Study Guide for Industry Research Exam 3
Study Guide for Industry Research Exam 3 3163
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Dahlin on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3163 at Ohio State University taught by Zheng Wang in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 394 views. For similar materials see Industry Research in Communication Studies at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
COMM 3163 Exam 2 Study Guide Cumulative Exam 80% drawn from after Spring Break Material 20% from before Spring Break 50 questions - Big 5 Characteristics o Openness o Conscientiousness o Extraversion o Agreeableness o Neuroticism o MOST VALUED BIG PERSONALITIES BY COMPANIES: High in Conscientiousness High in Agreeableness Low in Neuroticism - Measures of personality o Self-reports (most frequent) Ask people directly for information Ex: how much do you agree/disagree with following statements… (+) most accurate information may be from the person (+) quick, easy, and cheap to administer (-) vulnerable to response biases (acquiescence bias, social desirability) (-) people may respond more positively b/c we have a distorted outlook about who we are (self-deception) o Informant reports/Observer reports Judgments about a person made by family, friends, or others Assumes that people who observe someone in their everyday life, even informally, have ability to judge that individual’s personality (+) receiving number of judgements from many people may increase reliability/validity of assessment (-) informants might be motivated to show person in favorable light (-) more costly/time-consuming (-) informants will never has as much info as person being studied (-) informants don’t have direct access to another person’s thoughts/feelings/motives o Behavioral measures (least frequent) Have external judges (people or software/computer) view and code an individual’s actions, either in lab or naturalistic (real-world) setting Ex: can you determine someone’s personality via the words they use in their Facebook posts? (used software to determine what words were associated w/what personality) (+) does not rely on person being studied/self- reported (+) least susceptible to social desirability biases (-) more costly and time consuming - Dark Triad + characteristics of psychopathy o Narcissism: exaggerated sense of self-importance; arrogance (study found that they more frequently update Facebook about achievements, diet, exercise) o Machiavellianism: person so focused on their own interests they will constantly manipulate, deceive, and exploit others to achieve their goals o Psychopathy: Smooth, slick, engaging, charming, superficial charm, pathological liar, grandiose self-worth (believe they are superior to everyone), good at manipulating others, self-centered, lack of empathy, lack of guilt/remorse, lack of anxiety, failure to accept responsibility, easily bored, seek out stimulation, parasitic lifestyle, promiscuous sexual behavior, many short-term relationships, deficit in love/loyalty, lack moral conscience - Amy Cuddy Talk and Power Posing Study + reproducing issues o States that power posing can… (1) Significantly increase your confidence (increase testosterone) (2) Significantly decrease your anxiety (decrease cortisone) Does this by changing your biochemistry o Tons of press coverage encouraging people to power pose o New book came out geared for general audience o BUT… 2015, different group of researchers tried to replicate the study They were unable to reproduce the power posing results No diff. in testosterone or cortisol levels b/t 2 groups No diff. in risky behavior taking b/t 2 groups Backlash against power posing in scientific community and media o Cuddy strikes back Replication study did NOT follow exact same procedures Original study: power pose lasted 2 minutes Replication study: power pose lasted 6 minutes Cuddy argues that holding power pose for 6 minutes is very uncomfortable o Main take-aways (1) Replication studies should follow original study’s procedure to as exact a degree as possible (2) You need MANY replication studies of the original study Conducting one replication study is NOT enough Results of single replication study can be a FLUKE - Replication and Reproducibility o Replication study: redo of original study using exact same procedures o Reproducibility: if you redo a study using the same procedures, you should get the same results o Cornerstone of science: way to ensure that findings are REAL and NOT FLUKES - Scientific publishing process - - Biases in scientific publishing o Editors and reviewers have a bias AGAINST publishing replication studies o “This study has been done already! That’s old news” o Creates an incentive for researchers NOT to conduct replication studies o Editors and reviewers have a bias: FOR publishing studies that find SUPPORT for a hypothesis AGAINST publishing studies that DON’T find support for a hypothesis “File Drawer Problem” Ex: suppose there is no causal relationship b/t where you sit in class & grades 99 researchers each conduct own study