Study Guide 3: Chapters 12-16
Study Guide 3: Chapters 12-16 Psych 1010
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Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Study Guide: Chapters 1216 Chapter 12: Emotions, Stress, and Health Emotions – response of the entire organism including physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience JamesLange Theory – theory that experience of emotion is the awareness of physiological responses to emotionarousing stimuli CannonBard Theory – theory that emotionarousing stimulus triggers simultaneously physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion Two Factor Theory – theory that to experience emotion one has to be physically aroused and cognitively label that arousal (SchachterSinger) o Spillover Effect – emotions carry over into other events Study in 1962 injected men with epinephrine, which triggers arousal, and made them sit in a room with a confederate that as either acting agitated or euphoric Men tended to identify with the emotions of the person and interpreted the emotions of the other person to be spilled over Arousal fuels emotion, cognition channels it Emotions follow two different brain pathways o High Road – responses go through the thalamus to the brain cortex to be analyzed before sent out via the amygdala o Low Road – responses skip the cortex and go directly from the thalamus to the amygdala One study showed people have amygdala response to certain images that are flashed quickly without being aware of the image or their reaction Theory Explanation of Emotions Example JamesLange Emotions arise from our We observe heart racing after awareness of our specific a threat and then feel afraid bodily responses to emotion arousing stimuli CannonBard Emotion arousing stimuli Heart races at the same time trigger our bodily responses we feel afraid and simultaneous subjective experience SchachterSinger Our experience of emotion Interpret our arousal as fear depends on two factors: or excitement depending on general arousal and conscious the context cognitive label Zajonc; LeDoux Some emotional responses Automatically feel startled by Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts happen instantly without a sound in the forest before conscious appraisal labeling it as a threat Lazarus Cognitive appraisal The sound is “just the wind” sometimes without our awareness defines emotion In crisis, the sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system mobilizes the body for action When crisis passes, parasympathetic division calms the body as stress hormones leave the blood stream Emotions activate different areas of the brain’s cortex o Left hemisphere activates with positive emotions, right frontal lobe activates with negative emotions The brain can detect subtle expressions yet finds it difficult to perceive deceiving expressions Women are more likely to show empathy and describe themselves as sympathetic o Women show much more emotion when watching different types of movies Paul Ekman studied isolated people in New Guinea and their facial expressions in response to certain statements o American college students could identify their emotions Facial expressions are universal Cultures differ in how much emotion they express o Cultural differences exist within nations Facial Feedback Effect – tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger, or happiness o Forced expressions influence how we feel Behavior Feedback Effect – tendency of behavior to influence our own and others’ thoughts, feelings, and actions Izard suggested there are 10 basic emotions that combine to form other emotions Anger is caused by other people or small annoyances Chronic hostility is linked to heart disease o Anger leads to higher heart rate, sweating, rises in testosterone, and blood flow to the brain Individualist cultures encourage people to vent o Groups see anger as a threat to harmony Catharsis – in psychology, the emotional release of aggression or the theory that releasing aggressive energy through action or fantasy relieves aggressive urges o This is a myth, expressing anger breeds more anger The best ways to manage anger are o To wait o To find a healthy distraction or support o To distance yourself Happiness leads to more life success Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Better decision maker, more cooperative, healthier, more tolerant, social FeelGood, DoGood Phenomenon – people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood o DoGood, FeelGood Phenomenon Positive Psychology – scientific study of human flourishing with the goal of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive Subjective WellBeing – selfperceived happiness with life used with measures of objective wellbeing to evaluate quality of life Individuals in rich countries experience greater wellbeing Economic growth in affluent countries has provided no apparent boost to morale or social wellbeing AdaptationLevel Phenomenon – our tendency to form judgments relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience Relative Deprivation – the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself Happy people tend to o Have high selfesteem o Be optimistic and agreeable o Have close friendships o Have work that engages skills o Have religious faith o Sleep well and exercise Happiness is not related to o Age o Gender o Physical attractiveness Stress – process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging o Stressor – a situation we view as challenging o Appraisal – deciding if it is a stressor o Stressor leads to appraisal leads to response leads to coping Stressors o Catastrophes on a large scale o Significant life changes and transitions o Daily hassles o Low social status and power General Adaptation Syndrome – the concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three phases, alarm, resistance, and exhaustion (Selye) o Alarm Reaction – the sympathetic nervous system is activated o Resistance – hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol) and the full body engage to meet the challenge (fight or flight) o Exhaustion – vulnerable to illness Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Prolonged stress damages the body Tend and Befriend – under stress, people provide support to others and bond to seek support from others o More frequent with women Health Psychology – contribution to behavioral medicine Psychoneuroimmunology – study new psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together and how they affect immune system and health o