GWSS/PSYCH 257 Exam 2 Study Guide
GWSS/PSYCH 257 Exam 2 Study Guide GWSS/PSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aaron Jin on Sunday February 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GWSS/PSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender at University of Washington taught by Ann Voorhies in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 359 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Gender in Women and Gender studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 02/15/15
GWSSPSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender Exam 2 Comprehensive Review 17 February 2015 Constructed by Aaron Jin I would also recommend looking at Practice Exam 2 for the answers to questions the answer to most of which are distributed throughout the guide I would also recommend looking at the flowcharts and crosswords posted by our TA Adelle Dinkelman on the Study Tools for Exam 2 Discussion board Garbacik Chapters 1 4 8 Chapter 1 quotThe Biology of Sex and Gender Remember the difference between sex physical attributes gender behavior and sexuality attraction Western tradition marginalized all but the binary gender which is far from typical in all cultures ntersex genitals do not require treatment but surgery does still happen often which are irreversible and potentially will not match child s identification when they grow up Louann Brizendine presents that all brains begin as female until testosterone kicks in about eight weeks after conception Hormones at different stages of woman s life relates to role at the time 0 Can brains be quotsexedquot9the differences do not have dramatic known consequences 99 of female and male DNA coding is the same 0 Testosterone and estrogen are necessary for the health of many other organs so it interesting that they are known as the sex hormones Overall differences between the sexes are negligible in terms of psychology personality ability etc 0 Difference is in the genderspecific expectations which conditions behavior and selfimage Myelinization is when fat covers the nerve fibers of neural connection causing brain to slowly harden and stop shifting as easily 0 Continues to grow through life especially between first and second decade and fourth and sixth decade Medical and science create truths which are reinforced and taken as truths by media and education eg drawing unfounded conclusions about abilities and capacities from biological differences Brain will work to suppress stereotypes concerning social gender association rather than focusing on the task at hand a mind under threat Chapter 4 quotModern Construction of Gender Roles Parenting and early social interaction plays a large role in determining the gender identity construction different treatment and expectations for children 0 Schoolaged children don t selfsegregate according to gender on own unless in the school yard or in presence of adults 0 Genderspecific teaching has no cognitive advantages but might reduce eliminate marginalization of girls or on other hand increase mutual stereotyping No Child Left Behind requires equal opportunity for both sexes but not uniformly enforced and requirements are vague Policy changecultura backlash against women gaining power o Society s applauding of masculinity also hurts men exhibiting feminine qualities Heteronormativity institutional privileging heterosexuality assumes binary system and allows for masculinity to be the superior entity Sax encourages feminine males to participate in masculine activities suggests that gender identity is malleable and that the gender typecasting is promoted 0 Class age nationality education religion and personal situation play as much and more of a role in determining behavior and selfimage Sex difference research that examines groups of men or women at work usually fail to take account position of the workers sex differences may be result of the position not the gender Double standard where women are promoted for exhibiting masculine traits but are chastised for it once in position of power Heteronormativity and archetypes promoted through film television magazines advertising 0 Frequent male archetypes action hero big shots strong silent man jock and joker Both gender inaccurately portrayed and women are underrepresented or less complex characters Both sexualized and given unrealistic expectations but men have more ways to achieve success Chapter 8 Transgender Contexts and Concerns Before scientific terms for transgender late 1800 s Richard von KrafftEbing established categories for activities of psychosexual disorders including homosexuality for gender deviation 0 Metamorphosis sexualis paranoiac was classification for those who identified as other gender and thought desire to change body was psychotic impulse o Magnus Hirschfeld and term transvestite in 1910 to describe people dressing of other gender also viewed as mental illness Many trans people came to Harry Benjamin reporting that they felt body was incorrect so he viewed their identity as something that had to be correctedcured Sexual reassignment