and find NO relationship 1 researcher conducts study and finds relationship (FLUKE) 99 researchers know about biases by editors/reviewers and don’t send their studies out for publication (put study in file drawer) 1 researcher sends study out for publication and gets published even though it’s a fluke HUGE PROBLEM - Sensation and perception o Sensation: messages from our senses o Perception: process by which sensations are interpreted and given meaning - Absolute threshold, Supraliminal and Subliminal stimuli o Absolute threshold: smallest amount of physical energy (e.g light, sound, pressure, etc.) we can detect Can change across the lifespan (ex: mosquito ringtones) o Subliminal stimuli: stimuli below this threshold, too weak to consciously notice o Supraliminal stimuli: stimuli above this threshold, can be consciously perceived - Class and social goal priming o Classic Priming: exposure to one thing influences your response to another thing Ex: exposing someone to word for a few milliseconds, triggers other related words o Social/Goal Priming: exposure to stimuli influence attitudes, choices of behavior, and motivational states o 4 studies about social/goal priming STUDY 1: Subjects given set of words and asked to make sentences Group 1 (“polite” prime): polite, respectful, patient, etc. Group 2 (“rude” prime): assertive, rude, disturb, etc. Had to walk down hallway to do another experiment; but experimenter is talking to somebody How many interrupted the conversation? o Polite Prime: 16% o Rude Prime: 67% STUDY 2: Subjects given set of words and asked to make sentences Group 1 (“elderly” prime): worried, Florida, lonely, gray, bingo Group 2 (“unrelated to elderly” prime): thirsty, clean, private Had to leave lab and walk to the elevator Those primed with “elderly” words walked slower STUDY 3: Group 1 asked to write down attributes of a professor Group 2 asked to write down attributes of a soccer hooligan Filled out general knowledge questionnaire People primed with attributes of professor did better on the test STUDY 4: http://www.videobash.com/video_show/xpertus-prof- john-bargh-on-priming-2119951 o Controversies in Social/Goal Priming Researchers claim that primes have unconscious influence on behavior BUT, in most of this research, the primes are supraliminal (NOT presented in a subliminal manner) Recent replication studies have NOT been able to reproduce the most prominent studies in social/goal priming - 60 minutes piece on “Baby Lab” o Findings and core thesis of this - Designs for studying infants o Preferential Reaching Designs: infants reach for objects/people they like o Preferential Looking Designs: infants look longer at objects/people they like o Claims from some of these infant studies: (1) Foundations of morality are not learned (2) In-group/out-group biases are not learned - Methods for teasing apart effects of nature and nurture o Nature: we are born the way we are (genes, biology, heredity) o Nurture: we learn who we are from our environment (family, education, culture, socialization) o Adoption studies If child is more similar to adoptive parents, environment has large role in development of the trait If child is more similar to biological parents, genes have a large role o Twin Adoption studies Done with monozygotic twins (identical; 100% genetic similarity) Concordance Rate Concordant=degree to which twins share a specific trait (ex: if 100% concordance rate for introversion that means that all 100 pairs of twins are introverts, if 70% concordance rate that means 70 pairs are introverts and 30 pairs are discordant pairs) Discordant=degree to which twins don’t share a specific trait Weakness of adoption studies: Selective placement: adoption agencies try to place children in homes similar to those of biological parents o Infant studies Assumption: the earlier in life that a trait appears, the less likely that it is the result of socialization Infants are pre-verbal: can’t communicate yet with words - Audit study o Coach actors (black or white, male or female) to act the same way o Weaknesses: cannot completely equate two types of actors on every factor - Prejudice v Discrimination o Prejudice: hostile or negative attitude towards others b/c of their group membership o Discrimination: negative behavior towards others based on their group membership - Contact Hypothesis o Prejudice towards group will diminish as contact with that group increases o However, contact does not seem to be enough o In addition to contact : (1) members of the two groups had to be of roughly equal social/economic status (2) had to promote interdependence b/t 2 groups (work of projects that required relying on each other to reach success) (3) contact b/t members of each group had to occur on a one-on-one basis Superordinate goal-goals that can only be accomplished by cooperation of two or more groups - Theories on why prejudice exists o Realistic Group Conflict Theory: Prejudice arises when two or more social groups compete for the same scarce/valued resource Prejudice should intensify during times of economic hardship o