Stress creates energy need and leads to a lower ability to resist infections Coronary Heart Disease – clogging of vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries Type A – competitive, harddriving, impatient, verbally aggressive, angerprone people Type B – easygoing, relaxed people Coping – alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods ProblemFocused Coping – alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with it EmotionFocused Coping – avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to stress reactions Learned Helplessness – hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events o Study done in which an executive rat turned off shocks and a subordinate could not, the subordinate rat had more health problems Those of higher status feel more control o Optimistic people have more control and cope with stress better External Locus of Control – the perception that chance and outside forces determine our fate o Less motivation to achieve and more anxious Internal Locus of Control – we control our own fate or free will o Achieve more, cope better, less depression o Locus – place SelfControl – control impulses and delay short term gratification for greater longterm rewards o Uses brain energy o Can be improved with practice o Has individual differences o Marshmallow study in which children were tested on if they could wait to eat the marshmallow in front of them Kids that resisted eating the marshmallow had more success in school and socially Aerobic Exercise – sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness and helps to alleviate depression and anxiety o Reduces heart disease, cognitive decline, early death o Improves the management of stress Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Relaxation can speed healing o Lifestyle modification – control diet, medication, and exercise for survivors of heart attack Meditation can reduce suffering and improve awareness, insight, and compassion Religiously active people tend to live longer Chapter 13: Social Psychology Social Psychology – the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another Attribution Theory – explain behavior by crediting either situation or person’s disposition (Helder) o Attribution – a conclusion about the cause of an event Fundamental Attribution Error – the tendency for observers, when analyzing others’ behaviors, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition When we explain our own behavior, we are sensitive to situation o Attribute good actions to our own good reasons Attitudes – feelings, often influenced by beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events Persuasion efforts take two forms o Peripheral Route Persuasion – occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues such as a speaker’s attractiveness o Central Route Persuasion – occurs when people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts FootintheDoor Phenomenon – tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request o Adjust attitudes to actions o Doing becomes believing Role – set of expectations in social position defining how one ought to behave o Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment – people took on the roles of either a prison guard or a prisoner and led them to act accordingly The guards were violent and mean toward the prisoners and the prisoners acted subordinate Even when pretending a role, we tend to adopt the attitudes and become the roles Cognitive Dissonance Theory – act to reduce discomfort and dissonance we feel when two of our thoughts and cognitions are inconsistent (Festinger) o Actions and attitudes clash so, to resolve this, we change our attitudes to fit our actions Conformity – adjust behavior and thinking to coincide with a group standard o Asch Line Experiment – college students were asked to pick a certain line out of the group and many answered wrongly when confederates answered wrongly Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts 1/3 of people will agree with obvious mistruths to go along with the group People are more likely to conform when they o Feel incompetent and insecure o Are in a group of at least three people (medium sized) o Are in a group where everyone agrees (unanimous) o Admire the group’s status o Have not already committed to a response or belief o Know others are observing o Are from a culture that encourages respect for social standards Normative Social Influence – influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval and avoid disapproval Informational Social Influence – influence resulting from willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality Milgram’s Shock Experiment – the participant or “teacher” gives increasing shocks to a confederate “student” for every wrong answer they give o While the teacher was egged on by the experimenter, the confederate screams in pain o More than 60% complied with the shocks until the final volt Obedience was highest in the experiment when o Person giving orders was close and had authority o Authority figure supported by prestigious institution o Victim was distant and depersonalized o No role models for defiance Social Facilitation – improved performance in simple or welllearned tasks in the presence of others o What we do well we do better with an audience while what one finds difficult is more difficult when being watched Social Loafing – the tendency when in a group to exert less effort when trying to attain a common goal than when one is individually accountable Causes of social loafing o Less accountability o Individual contributions are expendable o Free ride on others’ efforts Deindividuation – the loss of selfawareness or selfrestraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity Group Polarization – the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group Groupthink – a mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives Minority Influence – the power to sway majorities Prejudice – unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Generally involved stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and predisposition to discriminatory action 1. Stereotypes – generalized belief about a group of people 2. Emotions 3. Predispositions to act/discriminate Discrimination – unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members JustWorld Phenomenon – the tendency for people to believe the world is just and people get what they deserve and deserve what they get o Social Inequality – groups have fewer opportunities and resources than others Social