Exam #2 Study Guide
Exam #2 Study Guide 9081 - Introduction to American National Government
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savanah DeBrosse on Saturday February 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 9081 - Introduction to American National Government at University of Miami taught by Sylvia Thompson in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 150 views.
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Date Created: 02/14/15
Exam 2 Study Guide POL 201 Federalism 0 Unitary system central government has complete power over its units or states 0 Tends to be too strong at the national level 0 Federation government system where powers are shared with 2 or more levels of government and both governments are sovereign O 0 Most of the world doesn t have a federation Large territorially and regions have a lot of diversity religion ethnicity language and economic activity Not required for a democracy Advantages States wouldn t accept a unitary system because they would be giving up too much power People would have been afraid at the lack of power in the state government Disadvantages Laws at 2 different levels will conflict and precedent needed to be set Difficult for citizens to understand and thus it makes it difficult to hold government officials accountable Quality of life varies from state to state 0 US Constitution and Federalism O 0 Articles I IV Vl Article l8 says power of national level of government 29 powers listed ie to create armynavy regulate international and interstate commerce tax coin money declare war also referred to as enumerated powers Ends with statement that can make any laws that are necessary and proper to carry out their powers called implied powers Article l9 states powers that national government can t do 10 powers ie ex post facto suspend habeas corpus grant titles of nobility tax over state boarders appropriation of money can t stop slave trade before 1808 Article 110 state can t do 10 things 12 the national government can t do Interstate compacts agreements among states to cooperate on solving mutual problems Requires approval by congress Article 41 and 42 states must do for other states 41 full faith and credit clause each state has to recognize the laws records and court rulings of the other states Exam 2 Study Guide POL 201 Return of criminal upon request Recognition of marriage Horizontal federalism 0 Article 44 national government must do for the states Protect from invasion Assistance with domestic violence Maintain representative form of government 0 Article 6 state must do for national government State officials and national government must take oath to support the national government 0 Dual Federalism 0 An interpretation of federalism in which the states and the national government have separate jurisdictions and responsibilities Layercake government distinct nonoverlapping areas of responsibility between national and state 0 Implied Powers 0 Not mentioned in the constitution o Granted by Article 18 o Enumerated powers coin money regulate interstate and international commerce declare war etc o Impliedelastic clause laws necessary and proper to carry out their powers 0 McCulloch vs Maryland 1819 US vs Maryland Does elastic clause give implied powers Ruled yes utilized in 1930s during the Great Depression 0 Civil Rights Act of 1694 Bans discrimination Must be implied by one of the enumerated powersl interstate and international commerce Color race religion origin gender when hiringfiring or customers 0 Equal Pay Act of 1963 Can t discriminate with future employees or customers 0 Affordable Health Care act of 2010 Obama Care Commerce clause elastic clause tax clause elastic clause Individual mandate requires everyone to have health insurance or higher income tax Supreme court rules that mandate was unconstitutional cant use commerce on an individual Federalism Changed 0 Implied powers expanding abilities of the national government Exam 2 Study Guide POL 201 0 National government gives money to the state governments to get states to do things Federal Highway Act of 1956 0 To improve highway system had to make the drinking age at least 21 Block Grants grant in a certain area education that is general some Categorical Grants more specific grants with details pre school program for minority children come with lots of strings attached most I 14 of the money states have is from national grants Southeast relies on this money 0 Power of Judicial Review 0 Case comes into federal courts 0 Power to say if something is constitutional or not 0 Implied in constitution 1803 national law questioned 1810 state government sued 0 Brown vs Board of Education Topeka KS 1954 Ruled that schools can t segregate under the 14th amendment 1868 State government gives equal protection to its citizens when making laws 0 Article 6 Supremacy Clause US law is supreme law of the land if contradictory US over state treaty constitution Civil War 1861 1865 0 Northern and southern divide 0 North wanted stronger national