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midterm terms

by: am

midterm terms PSYC 2588


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midterm terms
Attitudes Toward Death and Dying
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by am on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2588 at George Washington University taught by Woodruff in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Attitudes Toward Death and Dying in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 04/18/16
attitudes of death & dying midterm Study online 1.average life expectancy: men live to76, women live to80, years 20.integrity to disintegration: body is whole tobeing hurt and lived vs time left having injuries/scrapes 2.thanatology: the study of death;Thanatos is god of long sleep 21.telling parentsabout dying child: both parents should be (death);Hypnos is god of short sleep (regular sleep) informed in a quiet comfortable place, give diagnosis and talk 3.death related behavior: 1.risk taking behavior - from about treatment Kastenbaum street crossing experiment, found 5 different 22.truth telling to dying child: Vernick (social worker) and Karon types of people A-E discrimination after death (doctor) told terminal kid under 5 of their condition, that procedures hurts but will be with family;had better 4.tye A pedestrian: very cautious, crossed at corner, looked both ways, valued their lives, worried about their health cooperation with these children than children that learned of 5.type E pedestrian: did not look before crossing, crossed in the their condition without being told the truth 23.interacting with dying child: be physically close and sit on middle, jaywalked, may have contemplated suicide, had negative views of their life bed or floor, donot tower over them;play and doactivities with discrimination after death: most people get death notices them;don't try tobe authoritative but men had more obits than women, men more likely tohave a 24.typesofcommunication dying child should display: 1. direct language-name the sickness, call out the situation 2. photo, women written up in term of their husbands and had little written about themselves verbal symbolic language-euphemisms, alluding or hinting to 7.obituary: looks like a regular news article, biography of the situation 3.nonverbal symbolic language-body posture, tone of voice, facial expression, drawings person, not paid for, newspaper decides what goes in 25.Spinetta: Isolation ofdying child: clinical psychologist, 8.death notice: looks like an ad, pay by line and pay toadd photo, can put anything you want studied if dying children withdraw from others, experiment:25 dying children, 25 children without life-threatening disease 9.child understanding death: birth - 6 months: doesn't ages 6-10, created diorama tomimic hospital room and dolls to understand itself as a self entity represent people;children asked where each person is in the 10.child understanding death: 6 months- 2 years: aware of room and where the child would like them tobe;for terminal alternating states (dry towet, candle flame there and then not children they wanted dolls further away from where they there), learn meaning of well-being in light of separation, learn actually were that separation is temporary 26.Freud life instinct: Eros, the drive tolive and basic instinctual 11.child understanding death: 2 - 5 years: can talk about the impulses, topreserve and prolong life, sex, hunger, thirst, sleep dead but believe the dead are alive someplace else, donot see 27.Freud death instinct: Thanatos, all life forms return tostability death as permanent of inorganic state, competition between impulses for activity and 12.child understanding death: 6 - 9 years: people die under withdrawal (life and death), outward focused aggression: certain circumstances (old, war);death is final, hard toconceive bullying, murder, cruelty;inward aggression:suicide themselves or a parent dying, personify death via cartoons or death: isolation and abandonment;treating patients as if videogames they were already dead, talking about them right in front of 13.child understanding death: 10+ years: abstract concept: them;or parent saying their child is dead tothem after they death is final, inevitable, universal, personal;understand come out as gay succession todeath (what is it that produces death) 29.Glasser and Strauss: typesofawareness: 1.closed awareness - 14.talking to children about death: donot use euphemisms or patient totally unaware of terminal status, family and hospital metaphors, donot say that only old people die, find out what staff conspire tokeep it a secret, feel they are doing the best for prompted their questions, donot force them tobe part of the patient 2.suspected awareness - patient suspects they may funeral service, make sure they know they are not responsible be dying but noone has told them and patient doesn't ask 3. for death mutual pretense awareness - patient, family and medical all 15.child exposure to death: TV/videogames - may be unrealistic know but noone discusses it with patient awareness - deaths or may come back tolife, can be confusing;pets/roadkill - everyone knows and discusses it freely with patient about the let child talk about animal, bury it, donot replace pet right away, illness and impending death, nolies