identities lead to contrast with other groups o Ingroup – “us” or the people with whom we share a common identity o Outgroup – “them” which is different and apart from the ingroup o Ingroup Bias – the tendency to favor your own group Scapegoat Theory – prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame Vivid cases are more readily available to memory and feed stereotypes o Availability Heuristic – stereotypes are built on vivid cases over statistics Thinking habits that reinforce bias lead to o Confirmation Bias – we don’t look for counters to our stereotypes Aggression – any act intended to harm someone physically or emotionally Genetics influence aggression Neural systems either inhibit or facilitate aggression o Damage to the frontal lobes increase aggression o Amygdala is stimulated Hormonal changes o More testosterone leads to irritability, impulsiveness, and low tolerance for frustration o Alcohol leads to higher likelihood of violence FrustrationAggression Principle – principle that frustration (blocking of an attempt to achieve a goal) creates anger which creates aggression The media models sexual and regular violence o Sexual aggression seems less serious o Rape myth o Coercion into sex o More harmful toward women o Social Scripts – culturally modelled guide for how to act in various situations Rely on them when we are unsure of how to behave Proximity breeds liking o Mere Exposure Effect – repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases the liking of them Attractiveness influences first impressions Friends are more likely to have things in common o We like when someone likes us o Reward Theory of Attraction – we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Passionate Love – aroused state of intense positive absorption in another usually at the beginning of a love relationship o Emotions include physical arousal and cognitive appraisal o Arousal can enhance one emotion or another Companionate Love – deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined Equity – people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it SelfDisclosure – revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others Altruism – unselfish regard for the welfare of others Bystander Effect – tendency for bystanders to be less likely to give help if other bystanders are present o Diffusion of responsibility o Fewer help when others are available Best odds of helping someone occur when o Person appears to need or deserve help o Person is similar to us o Person is a woman o We just observed someone being helpful o We are not in a hurry o We are in a small town or rural area o We feel guilty o We are not preoccupied o We are in a good mood Most important factor Social Exchange Theory – social behavior is an exchange process to maximize benefits and minimize costs Reciprocity Norm – the expectation that people will help, not harm, those who have helped them Social Responsibility Norm – the expectation that people will help those needing their help Conflict – perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas between people or groups Social Traps – a situation in which conflicting parties, by pursuing selfinterest over the good of the group, become caught in mutually destructive behavior MirrorImage Perceptions – mutual views often held by conflicting people as where each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive SelfFulfilling Prophecy – a belief that leads to its own fulfillment Positive contact (exposure, interaction, familiarity) can lead to acceptance of minority groups o The 4 C’s to resolve conflict – contact, cooperation, communications (with mediators), and conciliation Superordinate Goals – shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts GRIT – Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in TensionReductionStrategy designed to decrease international tensions Chapter 14: Personality Personality – individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting that persists over time and across situations Sigmund Freud was a Vienna physician who questioned if physical symptoms could be caused purely by psychological factors Psychodynamic Theory – view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences Psychoanalysis – the theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions (Freud) Unconscious – reservoir of mainly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories (Freud) Free Association – in psychoanalyses, it is a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind no matter how trivia or embarrassing Id – the reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives o Operates on pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification Ego – largely conscious, executive part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality o Operates on reality principle satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain Superego – part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations o Acts as a moral compass Psychosexual Stages – childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones (sensitive areas of the body) Oedipus Complex – according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father o To fix this, a boy begins to identify with his father Identification – process by which children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos Fixation – lingering focus of pleasureseeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which conflicts were unresolved Defense Mechanisms – psychoanalytic theory that the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality o The ego represses anxiety concerning unacceptable impulses o All defense mechanisms function indirectly and unconsciously Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Repression – basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories Collective Unconscious – shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history (Carl Jung) Projective Tests – personality tests that provide ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger protection of one’s inner dynamics Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes (Murray) Rorschach Inkblot Test – most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots (Hermann Rorschach) o Results do not link well to traits (validity) and different raters get different results (reliability) Development is lifelong and not fixed in childhood Freud underestimated peer influence Freud fails to predict behavior and traits Repression is a rare mental response to trauma The unconscious involves