government 0 Election of Abe Lincoln Republican Party National government could buy all slaves and free them Southern states feared his power SC voted to leave the US upon his election Others followed suit 11 states left to form the Confederate States of Americal CSA CSA had president bicameral legislature South quoted Locke social contract theory Lincoln believed that they could leave 0 Battle of Fort Sumner first conflict 4 years long 430 million fought Biggest disaster US had seen ripped US apart Exam 2 Study Guide POL 201 0 Issues Slavery was the spark Federalism wanted different things Nationalism southerners believed they felt differently than the Northerners Northern view of Federalism won the War Robert E Lee General from VA came from a well known southern family tied to Washington s family 0 Believed slavery was bad but still owned slaves 0 Didn t want war and didn t believe south should leave Commanded NVA army Loyalty for state over everything 0 After War North didn t kill or impression any of the generals Created atmosphere to end slavery Constitution amended 13th 14th 15th 0 Got 23 to propose of who was there but 34 after the war to approve Reconstruction Laws for the south 0 Had to get rid of their constitution If they had taken an oath and rebelled they could never hold office again Wrote new laws and had new elections 0 Had to pass amendments if they wanted full rights back Political Partv and Lables Group of people that agree on political issues as an organization that s main goal is to take control of government by electing their officials in order to pass their own agenda 0 Club like boyscouts Can t be illegal and anyone can start one 0 Not mentioned in the constitution 0 Elections are nonpartisan city council elections mayor can t mention political party 0 LEFT l Radical Liberal Moderate Conservative Reactionary RIGHT Related to change in their society 0 Left side want something new radicals want progressive change Conservative want status quo Exam 2 Study Guide POL 201 Reactionary retrogressive change go back to the way things were before How fast you want change outsides want fast change because they think conditions are unacceptable Techniques and tactics used far ends open to using violence to reach their goals Radicals are pacifists and reactionaries glorify violence Nazi Party Liberals and moderates operate with the law in order to achieve their goals Association with moderate conservative liberal radical in that order Not many people associate with reactionary even if they are 0 LEFT Classical Liberal Handout 2 Democratic Republican 1792 Jefferson and Madison Rapid progressively changing Religion out of government Egalitarianism important Government should be limited in everything States rights party Southern rural lesseducated people Became Democratic Party in 1828 when argued over slavery o Formed the southern party 0 Classical Conservative l RIGHT Federalists 1791 Hamilton and Adams Didn t want change Religion was important and believed in traditions Wanted government that was strong to teach morality and protect things from people Probusiness party Ended in 1816 Shifted to the Whigs 1854 0 Active in social and economic issues 0 Many similar beliefs to federalists Became Republican Party 1854 Lincoln 0 Came out and said that slavery should be abolished Reasons for Change 0 Great Depression 14 men out of work 9000 banks closed many foreclosures Kept expected economy to help itself By 1932 people lost hope 0 Presidential Election of 1932 Republicans Hoover incumbent Exam 2 Study Guide POL 201 Democrats FDR Roosevelt belonged to a different faction of the Democratic party Talked about different things the government could do not all D supported him 0 Favored having a national government that did more for the people 0 Social security 0 Regulated stock market 0 Federally insured banks 0 Welfare widows with children Influenced by Keynes give money to the people to manipulate the government FDR changed party from states rights due to the economy to growth for the national government 0 Modern Parties 0 Democrats Blue Donkeys More unified Accepting that people are generally good Less nationalistic Implied powers States more money for health transportation welfare Raising minimum wage Usually on the side of civil liberties and the bill of rights except for 2 and 10 0 Republicans Red Elephants Fighting internally due to arguments on social issues Small group wants to be more progressive Spends more on military Suspicious of human behavior Nationalistic Enumerated powers Law and order party longer prison sentences harder punishments ie the death penalty 0 Party Associations 0 Democrats 31 Minorities Jewish Hispanic Catholics Atheists Lower income Exam 2 Study Guide POL 201 People with post college graduate degrees only high school degree Women Single Younger people 0 Republicans 25 White anglo s Christians white Catholics Higher income 4 years of college Men Married Old people 0 lndependents NPA 42 Don t want to identify with either because