or pretending allow child togrieve;religion 16.child and family death: let child experience it, donot send them away, see parents grieve and cry 17.imagesofdeath: the first represents life, second represents death, ways a child may imagine death 1.connection or separation 2.movement or stasis 3.integrity or disintegration 18.connection to separation: connect with people you love and trust tobeing separated and not with them 19.movement to stasis: free torun and play tohaving tobe still 30.Glasser and Strauss: dying trajectories: plotting nearness to 41.autopsy procedure: microscopic examination oftissue: death over time 1.lingering trajectory - dying slowly, over weeks take little slices of tissue and put them on slides, need tobe of months, manage pain, may be considered socially dead, give stained time for goodbyes 2.expected trajectory - emergency, intensive 42.autopsy procedure: toxicology and cultures: drain bladder care a.pointed trajectory - patient exposed torisky procedure and check urine, take blood sample from heart, genetic testing that could save life or result in death, cannot predict, time totalk 43.autopsy reasons: quality control for doctors tomake sure with family;b.danger period trajectory - small window for diagnosis and treatments were proper treatment, will patient survive an event, like a heart attack;3. 44.death certificate: gives health statistics, filed with city and state, unexpected quick trajectory - routine procedure, in and out needed todispose of the body in any way or toreceive life surgery, where something unexpected happens and patient insurance or pension benefits dies 45.disposition ofremains- document ofdeath: outlines how 31.interventionswith dying patient: 1.physical pain - keep and where body was disposed, asks if autopsy is allowed, asks if medicated toalleviate pain 2.emotional pain - being angry or lonely, need moral support pain - interpersonal organs could be harvested for transplant 46.will: must have 2 witnesses tosignature, the written portion relationships, learning tosay goodbye 4.spiritual/philosophical 47.testament: say what you want togive towhom pain - why is god doing this 48.testate: you die and have a will 32.Kugler-Ross: stagesofdying: ways of coping, psychological stages 1.denial - not me, a buffer tounexpected and shocking 49.intestate: you die and don't have a will news 2.anger - rage, frustration, resentment, envy;at god, 50.testator: the dead person is a male hospital staff, family;rational and irrational 3.bargaining - "just 51.testatrix: the dead person is a female let me live until...", usually with god but can be with hospital staff 52.executor: a reliable person tocarry out what the person wants or family, usually not ready todie if bargain was fulfilled, in their will, a male bargain again 4.depression - when you realize you're not 53.executrix: a reliable person tocarry out what the person wants getting better, reactive:things that you've had in the past, in their will, a female preparatory:something you will never have or do5.acceptance 54.organ donation: 15 minutes from time someone is declared - not a happy stage, void of feelings 33.hospice care: Dame Cicely Saunders, MD: first noted for pain dead toput it on ice and give torecipient, eyes and skin can be transplanted, there is a chance that you can transmit something management before opening hospital;adopted the hospice from the deceased model as a catchall place for orphans, widows, homeless and incurably ill;opened St.Christopher's 55.body donation: donate whole body, used for medical or dental 34.hospice: home care: pain management at home, bathe students for dissection, gives valuable forensic information 56.history ofthe funeral: Leonardo daVinci: 15th century, did patient, medication, patient and family considered a unit, 80%of anatomical drawings, used dead bodies, needed topreserve hospice care in US bodies for at least a few months, injected alcohol intoveins and 35.hospice: inpatient care: usually when nofamily or friends to arteries - venous injections care for you or when toohard totake care of at home, visitors at 57.funeral directors: licensed embalmers, attend schools for any time, can bring personal items, patient and family considered a unit, 20%of hospice care in US mortuary science, funeral homes usually owned by families 36.palliative care: nopain, pain management, donot need tobe 58.body removal: body picked up, make sure dead body is the dying toreceive this care person people are saying it is, funeral home does all paperwork 59.preneed: all funeral arrangements made ahead of time 37.AIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndrome, 1981 became need: making arrangements at the time of death known tomedical community and general public, 25%don't know they're carrying it, could be time between contracting it 61.embalming: body breaks down within minutes;good and showing symptoms, some see it as disgusting and ventilation and sound proof room;body kept at 38 degrees; disgraceful, ways tocontrol disease, limited sexual partners, takes about 2 hours;funeral directors dressed in full body suit, from monkeys mask, gloves;goal tomake dead look life like and at peace 38.autopsy: post mortem (after death), a procedure toattempt to identify cause of death, dissecting human body todetermine cause of