o Schemas that control perceptions and interpretations o Priming by stimuli o Right hemisphere activity in split brain patients o Implicit memories o Emotions o Stereotypes Humanistic Theories – view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy and personal growth o Study healthy people through selfreported experiences and feelings o First there was Freud, then Behaviorism, then Humanism Maslow’s hierarchy of needs o Seek selfactualization – the ultimate psychological needs that arise after basic physical and psychological needs are met and selfesteem is achieved or the motivation to fulfill one’s potential Carl Roger’s personcentered perspective o Growth promoting environment requires three conditions Genuineness Acceptance or unconditional positive regard toward another Empathy o SelfConcept – all thoughts and feelings about ourselves Who am I? If selfconcept is positive, one perceives the world positively Humanistic psychology influences popular psychology Criticisms Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Concepts are vague and subjective o Emphasis on individualism could lead to selfindulgence, selfishness, and less moral restraint Humanistic psychologists believe you must first love yourself to love someone else o Naïve and fails to understand human capacity for evil Rogers saw evil as a phenomenon and not as a trait Trait – a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by selfreport inventories and peer reports o Trait Theory of Personality – traits can be measured and differ from person to person MyersBriggs Type Indicator – identify statistically correlate clusters of behavior o Many traits are a function of two dimensions Factor Analysis – tap components of intelligence Personality Inventories – questionnaire in which people respond to items that gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors to assess selected personality traits Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests How stable are traits? o Personality develops until it is stable in adulthood o Neuroticism (emotional instability) decreases with age and conscientiousness increases o Varies in situations and the average behavior across many situations mostly describes you We change interests in different situations How heritable are traits? o About 50% o Animals can have traits Do these traits reflect differing brain structures? o Brain regions correlate to traits o Extraversion and shyness are correlated to the autonomic nervous system’s reactivity which is easily triggered o Extraverts seek stimulation because their brain arousal is low Have these traits changed over time? o Culture shifts influence personality shifts How well do these traits apply to various cultures? o Features of personality are common to all humans Do the big five traits predict our actual behaviors? o Conscientiousness, consciousness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion o Yes Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Conscientiousness leads to good grades and healthy behaviors, extraversion leads to being social, happiness leads to low neuroticism, high extraversion, agreeableness and satisfaction There is stability in personality Traits are stable, behavior changes SocialCognitive Perspective – views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context (Albert Bandura) o Personality is an interaction of traits (thinking) and social contexts (observation) Reciprocal Determinism – interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment Theory People Assumptions View Assessment Psychoanalytic Freud Unconscious Id, ego, superego Free association, leads to projective tests, disorders, dream analysis defense mechanisms Psychodynamic Adler, Horney, Unconscious Interplay of Projective tests Jung and conscious, conscious and and therapy childhood, unconscious defense mechanisms Humanistic Rogers, Healthy people Basic human Questionnaires Maslow strive for self needs lead to self and therapy realization actualization Trait Allport, Stable Big Five – Personality Eysenck, Costa, characteristics Conscientiousness inventories McCrae due to genes , consciousness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion SocialCognitive Bandura Traits and Conditioning and Past behaviors society observational learning Self – in contemporary psychology, the center of personality, organizer of thoughts, feelings, and actions Spotlight Effect – overestimating others’ noticing and evaluating of our appearances, performances, and blunders SelfEsteem – feelings of high or low selfworth SelfEfficacy – sense of competence or effectiveness o People who are down on themselves tend to be down on others SelfServing Bias – readiness to perceive oneself favorably Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o People accept more responsibility for good deeds and successes than bad ones or failures o Most people see themselves as better than average o Less found in Asia and modest countries Narcissism – excessive selflove and selfabsorption Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Psychological Disorder – syndrome (collection of symptoms) marked by a clinically significant disturbance (maladaptive behaviors that impair function) in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior (which typically causes distress) Phillipe Pinel proposed madness is not demonic but is a sickness of the mind Medical Model – concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and cured through treatment in a hospital Epigenetics – study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur with a change in DNA DSM 5 – American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition; widely used system for classifying disorders through describing symptoms o Criticized as casting too wide of a net or being value judgments and creating labels Rosenhan study in which people falsely said they were hearing voices to a psychiatrist yet answered other diagnostic questions truthfully and all were diagnosed with a disorder The labels placed on them led the participants to be held in hospitals for long periods of time despite claiming they were no longer hearing voices Anxiety Disorders – characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety Generalized Anxiety Disorder – person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal Panic Disorder – unpredictable, minuteslong episodes of intense dread in which one experiences terror and chest pain, choking, or frightening sensations followed by the worry of another attack o Agoraphobia – fear and