Personality: prejudiced people have a particular personality type Authoritarian personality: hierarchy oriented, conventional and conformist, suspicious & hostile of outsiders o Social Identity Theory: individuals perceive themselves as being members of a social group (gender, race, economic status, etc) Biased towards in-group members and against out- group members “Minimal Group” studies: arbitrary and trivial distinctions b/t groups can create in-group favoritism and out-group bais Evidence that this bias appears early in life Ex: “Blue eyes-Brown eyes” study - MMOs as experimental worlds o MMO: Massive Multiplayer Online Games o Online game capable of supporting large numbers of players simultaneously in the same virtual world o Thousands to millions of players o Many important questions in social sciences are about the casual effects of rules and institutions on society as a whole Ex: is a market controlled media system better at informing people than a gov.t controlled media system? Ex: are free markets more efficient at distributing resources than a centralized economy? o We usually resort to observational studies in order to answer these questions o MMO Worlds as “Micro Worlds” or “Micro Societies” Have their own economies Can have their own gov.ts Have informal norms that evolve over time Players motivated and invested in the world Some even have their own corporations that perform services to members o Idea: Use MMO worlds to examine causal effects of rules/institutions We can use MMOs as proxies for real world societies Perform experiments and randomly assign diff. virtual worlds to receive certain rules/institutions Concerns: external validity (MMO players probably not a representative sample) Researcher-created MMOs are difficult/expensive/time consuming - Psychopharmacological interventions o Using drugs to determine the causal effects of a psychological process o Ex: causal effects of emotions on behavior - Brain stimulation techniques o Manipulating psychological processes by disrupting electrical activity in a specific brain region o Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: uses a very powerful magnetic field to disrupt brain activity in a specific region - What’s attractive o Attractiveness: very well-studied topic in social sciences o Main findings: attractive people are rated higher on intelligence, competence, sociability, morality, etc. o Facial symmetry: correspondence in size, form, and arrangement of parts on opposite sides of a plane Why? Perceptual bias account: wiring in our visual system makes it easier to process symmetric objects, bias makes symmetric stimuli more attractive Evolutionary advantage view: symmetric characteristics signal health, we’re evolved to prefer healthy mates o Face Averageness: faces with features that are close to the average in the population are perceived as attractive, beauty-in-averageness effect Why? Your brain constructs an average of the faces of people you encounter in your daily life From this, you have an “expectation” of what a human face looks like More pleasing b/c it is what we expect o Non-physical qualities: Proximity: like people who we are close to physically/spatially (“mere exposure effect”) Similarity: like people who are similar to us (preferences, attitudes, birthdates, etc) Competence: possessing necessary skill (we like people who are competent but make blunders once in a while… people who are too competent are threatening) - Sternberg’s Theory of Love o (1) Intimacy: feelings of closeness, connectedness, and bonding o (2) Passion: drive that leads to romance, physical attraction and sex o (3) Commitment: decision that one loves another and the commitment to maintain the love o - Guttman’s Studies on relationships o Predicting if a relationship will last o Analyzes an hour of a husband and wife talking in the lab o Looking at first fifteen minutes, can predict with 90% accuracy if the couple will be together 15 years later o Coded conversations (content analysis) o Negative features of conversations Criticism Different from complaint (complaint focuses on specific behavior while criticism attacks person’s character) Stonewalling: silent treatment Contempt: greatest predictor of a relationship ending One beings to believe they are superior to the other Verbal cues: hostile humor, name-calling, sarcasm, mockery Non-verbal cues: eye rolling, sneering Communicating disgust for the other person Pre-Spring Break - Validity and reliability o Validity: extent to which a measurement procedure measures what it intends to measure Are you measuring what you are supposed to measure? Ex: if you define intelligence as verbal ability…using math test to measure it is NOT a valid measure o Reliability: extent to which a measuring instrument consistently measures whatever it is that it is measuring Possible for a measure to be reliable BUT not valid Ex: BMI (Body Mass Index) scale supposed to measure obesity by looking at your height/weight BUT doesn’t consider whether weight is fat or muscle - Experimental/observational studies (types) o Laboratory