translation A ribosome attaches to the mRNA At the start codon which is AUG the ribosome reads three codons at a time down the mRNA The reading frame is how the bases are read like which ones are read as a codon and this is defined by the start codon Note that AUG codes for methionine which is nearly always included in the pep de As it reads tRNA traveling RNA bring the correct amino acids and those amino acids get linked into a chain At the stop codon which is UAA UAG or UGA the amino acid string is released formed into a protein and released to do its job in the cell Insulin and other proteins that need to leave the cell take a slightly different path Insulin is a hormone involved in blood glucose regulation it prompts the uptake of glucose in the blood by cells it s paired with glucagon which prompts the release of glucose by the cells into the blood they are both released by beta cells in the pancreas A hormone is a protein that is created in one place and used in another Diabetes type 1 is a genetic lack of insulin while Diabetes type 2 is an acquired lack of sensitivity to insulin lnsulin goes through transcription normally Partway through translation the ribosome gets to a signal peptide which halts translation and attracts a SignalRecognition particle The SignalRecognition particle prompts the ribosome to fuse with the rough ER and finish translation by feeding the insulin protein into the rough ER The rough ER removes the signal peptide and does other chemical modifications The insulin protein then travels to the Golgi Apparatus in a vesicle The Golgi Apparatus sorts the insulin and puts it in another vesicle with enzymes The vesicle with the insulin proteins hangs out by the cell membrane until glucose comes into the cell and prompts the release of the insulin outside the cell A mutation is a permanent change in DNA that can have effects ranging from nothing to cancer amino acid chain DNA tRNA with 3 Protein gt s mRN codon Cancer Cancer occurs when a cell gets out of hand and starts replicating uncontrollably A tumor is a strange growth of cells that are dividing abnormally All it takes is one abnormal cell to grow a tumor There s a lot of variation in the time it takes a tumor to form Tumors form when some of the genes that control growth cell division and cell death aren t functioning properly or at all Protooncogenes are normal genes that when damaged or mutated can drive the formation of cancerous cells oncogenes are the genes that are driving the cancen A single mutation isn t enough to bring about cancer There are also environmental causes like radiation and chemical damage that can cause mutations and cancer The cells go through a few protocancer stages before being cancerous cells Benign tumors are tumors that cannot metastasize and can be treated easily Malignant tumors are capable of metastasizing which means they can invade other tissues and spread to different parts of the body p53 is an example of a geneprotein that plays a part in preventing cancer p53 is called a tumor suppressor gene because it can stop cancerous cells from forming by freezing cell division p53 is always made in the nucleus although it is usually exported and degraded If the DNA is damaged an enzyme sticks a phosphate group on p53 which stops it from leaving so levels of it build up High levels of p53 activate the genes that freeze the cell cycle and repair the DNA If the DNA is fixed cycle proceeds If it cannot be the cell undergoes cell death If p53 can t function correctly instances of DNA damage can slip past and be copied so having a functioning copy is fairly important however this alone won t cause cancer to develop BRCAf is another gene associated with cancer specifically beast cancer Recall if you will Angelina Jolie s decision to have a double mastectomy BRCAf is a geneprotein that deals with repairing damaged DNA and initiating cell death if the damage is unfixable lf BRCAf is nonfunctional more mutations can occur and if the mutations occur in a place where it affects genes of cell divisiongrowth or death cancer can result There are varying levels of risk associated with the BRCA1 gene because the place of mutation may mean there is less likely to be damage in protooncogenes


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