attempted in Germany but first surgery and hormone therapy treatment was with Christine Jorgensen in 1920s and 30s helping to alter secondary sex characteristics Benjamin responsible for establishing set guidelines for transgender surgery and treatment but responsible for term Gender Identity Disorder GID in the American Psychiatric Association s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM 0 Made it safer for transgender people to get surgery but more difficult to qualify 0 Common requirement is Real Life Experience RLE or presenting self as other gender for at least one year which still upholds the gender binary Gender Identity Disorder appeared in DSM the year homosexuality removed Today health professionals starting to advocate that decision to alter body should lie with patient Dwight D Billings and Thomas Urban imply treating transgender people needs sexual reassignment surgery which implies the compulsory heteronormativity 1990 Leslie Feinberg popularized term transgender as umbrella term for community Some feminists thought transgender seeking body alterations were embodying masculine stereotypes but Sandy Stone rebuke and address need to abandon authenticity altogether 1990s Ale crisis fueling gay and lesbian activists together with trans activism questioning gender framework transgender studies started recognizing gender explicitly as another system like race Transgender identity different from orientation and attraction Trans scholars also challenge notion of wholeness of body and that sex represents the body 0 Trans also excluded from media except as humorous degradable characters Trans people discriminated against in work force denied necessary medical treatment in prison ignored when treated unfairly etc transphobia 0 Gender fluid and intersex people acknowledged in other countries long ago both positively and negatively f gender is fluid and capable of change then narrow definitions of sexuality almost meaningless Some of many people to know Richard von KrafftEbing one of first people to characterize sexual behaviors and started pathologizing certain medical behaviors Did not distinguish between homosexuality and transgender Magnus Hirschfeld coined term transvestite crossdresser and pathologized condition Distinguished between homosexuality and transgender Harry Benjamin coined term transsexual bettered the care and understanding of transsexuals but polarized transgender by making it harder to receive treatment Havelock Ellis studied homosexuality and described it scientifically and socially without pathologizing it Christin Jorgensen was the first to popularly go through sex reassignment surgery and receive hormone treatments Four assigned articles review hypothesis and methods general philosophy conclusions and specific terminology The Sexed Brain Between Science and Technology Hypothesis That biological determination does not play a large of a role in gender differentiation as is commonly believed as examined in cognition skills testosterone and moral cognition Methods Qualitative methods because author critically examines experiments measuring brain activity with MRI technology or observations of behavior Author provides limitations of experiments and research examined General philosophy Differences in brain size between men and women on intellectual capacity was popularized in the 19th century and although it has been outdated by the role of environment in shaping the brain the idea is still a widely spread belief Biological determinism and biological evolution is attributed to many aspects of human life that it should not be used for Conclusions Brain does have a gender because it controls reproductive functions but diversity in cognitive functions is independent of sex and more strongly influenced by life experience The variation in location of brain zones used for same tasks is attributed to idea theory that cognition is dependent more on the individual than the sex as a whole Biological differences are likely the result of manifest inequalities but are not biologically determined Brain differences are also not statistically meaningful and are usually eliminated when including larger sample size Specific terminology o Cerebral plasticity ability of the brain to shape itself according to life experience 0 Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI used to measure brain activity in snapshot Gender identity A multidimensional analysis with implications for psychosocial adjustment Hypothesis To measure the effects of three components of gender identity on the adjustment and compatibility of preadolescent children in their social situations Methods Quantitative because there are tests that result in numerical results that are charted and analyzed Measured children s sense of psychological compatibility with gender category urge to engage in gendercongruent conduct and intergroup bias General philosophy Within sex differences are likely to be distributed along a continuum rather than in categories Gender compatibility is supposed to be relatively stable over a long period of time Preadolescent