EXAM 1: Study Guide
EXAM 1: Study Guide COM 440
Popular in Media Ethics
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelly Smith on Sunday February 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COM 440 at Washington State University taught by Bimbisar Irom in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see Media Ethics in Communication Studies at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/15/15
Exam I Study Guide Total 60 10 short de nitions of 40 50 words question 1 O2 20 points 10 short analyses of 100 130 words question 1 O4 40 points Bonus questions 5 points Concepts you should cover this list is not exhaustive and you should expect some questions outside of what you find below Greek concept of ethics p 4 Study of what is good both for the individual and for society Ethics behavior that s long established and bene cial to ongoing society Greeks concerned w individual virtues o Fortitude courage ability to confront fear 0 Justice balance b t sel shness and self lessness o Temperance restraint practicing self control and moderation o Wisdom prudence insight ability to choose right action good judgment Also concerned w societal virtues freedom Modern ethics learning to make rational decisions among array of choices all of which may be morally justi able some more than others Greeks people should explain their ethical decisions to others Acting ethically could be shown to be a rational decision to make Ethics begins when elements w in a moral system con ict Aristotle s Golden Mean p 7 believed that happinessultimate human good Aristotle we all have 0 Emotion everything accompanied by pleasure or pain 0 Capacity our ability to react to emotion o Disposition how we react to emotion OUDGED ON THIS set high standards exercising practical reasoning 0 people who did this a phrenemosperson of practical Wisdom understood Greek virtues They are moral basis of Aristotle s ethical system virtue ethics Aristotle highest virtue is citizenship Highest practitioner statesman Way to behave ethically 1 Know thru exercise of practical reasoning What you are doing 2 Select the act for its own sake in order to ourish 3 Act itself must spring from rm unchanging character Virtue according to golden mean ethical choice midpoint b t 2 vices extremes Aristotle s golden mean Unacceptable behaviors Acceptable behaviors Unacceptable behaviors de ciency excess Cowardice Courage Foolhardiness Shamelessness Modesty Bashfulness Stinginess Generosity Wastefulness This is a range of behaviors varies individually This isn t appropriate in all cases Some issues don t have a mean midpoint 0 WHERE the mean is different for each WHAT the mean is remains the same ex right amount of food for one person may not be right for another Golden Mean good things are destroyed by extremes by excess and de ciency Good choice moderation Seeking the golden mean individual acts are not disconnected from one another but collectively form a Whole that a person of good character should aspire to Virtue theory of ethics NOT outcome oriented o It is agent oriented Right actions in virtue theory of ethics result of agent seeking virtue and accomplishing it Kant s Categorical Imperative p 9 1 Individual should act as if choices one makes for oneselfuniversal law 2 Treat each individual as an end never merely a means Demands for these are universal not subject to situational factors Similar to Bible s golden rule Do unto others as you would have other do unto you 0 Focus on duty Based on notion that it s in act itself rather than person who acts where moral force resides DIFFERENT FROM ARISTOTLE S o Aristotle notion of what is ethical actor o Kant notion of what is ethical act itself Kant moral worth of an action does not depend on its consequences 0 Allows us to learn form our mistakes Kant test of moral act is its universality whether it can be applied to everyone Deontology process duty rules Utilitarianism p 10 Jeremy Bentham later John Stuart Mill in 1800s 0 Mill 39 published 0 Libe j 1859 1 Protects diverse opinion a Silencing opinion is robbing human race 2 Silenced opinion may contain a portion of truth a Always hope when people are forced to listen to both sides 3 Even if received opinion is whole truth acceptance of it wo contest leads to complacency a Challenge opinion be able to defend know the other POV 39 rationale for protecting free speech thought and discussion 39 Each individual has absolute liberty of opinion and sentiment No society in which these liberties are not respected is free 39 among 1st to acknowledge that good of an entire society had a place in ethical reasoning 39 mualz39o d lacadmin pleasure and absence of pain only intrinsic moral end Consequences of actions are important in deciding whether they are ethical a Ex it may be ethical to harm one person for bene t of larger group greatest good for the greatest number i le investigative reporting harm individuals by broadcasting them in hope of providing greater societal good Utilitarianism goes well w Western thought human rights Bene t provides principle by which rightnesswrongness can be identi ed judged con icts can be resolved exceptions can be decided Utilitarian theory no one s happiness any more valuable than anyone else s quantity quality Application to democracy reduces self interest but when badly applied it can actually promote social sel shness DIFFERENT FROM KANT ARISTOLE o Aristotle notion of what is ethical actor o Kant notion of what is ethical act z39tce 0 Mill focused on catcomc Moral questions objective empirical and scienti c Promotes universal ethical standard that each rational person can determine Most