Experiments: conducted in a very well- controlled environment (not necessarily a lab) (+) Researcher has control over where it takes place, what time, which participants, nature of treatment, and point participant exposed to treatment, etc. (+) Experimental studies generally considered to be very high in internal validity (b/c of random assignment) (-) Demand characteristics=potential problem for lab experiments (+) better at showing cause and effect o Field Experiments: experiment that occurs in a natural environment for the behavior being studies; researcher does not have same level of control over study (+) people often not aware that they are in the study (minimizes demand characteristics) (+) studying people in their “natural” environments (+) more applicable to real world settings o Natural Experiments: treatments not assigned by experimenter (sometimes by “nature”, BUT assignment of treatments is random Researcher usually has no control over any feature of the “study” (they try to find instances of “natural experiments”) o Observational Studies: studies in which the treatment (independent variable) NOT randomly assigned Used when it is not feasible/ethical to conduct experimental study (1) researcher might not have control over any feature of the “study” (find observational studies in real world) (2) researcher might have control over some features of study (3) in all cases, researcher does not have enough control to randomly assign the IV Simple non-equivalent group design: recruit two groups and measure and compare them, might be huge number of differences b/t groups, design makes no attempts to deal with confounds Matching Designs: for every treated unit, find another untreated unit with similar attributes (attributes are potential confounds) Pre-Post Test Without Comparison Group: measure DV before treatment, treatment, measure DV after treatment Lack comparison group that did not receive the treatment Reversal without Comparison Group Design: Lack comparison group that did NOT receive treatment Pre-Post Test with Comparison Group (difference-in-differences approach) - WEIRD samples o Main argument: behavioral social sciences make generalizations about people (i.e human race) based on samples drawn from WEIRD societies o WEIRD: Western, Educated, Industrial, Rich, Democratic o Claim: when it comes to fundamental aspects of motivation, psychology, and behavior, WEIRD subjects are unusual from the rest of the species - Logic of lie detector test (CQT) o Skin conductance and polygraph o 3 Types of Questions: Irrelevant Qs: no real relation to what is being investigated (ex: “What’s your name?”) Relevant Qs: pertain to what is being investigated (ex: “Did you embezzle funds?”) Control Qs: questions about misdeeds that are similar to those being investigated, but refer to the subject’s past and are usually broad in scope (ex: “Have you ever stolen anything in your life?”) o Assumption: Innocent people are going to be more afraid of Control Questions than Relevant Questions - Non-self-report measures, weakness and strengths, what they’re good for o Non-self-report measures: measures that still try to determine people’s attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, etc., BUT they DO NOT rely on asking people o Psychophysiological Measures: measure biological signals generated by different parts of the body Eye tracking-sensor technology allows device to determine what person is looking at, shine infrared light at eye, look at fixations (quick stops) and saccades (rapid eye movements) Skin conductance response: used as measure of emotional arousal (heightened excitation or agitation), electrodes placed on fingers, measure by determining how easy it is for electricity to pass through skin fMRI: powerful magnet that measures amount of oxygenated blood going into brain regions - Designs for dealing with social desirability biases o Social Desirability Bias: tendency for people to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably Most prevalent for “sensitive” topics (ex: racist, sexist, violent or illegal behaviors) List experiment Participants had to indicate HOW MANY items on the list made them upset, not which ones but just how many Control group got 3 items o Federal gov.t increasing tax on gasoline o Professional athletes getting million- dollar contracts o Large corporations polluting environment Treatment group was given a 4 critical item (“black family moving in next door”) If average in treatment group is higher than average in control, you can assume that people are picking the critical item in the treatment condition Randomized response technique Subjects given randomization device (ex: coin) and have to answer series of questions If head, automatically answer “yes” to any question If tail, answer question truthfully They are the only ones who know outcome of coin flip Critical question: would you be upset if your child told you that he/she was gay or lesbian? Yes/No Know that 50% will automatically say “yes”, and 50% will answer truthfully
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