s gender compatibility likely strongly related to children s tendencies to exhibit traits in segregated peer interactions and emergence as sexual being Conclusions Gender identity is multidimensional measured in typification of gender category contentedness with gender assignment freedom to explore crosssex options and superiority of own sex to other Possibility that communal traits stems from gender typicality and not other way around exhibiting behaviors comes from attachment to samesex group Intergroup bias detrimental to peer relations especially social competence and acceptance from male students Negative effect of felt pressure for adjustment more evident in girls than boys Importance of using multiple indexes of adjustment when measuring the impact of gender identity Specific terminology 0 Gender schematic consistent with one gender associated with one sex and not the other 0 Index of adjustment guidelines and areas evaluated to determine adjustment to gender quotRethinking Gender Hypothesis Questioning what makes a person male or female Methods More of a general article than a research paper so no research methods General philosophy gender may be viewed largely as social construct or as interplay between biology genes hormone or culture but masculinity and femininity always changing Also issue with gender in sports male athlete s trying to pass as female women taking testosterone to gain unfair advantage etc Gender dichotomy has roots in Christianity Genesis and people often use Bible in opposition to transgender stance Conclusions Five times as many guys as girls say gender incongruent with biology as children and only 15 continue to have related problems into adulthood Easier for girls to engage in masculine behaviors and blend in as tomboys Male boy s brain experiences hormone surge during first few months Specific terminology 0 Smith College now a quotmostly women s college because of increasing number of men who transition during enrollment quotQueer Diagnoses Parallels and Contrasts in the History of Homosexuality Gender Variance and the DSM I would recommend reading this one because it was difficult to summarize to only a couple paragraphs due to its length Hypothesis Examine Gender Identity Disorder GID binary gender formulation history of how term came to DSM and comparison to psychiatric and medical thinking to recommend changes in DSMV and actions American Psychiatric Association should take Methods Qualitative methods examination of terms in specific cases General philosophy Incorrect to label gender variance as a mental disorder but deletion could lead to health care providers denying care for transgender adults Fear that retention of GID diagnoses would lead to the reinstatement of homosexuality in DSM and the clinical efforts with gender variant children to accept natal sex misguided and unethical reparative therapy Religion play strong role in pathologization of gender and sexuality variants Some activists prefer psychiatrists not meddle in decision to SRS but psychiatric diagnosis needed to justify medical necessity Conclusions Psychiatric disorders characterized by dysfunction and distress which in the case of homosexuality and transgendered people is usually caused by social reaction Stigmatization of transgender discourages members from seeking medical attention to avoid label of medical condition and reinforces alienation of transgender community Treatment of GID in children and adolescents much more controversial than that of GID in adults Specific terminology o APA American Psychiatric Association 0 DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual New stereotypes presented in current western culture particularly via media sources Related Readings PP 4 Gender Stereotypes PP 5 Gender in culture and media Gender stereotypes give instructions for how to perform gender to do gender 0 Adhering to the stereotypes helps instate institutional heteronormativity Double standard for women virgin and whore o Preach the virgin but expectations lie in whore Images representing female sexual empowermentliberation desiring midriff vengeful woman and hot lesbian Also the unattainable superwoman stereotype o Stereotype threat the fear that your actions will confirm an often negative stereotype about your social category which hinders your performance 0 Adherence to one set of gender roles maintains gender divisions and inequality 0 People tend to exempt themselves from rigid stereotypes about themselves Masculinity manifested in extreme homophobia creation of outgroups and selfdeprecating humor think about effects on gay man and women 0 Homophobia is actually fear of being perceived as gaynot masculine fear of humiliation New male roles only when traditional masculinity maintained ordinary guy rebel and new man 0 Also real man and the buffoon Roles pander to gratify highly stereotyped viewer New ads challenge with new extremes strongly sexist ads men in nontraditional roles etc Male stereotypes persist to protect tradition of masculinity maintain illusion of era with bygone ideal of success and maintain