criticized principle b c so dif cult to accurately anticipate consequences of particular act Philosopher Known for Popularly Known as Emphasized Aristotle Golden mean Virtue lies b t extremes The actor Kant Categorical Act so your choices could be The action imperative universal law treat humanity as an end never as a means only lVlill Utility principle An act s rightness is determined The outcome by its contribution to a desirable end What 23 the racial contract Explanation for why people come together in society lmpacts moral systems Consent of the people agreement to follow rules laws morals Gov society is by consent not by divine right or divine authority Fundamental problem of Rousseau s Social Contract Problem How you maintain balance b t individual and your duty towards group How to maintain being win the group wo losing sense of self Mankind s gains and losses during the social contract Man keeps original rights and natural liberty unless violates contract As he puts others over himself he gaim equivalent for everything he loses and an increase of force for preservation of what he has When man deprives himself of some advantages from nature he gaim other great advantages faculties stimulated developed ideas extended feelings ennobled soul uplifted Man 0565 natural liberty and unlimited right to everything he tries to get and succeeds in getting man gaim civil liberty and proprietorship of all he possesses Man in giving himself to all gives himself to nobody he gaim an equivalent for everything he 0565 and an increase of force for the preservation of what he has A man may wish to enjoy rights of citizenship wo being ready to ful ll duties of subject Four basic philosophical assumptions conclusions that determine any theory of the relationship of the mass media of communication to the organized society of which it is a part 99 59 nature of the man nature of society and the state the relation of man to the state and the nature of knowledge and truth Corporate state under authoritarianism under fascist authoritarianism o visible expression of the primacy of the state over the economic and social group w in the nation 0 although allied w private enterprise in preserving capitalistic order corporate state was based on theory of interventionism in economic and cultural affairs Libertarianism s Self righting Man is able to discern b t truth and false b t better and worse when faced w a choice Right to search for truth is a natural right of man Presspartner in search for truth Imperative press be free from governmental control and in uence If all info is available good ideas will survive bad ideas will die Public can be trusted to digest whole discard things not in public interest and accept things that serve needs of individual and of society of which he is part Milton self righting process Let all w something to say be free to express themselves The true and sound will survive the false and unsound will be vanquished Gov should keep out of the battle and not weigh the odds in favor of one side or the other And even though the false may gain a temporary victory that which is true by drawing to its defense additional forces will through the self righting process ultimately survive Libertarians out of many voices of the press some info to the public would be false some opinions unsound Nevertheless state didn t have right to restrict those ideas they thought were false unsound If it did it would be suppressing that which was critical of the state or contrary to opinions of gov off1cials 0 Alternative procedure also supported by Libertarians let public at large be subjected to barrage of info opinionsome true some false Ultimately public could be trusted to digest the whole discard that not in public interest and accept that which served the needs of the individual and of the society of which he is a part Four Rationales for the Mass Media Authoritarian Libertarian Social responsibility SovietTotalitarian Dut of Philosophy of absolute power of monarch his gov or both Writings of lVIilton Locke Mill and general philosophy of rationalism and natural Writing of WE Hacking Commission on Freedom of Press an practitioners media Marxist Leninist Stalinist thought w mixture of Hegel and 19th c Russian rights codes thinking hief To support and To inform entertain To inform entertain to contribute to urpose advance the policies of sell but chie y to sell chie y to raise success and the gov in power and help discover truth conflict ot he plane of continuance of the to service the state and to check on gov discussion Soviet socialist system and especially to the dictatorship of the party Who has Whoever gets a royal Anyone w economic Everyone who has Loyal and orthodox right to use patent or similar means to do so something to say party members nedia permission IIow are Gov patents guilds By self righting Community opinion Surveillance and nedia licensing sometimes process of truth in consumer action economic or political ontrolled censorship free market place of professional ethics action of gov ideas and by courts What Criticism of political Defamation obscenity Invasion of private Criticism of party brbidden machinery and of cials indecency wartime rights and social objectives as in power sedition interests distinguished from tactics 3wnership Private Private Private unless gov has public to take over to insure public service Differences Instrument for Instrument for Media must assume State owned and 39rom others effecting gov policy not necessarily gov owned checking on gov and meeting other needs of society obligation of social responsibility and if they don t someone closely controlled media