Unit 3 Class Notes
Unit 3 Class Notes FAD2230
Popular in Family Relationships: A Lifespan Development Approach
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Popular in Child and Family Studies
This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by mak15k on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FAD2230 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Chance Bell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 134 views. For similar materials see Family Relationships: A Lifespan Development Approach in Child and Family Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
3-30-2016 FAD2230- LECTURE NOTES FAMILY WORK Work-family conflict- idea that there tends to be a conflict with the different roles one has at work vs the roles that one has at home Spillover- may be positive or negative, but generally negative; idea that things from work come home and spillover into the family...bad day at work turns into a transition of a bad night at home, or a bad day at school then impacts how you hang out with friends later that day; may also be a good thing if you have a great day at work Overload- idea that there is too much that needs to be done total (work and family) which leads to stress about what is going on VIDEOS ABOUT ABOVE 3 TOPICS 3-28-2016 FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES FAMILIES AND THE WORK THEY DO Time Frame Work Type Majority of Family Interaction Early America Farming and Ranching Father, mother, and children working together 19th Century- 1960s Industrial Father- outside work Mother-work at home, with children 1970s-2016 All types Father- outside work Mother- outside work -each less time with children LIFE IN A RECESSION Unemployment and families...how does unemployment impact families? o causes tension between members o reduced income o possible bankruptcy o home foreclosure o loss of health insurance o lower marriage rates o endangered relationships o domestic violence o children's social well-being may be harmed 2007 unemployment rate was 4.7%...recession in 2008 was 6.8%...2013 it was still 7.0% Unstable working conditions o low minimum wage o Living wage: wages that are above the federal or state minimum wage levels, usually ranging from 100 to 130 percent of the poverty line depending on affordability of housing part time work... non-standard work: job schedules that are part-time, subcontracted, temporary in nature, occur at night, often irregular work schedules Part Time Nonstandard Temporary Less income Irregular schedule- not pay Constant moving, decreased bills on time, picking up kids stability Less benefits, insurance, and Difficult to save money Ration money paid time off Increased stress 3-28-2016 4/1/16 FAMILY STRESS AND CRISIS: VIOLENCE AMONG INTIMATES Crisis: A critical change of events that disrupts the functioning of a person’s life. Family Stress: Tensions that test a family’s emotional resources. Acute Stress: Short-term stress Chronic Stress: long-term stress Ten most common family stressors 1. Finances 2. Children behavior 3. Insufficient time as a couple 4. Lack of shared responsibility in family 5. Communication with children 6. Insufficient time for me 7. Guilt for not accomplishing more 8. Relationship with spouse 9. Insufficient family play time 10. Overscheduled family calendar THE NATURE OF STRESS AND CRISIS Patterns of Family Crisis o Three Distinct phases: The EVENT that causes the crisis The period of disorganization that follows The reorganization that takes place afterwards Family Coping or Not o ABC-X Model: A model designed to help us understand the variation in the ways that families cope with stress and crisis. The outcome of the crisis will depend on the combo of ABC factors POWER, CONTROL, AND DECISION MAKING Power: authority to exercise your will Personal Power: degree of autonomy to exercise one’s own will. Social Power: the ability to exercise your will over another person. Intimate partner power: involves decision making among intimate partners, divisions of labor, and their sense of entitlement. VIOLENCE AMONG INTIMATES Violence is a social problem because: o It affects large numbers of people o Violence is not completely random o Risk factors Low self-esteem Low income Low academic achievement 4/1/16 Young age Aggressive behavior as a youth Etc. INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE (IPV) IPV- Violence between those that are physically and sexually intimate, spouses and partners. o Physical o Economic o Sexual o Psychological/emotional Frequency of Intimate Partner Violence o 1.4—4.3 million female victims o 1 in 3 women likely to be a victim o 1 in 4 men likely to be a victim Types of Intimate Partner Violence o Common couple violence—arises from a specific argument, less frequent. o Intimate terrorism—physical, psychological, or sexual violence motivated by a desire to control the other partner o Violent resistance—non-legal term for self-defense o Mutual violent control—both partners are violent and battling for power and control. 