death, need permission, only 2%autopsied in US - mostly done in teaching and research hospitals 39.autopsy procedure: external examination: looking for something unusual, discolored or lumpy 40.autopsy procedure: dissection and examination oforgans: Virchow:remove organs one by one, Rokitansky:slice all out at once, measure and weigh for abnormalities 62.embalming process: 1.spray body with strong disinfectant 74.burial in space (orbit): take samples from cremation, put ashes and wash hair 2.plug orifices with cotton balls toprevent flies in titanium capsule, launch in rocket, goes intoEarth's orbit then and maggots 3.break rigor mortis tomaneuver arms and legs, eventually comes back toearth and burns up in the descent massage forehead, cheeks and hands tomake them look softer 75.mummify: embalm, wrap, seal and weld intomodern 4.turn head 15 degrees soit is not looking straight up or sarcophagus tape breasts together and close eyelids, glueing down sothey 76.bereavement: state involving loss, death of someone close, don't open 6.spray disinfectant in mouth and stuff cotton in someone or something that has been taken away, forcible throat, out cotton in cheeks, then wire jaw shut 7.using tubes separation, more objective than grief, is a change in status and machine pumps intocorroded artery and jugular vein, (becoming single parent, widow or orphan) pump formaldehyde and dye tostain skin (pumps clotted 77.Eric Lindemann - Coconut Grove fire: 1942, scientist who blood out) 8.massage body toget embalming fluid throughout studied how people respond tobody disfigurements, 492 9.use trocar (big cylinder with needle tip) tojab abdomen and people died in fire a Coconut Grove restaurant, Lindemann different organs with embalming fluid 10.wash body again interviewed all 101 survivors, found that responses were similar 63.restorative art: if part of body is not fully intact, use substances tothose with body disfigurements, responses:sense of tomake body look normal unreality, irritable, guilt, memory and sleeping problems, lack of and dressing: everyone gets makeup;put on plastic appetite, powerless shirt and underpants tomake sure not nothing that may leak 78.grief: how a person is affected by the loss, emotions that arise gets tooutside;use real clothes - can be personal or purchased with suffering a loss:sorrow, sadness, confusion, anger, guilt, from funeral home;noshoes since hard toput on and don't see denial;complex emotion set of physical and cognitive responses below waist;jewelry can be put on for viewing only or buried 79.mourning: when a person is bereaved, behavior, determined with it;hair is styled by beauticians by culture or religion 65.casketing: when body is ready togoin casket;funeral home 80.griefwork theory - Freud: grief is an adaptive, normal helps with announcements and have people tocarry casket in response toloss, working on grief is difficult and time and out consuming, excused from work or school after death of 66.cremation: about 35%cremated, have tobe in rigid container someone close, goal is toaccept reality of death and liberate either wooden or cardboard, funeral homes or other yourself from the attachment of the dead or thing that was lost businesses doit, temp from 1400-1800 degrees F, sweep ash out 81.stagesofgrief: 1.shock or denial 2.anger 3.guilt 4.relief 5. with broom, get rid of bone fragments, use cremulator (like food processor) togrind bone fragments intoash, smoke from reestablishment 82.stagesofgrief: shock or denial: could last a few hours or few crematorium releases carbon dioxide and mercury intoair, can days, important that someone is with the bereaved both embalm body for viewing then cremate physically and emotionally, confused and disorganized, may be 67.cremains: bone fragments in ash after cremated put in toonumb tocry cremulator, bake and shake 83.stagesofgrief: anger: sense of rage, very volatile emotions, 68.ashes: scattered, buried, columbarium (building dedicated for should be expressed (through jogging or playing music) ashes, stored in walls with nameplates) 84.stagesofgrief: guilt: could have done something toprevent 69.cemetery: national means military (only admits military death, survivor guilt, moral guilt members and all graves the same);pet cemeteries (less upkeep) 85.stagesofgrief: relief: don't have tosee person in pain 70.mausoleum: little houses, usually wealthy family, inside are anymore, nomore caring responsibilities, can return toformer shelves for each family member's casket, not just for wealthy - used in New Orleans since ground burial would be tooclose to routines sea level 86.stagesofgrief: reestablishment: person cannot be completely replaced 71.epitaphs: inscription, very expensive, pay for every character, 87.broken heart syndrome: formalized in 1967, may not actually might say beloved son/wife/friend, etc., not every tombstone has an epitaph, getting rarer die from broken heart but is a great stressor, may give up on living, immune system declines, belief in joining the deceased 72.burial at sea: very common at one time among navy and 88.death ofaspouse: unresolved grief: 3 types:1.unexpected merchant marine, when couldn't get back toland in time, US Navy has protocol:everyone gathers on deck, body in coffin grief syndrome 2.conflicted grief syndrome 3.chronic grief syndrome with holes