existing solely as arm of state must see that they do Major premise of the social responsibility theory of the press Freedom carries concomitant obligations and the press which enjoys a privileged position under gov is obliged to be responsible to society for carrying out certain essential functions of mass communication in contemporary society To the extent that the pess recognizes its responsibilities and makes them the basis of operational policies the libertarian system will satisfy the needs of society To the extent that the press does not assume its responsibilities some other agency must see that the essential functions of mass communication are carried out Bok s ethical decisionmaking framework p 5 25 Introduced in Lying Based on 2 premises 0 We must have empathy for people involved in ethical decisions 0 Maintaining social trust I fundamental goal Ethical questions analyzed in 3 steps 1 Consult own conscience about rightness of action 2 Seek expert advice for alternatives to the act creating the ethical problem 3 Conduct public discussion W parties involved in dispute or hypothetically Pluralistic Theory of Value p 12 32 William David Ross there is often more than one ethical value simultaneously competing for preeminence in ethical decision making Differs from Kant Mill only ONE ultimate value Competing ethical claims duties are equal 1 Duties of ak23931 based on my implicit or explicit promise 2 Duties of rgbamlz39on arising from previous wrongful act 3 Duties of gratitnde arising from previous wrongful act 4 Duties of jnylz39ce that arise from necessity to ensure the equitable and meritorious distribution of pleasure or happiness 5 Duties of bene cence that rest on fact there are others in world whose lot we can better 6 Duties of refimprovement that rest on the fact that we can improve our own condition 7 One negative duty duty of not z39njnrz39ng 0279675 2 more implied duties 0 Duty to tell the truth nemczy o Duty to nn nre to help others achieve some measure of self worth and achievement Ross divided duties into 2 kinds 0 Prima facie duties that seem right b c of nature of act itself keeping promises o Duty proper paramount duties given speci c circumstances EX feeling bad breaking a promise even when we are justi ed in doing so Uneasiness comes from breaking a prima facie duty even though we ve fulfilled another Differences between the state of nature and the civil state Man loses natural liberty and unlimited right to everything Hale of nalnre You can do anything stronger than you steal things 0 Fights battles at peril of lives in defense of preservation Cz39nz39l mm start thinking about associations beyond yourself larger society 0 More evolved more civilized mode than natural state 0 You give up right X o Nobody is losing b c everyone is giving up same amount of rights 0 Deprives himself of some advantages which he got from nature but gains in return others so great o Acquire moral liberty makes master of himself Appetite is slavery Rousseau s act of sovereignty 1st case The will when declared is an act of sovereignty and constitutes law 2nd case particular will or act of magistracy 0 every act of sovereignty ie every authentic act of general will binds or favors all citizens equally so that the Sovereign recognizes only the body of the nation and draws no distinctions b t those of whom it s made up 0 NOT a convention b t superior inferior BUT a convention b t body and each of its members 39 It s legitimate b c based on social contract equitable and common to all useful b c it can have no other object than general good stable b c guaranteed by the public force and the supreme power 0 Subjects obey no one but their own will Sovereign name for collected society people governing together Individuals are members of Sovereign Sovereign s interest IS that of whole society Agreement of group w each of its members NOT an arrangement b t superior and inferior Directed equally NOT to individuals Must be consistent w demands of liberty Exercise of general will Plato s contributions to authoritarian theory Idealized aristocratic form of gov Convinced that nature of man including material interests and selfish passions would tend to degrade gov from aristocracy to timocracyto oligarchyto democracyto tyranny Thought state was safe only in hands of wise men magistrates who are governed by moral authority and who use this authority to keep the elements of society in line Just as the wise man disciplines himself by keeping the impulses greed under control by intellect so in society the magistrate keeps other classes of members from degenerating into confused chaos Plato once authority in a state is equally distributed degeneration sets in Plato conceived ideal society as one in which state established and enforced unity of political and cultural goals 0 Rigorous control of opinion and discussion 0 Coordinate life of citizen under strict cultural code that banned art opinion not in accord w his own gospel o Said he would send offenders to another city 0 Also the artists would have to submit work to magistrate first so they could decide if it was good for spiritual health of the citizens Why is Hegel considered the principal exponent of the political theory of authoritarianism Modern Communism and Fascism attributed to him modern authoritarianism all should participate in the business of the state individual needs to be informed about and concerned w public problems only as a member of a social class group society or organization NOT as a member of the state Hegel on freedom freedom of the individual to know that he is not free but that his actions are determined by history by