avoidance of situations where escape may be difficult when panic strikes Phobia – persistent, irrational fear or the avoidance of an object, activity, or situation o Social Anxiety Disorder – intense fear of being watched and judged by others Obsessive Compulsive Disorder – unwanted, repetitive thoughts (obsessions), actions (compulsions), or both that interfere with living and cause distress Posttraumatic Stress Disorder – characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jump anxiety, numbness of feeling, and insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o The greater the emotional stress during trauma, the higher the risk for PTSD symptoms 510% of people that experience trauma have it for four weeks to a lifetime When bad events happen unpredictably, anxiety disorders develop Two part conditioning process o Stimulus Generalization – develop fear of similar frightful events (overgeneralization) Classical conditioning associates certain things with fears o Reinforcement – maintains fears Avoidance reduces anxiety and therefore, reinforces it Cognition helps us learn through observation and past experiences what to fear o Observational learning in humans and monkeys o Worried thoughts, interpretations, hypervigilance, loss of control, helplessness o Cognitive errors, irrational beliefs, mistaken appraisal and misinterpretation Genes can make us more vulnerable Experiences create new brain pathways Major Depressive Disorder – person experiences, in the absence of drugs or other medical condition, two or more weeks with five or more symptoms at least one of which must be either depressed mood or loss of interest and pleasure Mania – hyperactive, wildly optimistic state in which dangerously poor judgment is common Bipolar Disorder – person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania (manicdepressive disorder) Depressive/ bipolar disorders run in families Diminished brain activity in depression and more in mania Norepinephrine is scarce during depression and overabundant in mania o Serotonin affects mood and arousal Selfdefeating beliefs and negative explanatory style feed depression o Low selfesteem and learned helplessness increase depression Rumination – compulsive fretting, overthinking about our problems and their causes Depressed people explain things as global, stable, and internal State Dependent Memory – tendency to recall events as good or bad depending on their current mood Stressful Experiences→Negative Explanatory Style→Depressed Mood→Cognitive and Behavioral Changes Through nonsuicidal selfinjury, people o Find relief from negative thoughts o Attract attention o Relieve guilt o Get others to change negative behaviors o Fit in with a peer group Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Psychosis – mental split from reality Schizophrenia – delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and diminished, inappropriate emotional expression o Positive Symptoms – presence of problems Hallucinations (which lead to bad ideas or selfharm) – disturbed perception or sensory information Delusions – false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur that may accompany psychotic disorders (disorganized thinking) o Negative Symptoms – absence of healthy behaviors Reduce sociality, mute, catatonia, anhedonia Chronic Schizophrenia/ Process Schizophrenia – symptoms appear by late adolescence or early adulthood and, as people age, psychotic episodes last longer and recovery periods shorten o Caused by poverty and social problems o Slow development and negative symptoms Acute Schizophrenia/ Creative Schizophrenia – begins at any age frequently occurring in response to an emotionally traumatic event and has extended recovery periods o Positive symptoms Biological Causes o Excessive receptors for dopamine (D4 receptors), poor neural firing, intensifying brain signals lead to hallucinations and paranoia o Low brain activity in frontal lobes and decline in brain waves o Increased activity in the thalamus and amygdala as if hallucinations are real o Cortex and corpus callosum are smaller than normal o Low birth weight, maternal diabetes, older paternal age, oxygen deprivation, famine and fetal virus infections lead to schizophrenia Social Factors o Social withdrawal/abnormal behavior o Mother with severe schizophrenia o Separation from parents o Short attention and poor muscles o Emotional unpredictability o Solo play and poor peer relationships o Childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse Dissociative Disorders – controversial, rare disorder in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) – rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities (multiple personality disorder) Criticisms o Is DID an extension of our normal capacity for personality shifts? o Short and localized history through recent cultural construction o Therapists look for multiple personalities o Extreme form of role playing Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Rebuttals o Different people have different brain waves o A method of coping with anxiety or abuse Personality Disorders – inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning o Anxiety – ruled by fear of rejection o Eccentric/odd – no social attachments and flat affect o Dramatic – impulsivity, selfcentered, antisocial, attention seeking Antisocial Personality Disorder – person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, eve toward friends and family members, and may be aggressive, ruthless, or a con artist o Biological o Adaptive traits o Child abuse combined with genes o Decreased physiological arousal o Low stress hormones o Impulsive in childhood and unconcerned with rewards o Amygdala is smaller and frontal lobes are less active leading to criminal tendencies o Hyperactive dopamine reward system Anorexia Nervosa – person, usually adolescent female, maintains starvation diet despite being significantly underweight, sometimes accompanied by excessive exercise o Unrealistic body image and extreme ideal Bulimia Nervosa – person alternates binge eating (usually of high calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use) or fasting Binge Eating Disorder – significant binge eating episodes followed by distress, disgust, or guilt but without the compensatory purging or fasting that marks bulimia nervosa Childhood influences o Other with eating disorder or cares about her own and her daughters weight o Negative selfevaluation in the family o Families with bulimia have higher incidence of childhood obesity o Families of