they are fed up with parties or undecided Split about half and half between democrats and republicans Asked to lean 0 Third Party 2 Most are reactionary or radical A lot of third parties 0 Party Activists 0 Hold and go to political party meetings 0 Give party money 0 Actively campaign for a party 0 Not many in the US Most people just identify and align via their beliefs Voting Third Parties o Difficult to get elected o Platforms exists to raise awareness because they fit with peoples specific ideologies to express dissatisfaction with the dominant parties can influence elections With enough media coverage major parties will pick up on their ideas Tea Party o Not a third party faction of Republicans o Antitax socially conservative skeptical about big business oTwo Party System 0 Only get 2 people to vote for o Nothing in the constitution that says it s a two party system Exam 2 Study Guide POL 201 o Two parties are old and developed with more money members and well known names 0 State laws help the parties more than third parties Electoral College Ballot Access Laws 0 Individually done by each state and varies 0 State determines what you have to do to run in the state 0 General election Required percentage of vote in the last election Required percentage of registered voters who say they are affiliated with your party Get petitions signed 1 of all voters of 100000 signatures It is good to limit 0 Don t want too many options confusing oExpensive to print Single Member Voting Districts 0 One person who can win in that voting district o Each voting district creates two party system 0 People usually don t want to throw away their vote so they go for the more moderate parties D or R o Most countries have multimember voting districts 0 Duvergars Law third parties take away votes from the two main parties Direct Elections 0 Plurality Vote whoever has the highest percentage will win election o Doesn t have to be majority 50 Registering to Vote o Early on states were specific about who could 7 of population White male property owners Eventually got rid of property requirement Secret ballots Over time became more liberal about who could vote 15quot amendment all races can vote 19quot amendment woman can vote 24th amendment state poll taxes are not allowed 26th amendment 18 year olds made because if policies are being acted on people then they have the right to vote draft o Motor Voter Act of 1993 If you get grant money from the national government you must follow law Allows voters Exam 2 Study Guide POL 201 More people became registered voters but the voter percent didn t go up o In most states the books close before elections to register Only one place you can go to in order to vote Early voting allowed in some counties Turnout o Relatively low 0 Presidential usually around 50 midterm around 40 0390 o Age 1824 lowest 6574 highest o Income 14999 lowest150000 highest o Education less than 9th grade lowest advanced degrees highest o African Americans and whites vote more often than Asians and Hispanics o Caused by 2 party system No fine in the US No social stigma Voter efficacy Registration process in order to keep track of voters Elections oEligibility 0 House of Representatives 25 years old citizen for 7 years live in your district 0 Senate 30 years old citizen for 9 years resident of the state you want to respresent 0 President 35 years old natural born citizen or citizen when constitution was ratified lived in US for 14 years olncumbent o Wins because they have more money people may run unopposed because opponent is intimidating 0 Term Limits 22 d amendment makes it so president can only be in office for 2 years House and Senate have to work in mind of reelection because there is no term limit Congress wouldn t let no term limit be amended because they would be the ones to do it oModern Elections 0 Run mostly by candidates get less money from the parties which means they have to listen less to party leaders 0 Speech writes advisors etc are hired by candidate professionals Exam 2 Study Guide POL 201 o Direct elections counted by individual votes o Presidential elections Describe in Article 21 0 Indirect because there are too many people and at the time they didn t trust the everyday voter and wanted the elite to vote for elite Gave more power to the states 0 Didn t want president to campaign State electors equal the members of congress for each states and change every 10 years due to the census but granted at least 3 0 Can t be members of the congress or a member of the national government Assemble at state capitol 12th amendment gets rid of runner up VP and creates a distinct election for president and VP 0 President needs majority 270 if not house decides VP needs majority 270 if not the senate decides 23rOI amendment gives people in DC the right to vote granted 3 electors Process oPrimaries and Caucuses JanJune o1S P NH 1St Clowa Party National Convention Summer 0 Republican and Democratic Exam 2 Study Guide POL 201
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