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Study Guide for Test 3

by: Heidi Stephens

Study Guide for Test 3 MSCI 302

Heidi Stephens
GPA 3.6

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A summary of the past 3 powerpoints
Marine Biology
Dr. Abel
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heidi Stephens on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MSCI 302 at Coastal Carolina University taught by Dr. Abel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Marine Biology in Marine Science at Coastal Carolina University.

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Date Created: 04/18/16
Study Guide: Test 3 Chapter 6 end: Tetrapods I. four-legged; handful of air-breathing organisms that have returned to life in the sea II. hypoosmotic to sea water III.two groups are ectothermic— amphibians and reptiles IV. vertebrates— relative of coelacanth; moved to land 350 mya V. adaptations to breathing, movement, and desiccation VI. amphibians— only one A. highly permeable skin also takes in salt B. Southeast Asian crab-eating frog— lives in estuaries/mangroves C. tadpole— osmoregulates like a teleost (osteichtyes) D. adults— osmoregulate like an elasmobranch VII.reptiles— 7,000 species A. most adapted to living on land 1. scales for water loss prevention 2. leathery eggshell for water loss prevention 3. poikilotherms— body temp fluctuates with the environment (except for leather back because they are so large) 4. breed at sea a) internal fertilization— males use long tails and claws to grip b) females can store sperm; leads to multiple paternilization c) breed every 2-4 years with several clutches every breeding year (1)clutches= 120 eggs with incubation period of 60 days d) deposit eggs near dune line e) temperature dependent sex determination (1)pivotal temperature— generates 50/50 distribution (2)higher than pivotal= more females (3)lower than pivotal= more males B. Indo-Pacific Crocodile 1. latterally flattened tail 2. opens mouth underwater 3. salt glands- “crocodile tears” 4. largest can be 30 ft 5. not fully adapted to marine existence C. Marine Iguana 1. Galapagos Islands 2. 7 subspecies— close relative to land iguana 3. eat algae 4. “sneezing” = salt excretion 5. webbed feet with long claws 6. can submerge up to 15 meters or 30 minutes D. Sea Snakes 1. 55 species; only found in the Indian and Pacific Oceans 2. latterally flattened body with paddle-like tail 3. most are 3-4 feet as adults 4. evolved from land snakes a) cobra relatives— live birth at sea b) sea kraits— lay eggs on land Adaptations to Seawater I. Homeostasis-- constancy in the internal environment II. Enantiostasis-- constancy in the internal functions A. Things can change, but the functions are maintained III.How is metabolic rate measured? A. Amount of oxygen used or CO2 produced B. Ignores the contribution of anaerobic respiration IV. physiological processes arise through evolution V. Oxygen A. some environments are low oxygen— 1. low tide for intertidal animals 2. within sediment 3. oxygen minimum layers in water column 4. seasonal oxygen changes in estuaries: hypoxic zones, “dead zones” B. consumption rate increases in animals with more activity 1. weight-specific consumption decreases with over all weight increase 2. surface area to volume ratio C. in low oxygen, organisms can have blood pigments that increase capacity for transport D. respiratory organs 1. short pathways for oxygen to diffuse 2. extensive vascularization 3. lots of blood 4. large surface area 5. thin film of water for oxygen diffusion 6. surface area of gills is proportional to activity VI. Salinity A. Stenohaline-- organisms that live in a small range of salinities B. Euryhaline-- organisms that live in a wide range of salinities C. Internal environments of almost all invertebrates differ from their external environments in ionic and osmotic characteristics 1. This results in ionic and osmotic gradient D. Most invertebrates-- have equal concentrations of cell constituents to seawater 1. They don’t osmoregulate E. Freshwater bony fish 1. Internal salinity (osmolality) of 200-300 mOsm/kg 2. External salinity of 1-40 3. Water enters and solutes exit a) Excess water through urine b) Get more solutes through active uptake in gills and eating F. Saltwater bony fish 1. Osmolality of 300-500 2. External salinity of 1000 3. Solutes enter and water exits a) They drink 3-10 times as much water as freshwater fish b) Ions Na and Cl are eliminated in chloride cells in gills c) Diatomic ions are eliminated through kidneys G. Hagfish-- the only vertebrate that is isosmotic H. Fish moving between fresh- and saltwater 1. Fresh- to saltwater is harder because the salinity gradient is much larger I. Sharks and rays 1. Nearly isosmotic; slightly hyperosmotic 2. Little water movement, but still ion regulation a) Each ion moves independently of other ions b) About 500 ions are supplied from