maledominated social divisions Specific ways that advertising and other forms of media influence female and male gender roles expectations of others and perceptions of normal behavior RR PP 5 Gender in culture and media articles Gendered media Skirt chasers and Nothing queer about queer television Media perpetuates certain images of men women and us simply through the presentation and repetition We live in a mediasaturated world and it is present in nearly all aspects of our lives Exalt certain representations and stereotypes until they are normalized and the normal is pathologized even though they are unrealistic depictions of reality Bias in news coverage affects what stories are featured and told how issues are represented the language used eg action words and power words for boytargeted advertisement and lack of for girls and how men and women portrayed similar to how bias affects scientific processes 0 When queer possibilities are presented for the sake of humor it does not challenge the existing gender stereotypes and trivializes the issues and concerns of those possibilities Repeated vivid images and messages are familiarized and become social norm 0 Female orgasm depends on stimulation of clitoris Fear of isolation helps instate the norm in behavior and action resulting in cognitive dissonance and manifestation of behavior Unquestioning consumers accept whatever offered without critical evaluation Define hegemony and describe how it is maintainedchallenged by research stereotypes media and the roles that we as quotreal people play RR PP 5 quotGender in culture and media Garbacik Ch 8 articles quotGendered media quotSkirt chasers quotNothing queer about queer television Hegemony can be defined as the dominance of one social group and its values over the others in a system In the current culture heterosexuality is the hegemony and the portrayal of other genders and sexualities must be compatible with traditional heterosexual values and expectations 0 Instead of challenging the hegemony other groups portrayed in a manner that adhered to the boundaries of the current hegemony o Masculinity hegemony often results in the objectification and stereotyping of women and minorities in media for humorous effect instead of focusing on their values Homosexual relationship either secondary to or compliant with heterosexual relationships and the values typically associated with the homosexual movement such as the eroticism and sexual tensions were played off as jokes 0 Gay and lesbian teens entering first sexual relationships likely to follow heterosexual script Transgender also excluded from representation except as quothumorous characters meant to be degraded such as the quotdeceptive transsexual and the quotpathetic transsexual They are portrayed as trying to trick others or negatively received by the other characters 0 Transgender always portrayed maletofemale MTF and always portrayed in transitionfeminization which serves to invalidate their identity as females and preserves the notion of binary gender Related is how femaletomale is not as heavily focused because it agrees with the unspoken assumption that everyone wants to be a man Transgender people experience more discrimination in enforcement of legislation institutional benefits and violence in education transphobia Sex development typical and intersex development Know the details of the 5 distinct stages RR PP 6 Sexual Development 5 distinct stages chromosomes gonads internal reproductive organs external genitalia and brain differentiation Stage 1 Chromosomal humans typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes one of which are for sex determination XX girls and XY boys Atypical could be only one sex chromosome XO Turner s syndrome Identified as female at birth but no ovaries or secondary sex development I Usually opt for chemicallyinduced puberty for psychosocial reasons Another is more than two XXY Klinefelter s syndrome Identified as male at birth but reduced gonad functionality and fertility Has Y will have testes Stage 2 Gonadal Gonads are glands that produce gametes ova and sperm and sex hormones O O A result of the hypothalamus releasing gonadotropinreleasing hormone At week 7 if Ychromosome functional then undifferentiated gonads testes which secrete androgen and MIH Mullerianinhibiting hormone If Ychromosome not present and two X are undifferentiated gonads ovaries which secrete estrogen and progesterone Atypical would be Ovotesticular Disorder of Sexual Development OTDSD which would be one ovary and one teste per side OR gonads are semifunctional in both roles Stage 3 Internal Reproductive Organs the quottubesquot conveying gametes to outside world 0 00000 Both Wolffian and Mullerian ducts present If androgen Wolffian ducts masculinized epididymis vas deferens seminal vescicles If no androgen Wolffian ducts recede If MIH Mullerian ducts recede If no MIH Mullerian ducts feminize fimbria fallopian tubes uterus upper vagina Atypical would be Androgen nsensitivity Syndrome testes but lack of androgen receptors Wolffian ducts will not masculinize Another is Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome testes and typical male internal reproductive organs but no MIH Mullerian ducts still feminize Stage 4 External Genitalia XX and XY individuals both have genital tubercles labioscrotal swelling and urogenital fold until 9 weeks postconception O O 0 External masculinized by androgentestosterone Depending on whether or not gonads secreting androgen genital tubercle penis or clitoris labioscrotal swelling scrotum or labia majora urogenital fold urethrea or labia minor and urethra Atypical would be Androgen nsensitivity Syndrome no male internal reproductive organs stage 3 and external genitalia feminized Congenital adrenal hyperplasia XX chromosomes usually typical female internal reproductive organs but adrenal glands overproduce androgen masculinization of external genitalia Stage 5 Brain development influenced by prenatal hormone exposure and genetic differences 0 O Androgenlack of results in the masculinizationfeminization of neural circuits Evidence of correlation between androgen exposure and orientation towards females I Prenatal hormone exposure may predispose people towards gendered behaviors but only has correlation and not proven I Important to note that does not account for environment developmental factors and personal identity Sexual developmentmaturation during puberty Sexual maturation begins when hypothalamus begins to secrete gonadotropinreleasing hormone GnRH which stimulations anterior pituary to release gonadotropic hormones hence the name 0 Gonadotropic hormones stimulate gonads to release sex hormones Ovaries release estradiol and bit of androgen testes vice versa 0 Puberty begins when hypothalamus begins to secrete gonadotropinreleasing hormone Primary sex characteristics result in fertility central to reproduction o Genitals grow to full size for females uterus grows vaginal lining thickens for males testes penis and scrotum enlarge 0 Gamete production begins ovulation and spermache Sequence of change same for all females and all males timing variable about six years 0 Girls start puberty about 2 years earlier than boys 0 Menarche begins when females reach 17 body fat very constantly I Genes do not affect hormones but genes do affect body fat storage which affects the menarche first appearance of menstruation o Males slower to reach puberty likely due to lower body fat I Typically AfricanAmericans hit puberty first then white then AsianAmericans last 0 Stress levels increase hormone production stimulate puberty and causes irregularities in cycle in females and presumably also in males I Hypothesis is that body feels threatened and therefore pressured to reproduce before dying Q Are testes internal reproductive organs NO testes are gonads Internal reproductive organs are only tubes Hormones often blamed for the negative emotions associated with puberty but it actually has little direct effect on emotional state Physical effects caused by puberty lead to social experiences that do affect emotional state such as change in expectations from adults and peers and unwanted attention especially in the case of females and earlydevelopment males Testosterone does correlate with impulsivity and sexual thoughts and behaviors as apparent in aggression in adolescents vs aggression in adults 0 Testosterone correlates with impulsiveaggressive behaviors and sexual thoughts and behaviors Cyclic fluctuations in hormones are associated with minor mood shifts in estradiol but actually strongly correlate with happiness positivity and sociability strengthen reproductive chance 0 Why do people believe that PMS is debilitating 9Women selfreport having a bad mood during PMS afterwards even though data reports disagree Societal standards and expectations condition people to think so because how are people supposed to know how they felt one week ago let alone three months ago Theories on gender role development RR PP 7 Gender Development 0 The following theories are based on the Oedipus or Oedipal complex which states that children is naturally attracted to opposite parent and overcomes this discomfort by taking on the roles of same sex parent 0 Chodorow s theory of development explores Freudian model and formulates that female desire for men due to stronger desire for mother identifying with mother is easier for girls than boys Ellyn Kaschak women who do not resolve Antigone complex more likely to define selves in terms of men s vision of them and is overcome by viewing themselves in terms of own needs and desires Psychoanalytical theory gender identity and role develop out of early childhood conflicts the tension and trauma that comes from attraction to the opposite sex parent 0 O O 0 Major flaw of all the theories assume all children go through the same complexes during early childhood and there is no evidence for this only Freud s idea Also children who grow up without samesex parent Also overlook social learning and cultural norms Not scientifically strong but historically dominant Social learning theory learned through the observation of behaviors and their outcomes