society and above all by the Absolute ldea which nds its highest manifestation in the state The State is provided w the maximum of rights over against the individual citizens whose highest duty it is to be members of the State In the context of authoritarian theory why is Marx generally regarded to have turned Hegel on his head Hegel maintained that the state was the means whereby the individual could achieve self expression 0 Marx insisted that the relation should be reversed The individual is not an end in himself but a means to the self realization of society of which he is an integral part Differences between the Soviet system of media management and other authoritarian systems 1 Communists place greater emphasis on the positive use of mass media as part of the agitation for the accomplishment of a world revolution 21 Under Communism state is not content to restrict mass media from interfering W state policies it actively employs media for accomplishment of its objectives 2 Under communism state holds a monopoly over all avenues of reaching the masses a The state on behalf of the public owns and operates all units of the mass media Imposes severe restrictions on importation of foreignoriginated materials by embargo Social responsibility theory similar to Soviet theory Soviet theory predicates exercise of rights on acceptance of accompanying duties BUT under Soviet theory duty is to the proletariat Under social responsibility theory duty is to one s own conscience Soviet theory one forfeits legal claim to right of free expression if he ignores duty on which it depends Control of media through traditional areas of the law under authoritarian systems 1 Granting of special permits patents to selected individuals to engage in art and mystery of printing grants a Issued to printers for law books school books religious books historics plays etc b Patent system most successful in England 2 Licensing systems censorship a Work submitted for examination to state 3 Prosecution a Before the courts for violation of accepted or established legal rules of behavior b Treason and sedition basis for prosecutions Libertarian concept of the rational individual Man is an end in himself Happiness and well being of individual is goal of society and man as a thinking organism is capable of organizing world around him and making decision which will advance his interests Man in the long run tend to advance cause of civilization w ability to think remember utilize experience and arrive at conclusions Man is unique prime unit of civilization and mover Ful llment of individual becomes ultimate goal goal of man society and state Though argument of God and truth could be argued whatever was at the end of life was de nite provable and acceptable to rational men John Locke s theory of popular sovereignty Like Hobbes social contract permanent and irrevocable BUT legislative was only empowered to legislate for public good If that trust violated people retained power to replace legislative w new one Didn t intend popular intervention to be commonplace Creation of the people to form civil society and who entrust authority to government Natural condition of mankind is individual person Impossible to renounce one s natural rights life liberty estate in process of creating sovereign power No one is obligated to obey commands of illegitimate gov People are rational reasonable creatures Gov is by consent of governed answerable to people Morality is individual society cannot dictate duties and responsibilities John Stuart Mill s approach to the problem of authority versus liberty from a utilitarian perspective Mill liberty was right of mature individual to think and act as he pleases so long as he harms no one else by doing so All human action should aim at creating maintaining and increasing greatest happiness for greatest number of persons good society is one in which greatest possible number of people enjoy greatest possible amount of happiness 0 Give members right to think act for themselves Basic propositions of S Mill as regards liberty of expression If we silence opinion we silence truth A wrong opinion may contain a grain of truth necessary for nding whole truth Even if commonly accepted opinion is whole truth public tends to hold it not on rational grounds but as prejudice unless forced to defend Unless commonly held opinion is contested from time to time it loses vitality and its effect on conduct and character Thomas Jefferson s concept of press freedom Jefferson press an essential source of info and guidance and in order properly to perform its function in democracy press should be free from control by the state Principal function of gov is to establish and maintain a framework w in which individual could pursue his own ends Function of press to participate in education of individual and at the same time to guard against deviations by gov from its original purposes Despite press errors press should be subject to a minimum of interference by gov Man governed by reason and truth leave open to him all avenues to truth Press is rst shut up by those who fear investigation of their actions People may safely be trusted to hear everything true and false and to form a correct judgment b t them Jefferson hold open the doors of truth and strengthen the habit of testing everything by reasonmost effective means we can put on successors The clear and present danger test as regards freedom of expression Question in every case is whether words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent Question of proximity and degree freedom of speech CAN be limited by gov O gov can only do so when there is a clear and present