drilled in, heavy rocks and bricks put in with body, 89.unexpected griefsyndrome: when a spouse dies without tipped intoocean after ceremony takes place warning, donot have opportunity toprepare themselves for 73.cryonics: tofreeze;in a future time body thawed out, reanimated then cure whatever caused the death, cannot the overwhelming loss freeze until death occurs, can alsojust freeze a head, costs 90.conflicted griefsyndrome: death ends a troubled relationship, often when separation or divorce had been between 28k and 120k, only 100 people have done it contemplated, confusion 91.chronic griefsyndrome: marked by survivors' strong feelings 106.NDE: out ofbody experience: alsocalled autoscopic of dependency upon deceased spouse, feeling of not being experience, hearing self pronounced dead, feeling peaceful, able tocontinue life without partner sound reported close toear like chime or buzz, feel self move through dark enclosure, meet others and spiritual being, 92.Knapp - death ofachild: more difficult than death of spouse, loss of future dreams, desire tonever forget, parents feeling great knowledge, seeing border beyond which there is vulnerable for first 3 months, questioning if life is worth it, best noreturn totalk about good memories 107.NDE: panoramic memory: life review, response tothreat or impending death, life flashed before eyes chronologically, 93.shadow grief: when death of a child, recurrent grief caused by reminders of loved ones in any amount of time after loss, shows mental vision of series of events in life emotional dullness, cannot fully respond toexternal stimulus, 108.Albert Heim: geology professor 1871, climbing mountain and can happen when child dies at any age, where it looks as if started toslip and fall, noanxiety, looked up at sky, first thought person is back tonormal but can have momentary triggers was totake off glasses but couldn't move his hands, thought if 94.bereavement overload: dealing with loss followed by loss, he doesn't die needs toshout tofriends that he is ok and cancel his lecture, panoramic life memory delayed grief reactions, adjusting quickly back tolife, seen mostly with the elderly 109.Michael Sabom: physiological experience, does not believe in 95.disenfranchised griefreaction: grief that is hidden, not life after death, said NDEs can be person making accurate recognized by others, keep emotions tothemselves, cannot observations of immediate reality as well as entering into openly or publicly mourn, due to:relationship todeceased not mystical state, patient had out of body experience but Sabom socially recognized (affair, miscarriage, death due tocrime);loss says it does not prove "survival of death" not recognized (abortion);griever not recognized (tooyoung or 110.G-Loc: test pilots and astronauts rapid acceleration, same tooold, mentally challenged) experience of NDE and alsochildbirth sometimes;same 96.Silverman: specialist in grief, formed Widow toWidow:contact variables and symptoms but life is not threatened, evidence for people whorecently experienced death of spouse if they want physiological experience NDE a support person, said that grief isn't an illness 111.proofoflife after death: survivors have renewed sense of 97.transcending death: physical immortality: unending purpose in life, daily life becomes more precious, some existence of person via physical source, transplants, cryonics, convinced they had died sorecovery proved existence of afterlife cloning against NDE asproofoflife after death: many people 98.transcending death: psychological immortality: continued consciousness after death, mind without body whohave a close encounter with death donot remember 99.transcending death: spiritual immortality: of soul, unending anything, NDEs can occur when person is not in physical peril, medical records show that many people whohave NDEs had existence of a person from a nonphysical source or state, expressing oneness with God, nature, etc. not actually come close todeath, people in severe pain alsolikely 100.transcending death: social immortality: how you continue toexperience out of body, only hear about NDEs from survivors 113.depersonalization: NDE, loss of emotion, sense of self being toexist for others in symbolic ways;memories, oral stories, detached from both body and world, an altered sense of time, business that carries your name, group towhich you belonged (sports, political party) objects appearing small and far away, strange sounds, body altered in a weird way 101.transcending death: economic immortality: continuation of existence via money source, donating money toname a school or building after you 102.afterlife: Toynbee (consciousness): unconscious fear of oblivion, consciousness and the possibility of "not being" makes life after death incomprehensible 103.afterlife: Freud (annihilation): thinking there is an afterlife is a psychological creation of human mind, denying reality of death, defense against inherent fear of annihilation and extinction 104.the near death experience: person can easily die/be killed but continues tolive physical life, heart and respiration stops, happens toanyone 105.Raymond Moody: wrote Life After Life, 150 cases collected of NDE, noted that NDE is not panic or despair but sense of serenity and well-being


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