in social environment and media Albert Bandura O O O Tend to follow those looked to the most powerful and those with same gender identities Doesn t take into account gender nonconforming behaviors and they are not affirmed Drawback very heteronormative and assumes all going along with either masculinity or femininity Cognitive development theory Cognitive thinking develops along with gender identity 0 0 Around age 2 or 3 children have a sense of gender identity and begin to adopt the related gender roles and behaviors I Overlooks gender nonconforming behavior but does acknowledge that children determine gender identity early on which may allow of nonconforming behavior However does not really give origin for gender identities Gender schema theory Sandra Bem develop framework for organizing gender identities I Schema is basically an organization for our thoughts Toward school age children begin to solidify the notion of gender constancy Middle childhood children very rigid in gender expectations Categorize conform enact and enforce gender stereotypes through social correction Early adolescence is when people tend to believe that everyone is watching them false but powerful which can be reflected in most strict conformity to enacting rigid gender roles End of adolescence become more flexible but most flexible is middlelater adult life Q Which of the following is true A Children segregate by gender thoroughly in the presence of adults B The majority of female children will always choose dolls over toys C Bullying is one force that maintains gender segregation among children D The majority of male children prefers dolls over other toys but learn not to choose them for play The answer is C bullying is a form of social regulation and enforcement of gender roles Influences on gender development RR PP 7 Gender Development 4 main influences biology social factors family and media Biology prenatal hormone exposure does affect brain development how is unsure O Androgen associated with some maletypical behaviors related to reproduction data generally comes from animal research but humans are incredibly diverse and varied 0 However gender identity is a subjective experience so cannot be examined in animals I Females with CAH congenital adrenal hyperplasia in prenatal development experienced a lot of androgen but typically identify as female so more androgen exposure does not necessary equate to male identity I Males reassigned to female during infancy some perfectly fine while others do constantly feel male e doesn t really tell much we don t know much other than that prenatal hormone exposure has almost no influence on gender identity I Can t really experiment with prenatal hormone development for science Social Factors teach individuals what behaviors are acceptable enforce them and punish those that deviate from them 0 All social messages about gender roles impact person s selfimpact I How to do gender quotrightquot and wrong eg cooties gendered phrases quotboys do this girls do that binary system for sex gender and orientation I Female and male children treated differently females children spoken to more males encouraged to do physical activities I Female acceptance based on submissiveness can have acceptance or power but not both I Male acceptance and masculinity based on dominance I Conformity rewarded and deviation punished Q TF Children whose parents raise them without gendered expectations of behavior will grow up without the influence of gender stereotypes False because parents have assumed gender roles themselves Gender stereotypes are also perpetuated and reinforced by social world outside of family Family the primary environmental source for gender beliefs attitudes and roles 0 Parents instill ideas through modeling behaviors different treatment of sons and daughters different opportunities encouraged and different extent of parental monitoring 0 Parents and siblings equally influential in developing traditional gender roles o Siblings also influence gender roles through enactment and distribution of gender roles I Mixedgender siblings more traditional roles I Samegenderfewer siblings greater gender role flexibility unless all boys oldest will usually be strictest enacting male gender roles 0 Family structure ethnicity and culture also influence gender roles I From most traditional to most flexible Mexican American Asian American Korean Japanese Chinese White American African American Southeast Asian American singlemother and lesbianmother families Peers strongly enforce gender roles bullying and exclusion as a means of social regulation 0 Formal education adult supervision and bullying contribute to gender segregation and inflexibility of gender roles during childhood and early adolescence I Which gender has stricter expectations and punishments Boys 0 Relaxes during late adolescence and adulthood which reflects cognitive thought rigid thought early flexible thought later can choose people whom you identify with and support your gender roles and leave people who do not Q Which of the following does not influence gender