those with anorexia are competitive, highachieving, and protective Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 16: Therapy Psychotherapy – treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth Biomedical Therapy – prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person’s physiology to reduce symptoms Eclectic Approach – an approach to psychotherapy that uses techniques from various forms of therapy Psychoanalysis – Freud’s therapeutic technique o Believed patients’ free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences (and therapists’ interpretations of it) released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain selfinsight and resolve inner unconscious conflicts Interpretation – analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight Transference – patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent) o Reclaim unconscious thoughts and feelings into conscious awareness o Resistance – blocking from consciousness anxietyladen material Psychodynamic Therapists – therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition; views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences and seeks to enhance selfinsight o Discover themes on relationships and focus on improved selfawareness and self insight Insight Therapies – variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing a person’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses Humanistic therapies differences from psychoanalytic theories o Humanistic therapies aim to boost selffulfillment by helping to grow in self awareness and selfacceptance o Promoting this growth, not curing illness, is the focus o The path to growth is taking immediate responsibility for one’s feelings and actions rather than uncovering hidden determinants o Conscious thoughts are more important than the unconscious o Present and future are more important than the past ClientCentered Therapy – Carl Rogers’ humanistic therapy in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening with a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate the client’s growth (personcentered therapy) Active Listening – empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies (part of clientcentered therapy) Unconditional Positive Regard – caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Rogers believed would help clients develop selfawareness and selfacceptance Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Behavior Therapies – applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors Counterconditioning – behavior therapy procedures that use classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors (exposure therapies and aversive conditioning) o Exposure Therapies – behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid Avoidance worsens a conditioned fear, need guided exposure Systematic Desensitization – a hierarchy of anxiety triggering situations in which a pleasant relaxed state is associated with gradually increasing anxietytriggering stimuli commonly used to treat phobias Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy – anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears o Aversive Conditioning – counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior o Operant conditioning reinforces for desired behavior and withholds reinforcement for undesired behaviors Cognitive Therapy – teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions o Gentle questioning reveals irrational thinking which can then be removed (Beck) Change negative selftalk The causes of disorders are thoughts o If thinking patterns can be learned, they can also be replaced CognitiveBehavioral Therapy – popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing selfdefeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior) Group Therapy – therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interactions o Saves therapists time and clients’ money o Offers social laboratory for developing social skills o Enables people to see that others share their problems o Provides feedback as clients try new ways of behaving Family Therapy – treats family as a system and views individual’s unwanted behavior as influenced by or directed at other family members o Focus on communication, conflicts, and parenting styles Support groups focus on stigmatized or hardtodiscuss illness o Long for community and connectedness o Run by clients themselves EvidenceBased Practice – clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences o Available therapies are evaluated and applied to what is best in the unique situation Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Use experimental design with control group that does not receive treatment o Includes patient’s values, evidence and research, and clinical expertise Psychopharmacology – study effects of drugs on the mind’s behavior DoubleBlind Procedure – neither staff nor patients know who is taking medication or a placebo Antipsychotic Drugs – drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder o Block dopamine receptors o Side effects like movement problems and obesity Antianxiety Drugs – drugs used to control anxiety and physical agitation o Depress the central nervous system o Do not solve underlying problems, addictive, slow thinking, withdrawal symptoms Antidepressant Drugs – treat depression and anxiety disorders by improving mood and eliminating depressive thoughts o Increase neurotransmitters and inhibit reuptake (serotonin and norepinephrine) o SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) o Aerobic exercise, cognitive therapy, or using drugs with cognitivebehavioral therapy helps o Placebo can work just as effectively MoodStabilizing Drugs – eliminate highs and lows of mania and depression o Lithium Stimulants – control impulses, focus attention, and reduce need for stimulation o Block dopamine reuptake Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) – biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain or an anesthetized patient o Treat severe depression (weakens connections in hyper connected hub in the left frontal lobe) o Neural rewiring and boosts neurogenesis o Seen as barbaric Psychosurgery – surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior Humans were designed for physical activity and social engagement Outdoor activity reduces stress and promotes health Aerobic exercise, adequate sleep, light exposure, social connection, antirumination, empowerment, love, and nutritional supplements all help in depression
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