water c) The other 500 come from osmolytes urea and TMAO (1) Urea-- a waste product; highly soluble and uncharged (2) Costly to synthesize, easily lost because of its diffusibility (3) Poisonous in large quantities-- TMAO fixes that d) Rectal glands-- remove salt from blood J. What about freshwater sharks and rays? 1. They don’t produce as much urea; ex: bullshark a) But they need some of it for when they are in saltwater 2. The freshwater ray lost almost all of its urea because it is landlocked K. Marine reptiles and birds 1. Excrete through kidneys L. Temperature 1. Affects: metabolisms, enzymatic reactions, membrane properties, activity, growth, distribution, digestive rates, behavior, health 2. Ectothermic-- body temperature is a product of the external environment 3. Endothermic-- body temperature is determined by the metabolic furnace 4. Poikilothermic-- changing body temperature 5. Homeothermic-- consistent body temperature 6. Mammals, birds, some turtles, and two groups of fishes (Scombridae and Laminidae) are endotherms 7. Why are most aquatic animals ectotherms? a) Water has a high specific heat and high thermal conductivity b) 3000 times the capacity as air for absorbing heat 8. Endotherms a) Mammals-- blubber and hair/fur b) Birds-- feathers c) Fish-- counter-current heat exchange in gills, swim bladder, and heater organs d) Scombrid tuna and Lamnid sharks (1) Vessels close to skin surface (2) Run from warm core to outer vessels (cold) (3) Red muscle (a)For sustained activity (b)Cruising (c)Lots of blood present; myoglobin (d)Use oxidative metabolism (4) White muscle (a)Burst performance (b)Uses mostly glycogen (c)Respire anaerobically Chapter 7: Marine Mammals A. Mammals-- homeotherms and endotherms, viviparous, have mammary glands, hair/fur, and breathe air 1. 4600 species 2. Larger brain in relation to body size a) Relevance determined by which part of the brain is enlarged 3. Undertake enormous migrations 4. Four major groups: Cetaceans, Carnivora, Pinnipedia (suborder), and Sirenia 5. Carnivora-- 280 species a) Most are terrestrial b) Characterized by large canine teeth and sharp claws c) Sea otters (1) Thick fur-- 2 layers; densest of any mammal (2) 1,000,000 hairs per square inch; traps air (3) Smallest marine mammal (4) Endangered and population is declining (5) Approximately 2,200 individuals (6) Sexual maturity-- 5-6 years (7) Nurse for 6-8 months (8) Lifespan-- 10-15 years (9) All are in the eastern North Pacific Ocean d) Polar bears-- estimated 21,500-25,00 globally (1) 11 ft tall on hind legs (2) Translucent fur that reflects color of snow/ice (3) Sexually mature in 6-4 years; 8 months gestation with delayed implantation until the animal is healthy enough to carry the fetus (4) Birth 1-2 cubs a year; burse for 18-30 months (5) Only in the Arctic, but circumpolar (6) Need 4.4 lb of fat per day to maintain body weight e) Pinnipedia-- seals, sea lions, and walruses (1) “Feather footed”-- rear legs modified into flippers (2) Sea lions and fur seals-- eared seals; Otariidae (a) 15 species (b) External ears (c) Can rotate rear legs to walk on land (d) Elongated neck (e) Intelligent and playful (f) Live 15-25 years (g) Live in coastal, shallower waters (3) True seals-- Phocidae (a) 19 species (b) Short neck (c) Most in cold waters (d) Except monk seals in Hawaii (4) Walruses-- Odobenidae (a) One species and 2 subspecies (b) Can rotate hind flippers (c) Tusks are not gender specific (d) 15-16 month gestation; delayed implantation (e) 2 years nursing (f) Sexual maturity-- 8-15 years 6. Sirenia-- manatees a) 13 ft long, 3500 lb b) Endangered c) Few natural predators d) Slow birth rate e) Harmless and slow f) Herbivores 7. Cetacea a) Possess flippers, flukes, blowholes, and no hind legs b) Closest relative is the hippo c) Suborders (1) Odontoceti-- toothed whales (a) 71 SPECIES (b) Teeth adapted for grasping and tearing rather than chewing (c) One blowhole (d) Dolphins i) pointed snout ii) dorsal fin shaped like a cutting wave iii)pointed, cone-shaped teeth iv) up to 12 ft, longer and sleeker v) talkative and friendly, live in large groups vi) lifespan of 50+ years (e) porpoises i) short, blunt snout ii) dorsal fin is triangular and straight iii)fat, spade-shaped teeth iv) short and compact v) shy, pods of 2-4 vi) short lifespan— 15 years maximum (2) Mysticeti-- baleen whales (a) baleen= keratin (b) Two blowholes (c) Much larger than toothed whales B. Diving abilities 1. Apneustic breathing-- irregular breathing; several breaths at surface and then holding breath for long period of time 2. Hold oxygen in blood and muscles rather than lungs-- prevents ‘the bends’ 3. lungs remove 90% of oxygen from air 4. Marine mammal dive response a) Slow heart rate b) Vasoconstriction c) Reduce aerobic metabolism d) Rapid depletion of muscle O2 e) Lactate buildup in muscle f) Blood chemistry changes


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