identity and behaviors A number of siblings B parental behavior C ethnicity D birth order E none of the above A E none of the above Media conveys what is attractive and acceptable for each gender through stereotyped messages I Imagebased messages towards females violence and sexbased towards males 0 Cultivation theory is when person pulls ideas from fantasy and takes it as reality leads to unrealistic expectations destructive behaviors and disappointment I Children especially have most difficulty differentiating between fantasy and reality 0 Media has become especially gendered for children and youth 0 Gender bias found in television advertising movies and video games I Greater male representation and strongly stereotyped gender roles 0 Advertising sends stronger and more vivid messages I Very strong stereotyping especially recently with children s advertising Role of context in gender behavior I m assuming context means context in terms of age Context in terms of outside influences is found in the previous section and historical treatment is found in the later sections RR PP 75 Transgender Notes Gender expression and identity in childhood 0 Most children express some gender variant behavior but develop cisgender identity 0 Some children strongly prefer gender variant behaviors and identify as transgender o Risks of gender deviation social problems abuse at school home etc PTSD Transgender identity during puberty 0 Prior to puberty hormone antagonists may be used to suppress pubertal development of primary and secondary sex characteristics I Tackle the hypothalamus to stop the gonads from releasing sex hormones I Not a permanent solution temporarily makes time for deciding about body altering hormonal treatments 0 During adolescence psychosocial experience of development crosssex hormones may be used to induce the secondary sex characteristics of gender identity I Used to be belief that transsexual is medical condition and all people need surgery I If person desires to develop body in way congruent with gender this is option I When altering body have to think about what characteristics want to change and how to change it o If persona identifies as female we will know the gender roles enacted Gender dysphoria and Gender identity disorder RR PP 75 Transgender Notes Garbacik Ch 8 n 1960s Harry Benjamin created guidelines to ensure humane treatment and wellbeing but also limited candidacy for sex reassignment surgery SRS o Responsible for the term quotGender Identity Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM9one diagnosed considered ill unstable and in need of treatment 0 Implication that normal is the opposite of GID which is not differentiated from gender nonconformity GID changed to quotGender Dysphoria in DSMV 1980 offering separate diagnoses for transgender children adolescents and adults and definition changed to incongruence between expressed gender and assigned gender 0 DSM still a manual for diagnosing mental health concerns so insurance providers can only provide treatment for clinically diagnosed GID not healthy trans person The decision is personal but often politicizedpathologized in social realm o Expectation that transgender people wish to be heterosexual reflecting the heteronormative status quo Diagnostic criteria possible treatments RR PP 75 Transgender Notes Garbacik Ch 8 Sex reassignment surgery SRS is changing one s biological sex identity and may involve hormone therapy alone 0 Hormones cannot erase the puberty you ve gone through already if adult 0 Adolescents and children need gonadal suppressing hormones while delivering other hormones o Mastectomy or breast constructionaugmentation oophorectomy removal of ovaries and hysterectomy removal of uterus or orchidectomy removal of orchidstestes and genital reconstruction Requirement for clearance for SRS is one year of Real Life Experience RLE presenting oneself as the other gender for at least one year which still supports the gender binary 0 Sex reassignment treatments used to typically require approval from psychotherapist and determined by the psychotherapist or counselor Today many health professionals endorse decisions of trans people to alter body or hormones or to change gender without medical treatment Surveys and case studies typically show that mental health concerns comes not from gender identity but from the societal reactions and institutional treatment General Criteria for disordered behavior RR PP 75 Transgender Notes Disordered behaviors must deviate from social norms be distressful for yourself or others and cause dysfunction in person s ability to perform 0 All these criteria are socially and culturally formed Gender variant behaviors do deviate from current Western social norms and are typically only distressful because of the response from others 0 However some individuals are troubled by genderanatomy incongruence 0 Different social perceptions of gender expression do create different spaces at varying levels of safety for those outside of gender norms and some are very happy
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