4-4-2016 FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES FAMILY STRESS AND CRISIS- VIOLENCE AMOUNG INMATES RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSULT Rape- completed or attempted unwanted vaginal penetration (women), oral, or anal penetration through the use of physical force, threats of physical harm o 1 in 5 women and 1 in 71 men Sexual assault- unwanted physical contact (physically touched in privates) or unwanted non-contact sexual experiences (flashed) o 1 in 3-4 women and 1 in 8-9 men What is FSU doing about it? o "kNOw More" campaign (knowmore.fsu.edu) CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT child abuse- an attack on a child that results in an injury and violates out social norms o in 2011- 700,000 child victims o 27% under the age of 3 Types of child abuse: o neglect- physical and/or emotion o physical o sexual o psychological or emotional maltreatment 4-6-2016 FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES Video about personal experiences concerning divorced upbringing DIVORCE IN THE U.S. Common occurrence- we all probably know someone who has been/ experienced divorce o 1/3 of ever married people divorce Historical trends o before 1850: getting divorced was much more difficult and deserting the family/ spouse was more common, so the rate was low but it did not reflect the population accurately o 1850s-1900s: reasons for divorce were along the lines of failing to provide for the family, neglect, or abuse; rate is still fairly low o spike of divorce rates in the 1940s may be attributed to the war during that time; oversea relationships proved too much, coming back and the marriage failing, etc. o the rates drop around the 50s, and this is also because of the war, but in the opposite way- the soldiers coming home caused an increase in men looking for wives to work in the home wives at home + husbands at work = low divorce rate o 70s saw the rise of women's rights (increase in education, available jobs, etc.) so in the 80s the divorce rate rose again o in 2005 the rates dropped, and then rose again in 2010, possibly due to economic stresses WHY DO PEOPLE DIVORCE? MICRO-LEVEL FACTORS Parental Divorce o if one's parents have been divorced, the chance of the children also divorcing rises Age at Marriage o the younger they are at marriage the higher the chance of divorce Parental status o couples that don't have kids are more likely to divorce than couples who do have kids Non-Martial Childbearing o kids before marriage increase chance of divorce Sex of Children o parents who have more boys are more likely to stay together; dads are more likely to be involved with their sons Race and Ethnicity o Asian are less likely to divorce than Blacks; may be attributable to significance of religion, culture of family vs. individuality, etc. Education 4-6-2016 o more education = less likely to divorce Income o more income = less likely to divorce Degree of similarity between spouses o more similarity = less likely to divorce Couple's Age o longer they are together = less likely to divorce MACRO-LEVEL FACTORS Level of socioeconomic Development o Countries that are less developed have a decreased chance of divorce, because the family relies on one another to survive and thrive o More developed countries have a greater chance of divorce because there is more chance for individuality and separation and still succeeding Religion o most religions want the couple to stay together, not separate Divorce Laws o in some countries it is much easier for the man to get a divorce than it is for a women to get a divorce Women's status and employment o this varies from nation to nation, but generally the women who are able to have jobs themselves will not rely on a man for a sustainable way of life, and therefore have a higher divorce rate o the opposite is also true, in that divorce is risky for women who have little options outside of marriage Attitudes toward divorce o in the U.S. it's generally okay as a last resort, but in some countries it is looked down upon EXPERIENCING DIVORCE PHASES OF SEPARATION pre-separation: thinking about benefits of separating early separation: begin facing issues of not separating mid-separation: reality of daily living; stuff that makes separation sound better than staying together late-separation: learning to live single; not separated yet, but may as well be STATIONS OF DIVORCE The Emotional Divorce Emotional difficulties Divorce Emotional difficulties o Anger - Resentment - Sadness - Rejection o Men tend to struggle more than women...why? Women have a bigger support network than men usually do in terms of social comfort and interaction for emotional issues 4-6-2016 Not seeing the children (not the primary care-taker) is tough for men who still want to be involved in their kid's lives Legal Divorce: termination of the marriage by contract of the state court order o Division of assets Economic Divorce o Who is impacted the most? o About 1/3 of women end up at or below the poverty line after divorce because of taking care of the children on top of supporting themselves LEARNING ACTIVITY 8 4-8-2016 FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES STATIONS OF DIVORCE (CONT.) Co-parental divorce: must try to agree on parenting strategies o Legal custody- who is legally responsible for the kids in situations that would require legal action o Physical custody- who the kid lives with physically o Sole physical custody- only one of the parents takes care of the kids o joint physical custody- splitting the time between parent as equally as possible Community divorce: impact of divorce on other relationships o grandparents- want visitation rights to the kids, even if the grandparent and the caretaker don't get along, etc. Psychic divorce: developing an autonomic sense of self-wholeness as a single person Effects of Divorce on Children Short Term Long-Term Parental conflict Non-marital childbirth Loss of parent Drop out of school Reduced standard of living Use alcohol or drugs Adjusting to transitions Behavior problems Experience depression Poor overall health Anxiety about future marriage *Doesn't apply to all kids who experience divorce Is divorce or marital conflict worse for children? o worst situations: high-conflict without divorce, low-conflict with divorce Happier after divorce? o not necessarily... o arguing stress and unhappiness may go away, but other stresses about taking care of kids, etc. may arise (can eliminate some but new ones are created) o 4-13-2016 FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES STEPFAMILIES blended families many types stepfamilies: parent/ spouse relationship in which children are involved How common are stepfamilies? o 5 million children o 1,300 form daily o 11% fathers have stepchildren living with them (from their wife's previous marriage) o 3% of mothers have stepchildren living with them (from their husband's previous marriage) Common form of adoption UNIQUE FEATURES stepfamilies come about because of a loss through death, divorce, or separation the parent-child relationship has a linger history than the new couple relationship does a biological parent lives somewhere else children in stepfamilies hold membership in two households the model for step-parenting is ambiguous and poorly defined no legal relationship exists between stepparents and stepchildren children in stepfamilies have multiple relationships with extended family members MULTIPLE RELATIONSHIPS AND DYNAMICS Ex-Wife Husband Wife Husband Child Child CHILDREN difficulties remain compared to children with 2 biological parents: o social o behavioral 4-13-2016 o emotional o academic high quality stepfather relationships risk explanations ADULTS Stepmothers o outsider o little control over visitation o accepting husbands making alimony payments Stepfathers o full-time with stepchildren o loyalty issues o demands of mother's attention o may support biological and stepchildren STRENGTHENING STEPFAMILIES open communication eliminate criticism of parent/stepparent nurture couple relationship support system of individuals in similar situations 4-15-2016 FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES Since the 1900s there has been a significant increase in the population of those older than 65 o medical advancements o better nutrition and more access to healthier food o just after the 1940s, the number of kids increased dramatically, and in modern days the baby boomers have contributed to the spike in elderly people as well o the rise may continue with the rise in medical advancements and other technological aspects that improve life How does this demographic chance affect you? o the jobs related to medical fields will be in high demand due to the amount of patients that will be coming in needing help, specifically in geriatrics o the older generations receive social security that is supported by the rest of the population so taxes may rise DEMOGRAPHIC REVOLUTION the "oldest-old" increasing (85+)- old = 65+ and oldest old = 85+ o life expectancy- the amount of time in years that a person can expact to live females = 81 years males = 76 years o more elderly women than men o men tend to be the ones who are married and women tend to be the ones who are widowed...why? men are more likely to marry after divorce men are more likely to marry younger women after divorce whereas women are more likely to marry older men... but women live longer than men ADULT CHILDREN AND THEIR PARENTS "boomerangers": generally older kids from college who live with the parents again (20-30's) o influences: housing costs, job opportunities, wages, employment, etc. o advantages: emotional and economic security, help with their own children o disadvantages: regression to previous parent-child roles, problems with parenting/grandparenting, parents may need to reorganize life plans LEARNING ACTIVITY 9 Parents feel more strongly connected to adult children than children to parents Parents of adult children may help with finances for expenses, housing, health care, daycare, and educational funds Adult siblings o receive practical and emotional support from one another o Receive more from sibling when parental relationship is poor THE AGING COUPLE 4-15-2016 most couple report being happy in their older years o satisfaction over time- when they first marry they have a lot of satisfaction, and later in life they have a lot of satisfaction, but in the middle (raising kids and whatnot) they have little satisfaction o sexual desire and activity remain essential men are less satisfied if sexual relationship isn't going well STIs are a risk o division of household labor...remains the same as when they were younger 4-18-2016 FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES WIDOWHOOD loss of a spouse id one of life's most stressful events o loss of companion, friend, income, and way of life 14 million widowed individuals Widow effect: increased likelihood of death after a spouse dies o less true for blacks; possibly because of the culture of family support that is generally in place to a great extent than in other races; more likely to be living with other relatives GRIEF AND BEREAVEMENT process of grief and bereavement (Kubler Ross, 1969) individuals experience grief and bereavement stages differently: o Denial o Anger o Bargaining o Depression o Acceptance GRANDPARENTS AND THEIR GRANDCHILDREN changing grandparenting role over the last century: o grandparenting had become a role distinct from parenting o grandparents are healthier and better educated o grandparents are more likely to recognize the importance of emotional involvement Grandparent-grandchild relationship types o companionate- fun only mindset o remote- distant because of various reasons (location, emotional reasons, etc.) Movie about families with grandparents, specifically
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