danger Tasks ascribed to the press as we evolved from libertarian to social responsibility theory Servicing the political system by providing information discussion and debate on public affairs Enlightening the public so as to make it capable of self gov Safeguarding the rights of the individual by serving as a watchdog against gov Servicing the economic system primarily by bringing together the buyers and sellers of goods and services thru the medium of advertising Providing entertainment Maintaining its own financial self suf ciency so as to be free from the pressures of special interests Technological growth and the development of social responsibility theory of the press Technological advances increased size speed ef ciency of old media and brough enw ones movies radio TV 0 Grew advertising major support of newspapers magazines broadcasting Urbanization Education gains expanded market for products of the press Press became controlled by a few owners b c of big costs Technological improvement made it possible for just a few media to serve vast audience Daily newspapers decreased 5 publishers for mags 5 companies produced movies 3 networks in broadcasting Criticisms leveled against the press in the 20th century 1 Press has enormous power for its own ends Owners put out their opinions politics economics at expense of opposing views Press is subservient to big business has let advertisers control editorial policies content Press resists social chance Press paid more attention to super cial sensational than current news Entertainment lacking in substance Press endangered public morals Press invades privacy wo just cause 7 Press controlled by one socioeconomic class business class access to industry difficult for newcomers Free and open market of ideas is endangered Responsibilities of the press to contemporary society according to the Commission on Freedom of the Press 3 If press doesn t meet requirements then community and gov should protect his interests 4 Commission freedom of the press is somewhat of an empty right for the person who lacks access to the mass media Differences between negative and positive freedom as can be seen through libertarian and social responsibility theory 5 Libertarian theory negative liberty freedom from external restraint a Leaving individual free to work out in own destiny b Free himself from outside forces by discovering unchanging laws of nature which governed universe c Enough to remove restrictions on man and remove all but minimum of restrictions of press i If press were free it would feed info ideas into market place Press has been edging away from concept b c it provided no instruments for prying info from gov 6 Social responsibility theory positive liberty freedom for attainment of desired goal a Sees purely negative liberty as insufficient and ineffective empty liberty To be real freedom must be effective Not enough to tell man he is free to achieve his goals one must provide him w appropriate means of attaining goals Libertarian versus social responsibility theory 7 Differ in view of nature of man 8 Social responsibility theory re ects doubts which contemporary social science and contemporary thought have cast of rationality of man Also man is viewed not so much irrational as lethargic capable of using his reason but loath to do so easy prey for manipulators 9 Citizen in libertarian theory had the right to be uninformed or misinformed but assumption was that his rationality and desire for truth keeps him from being so Ayn Rand s objectivist ethics Advocate of Egoism or Objectivism Objectivist ethics Actor must always be the beneficiary of his action and that man must act for his own rational self interest 0 His right to do so is derived from his nature as man and from the function of moral values in human life 39 Applicable on in context of rational objectively demonstrated and validated code of moral principles which define determine actual self interest NOT a license to do as he pleases and NOT applicable to altruists image of a sel sh brute nor to any man motivated by irrational emotions feelings urges wishes or whims Objectivist ethics is a morality of rational self interest or of rational Je iylynem 0 concern with one s own interests Piaget and Kohlberg s approaches to moral development People can develop morally b c moral development 0 Occurs w in the individual 39 When they become aware of their reasons for acting a certain way 0 Parallels intellectual development 39 Can t morally develop until a person has attained a certain intellectual capacity 0 Occurs in a series of universal unvarying and hierarchical stages 39 Person must pass thru earlier stages of moral development before advancing to later stages 0 Comes thru con ict 39 Developing moral person learns more complex behaviors strategies when older Piaget s stages of moral development early development before age 2 39 interest in marbles motor put marbles in mouth f1rst stage egocentrism age 3 7 39 parallel play no coherent set of rules 39 I do it b c it feels right second stage heteronomy age 7 8 39 individual responsibility obedience enforced thru punishment 39 rules are unbreakable handed down from outside authority gures older children 39 children don t understand reason behind rules third stage autonomy begins age 11 39 children internalize rules understand reasons behind them 39 fair play 39 authority is internal 39 independent Kohlberg s 6 moral stages 0 In his studies men scored higher than women on stages of moral development Some feel his conception is too restrictive when compared to Piaget s MORALITY IS BASED ON JUSTICE Level 1 Preconventional 39 Stage 1 heteronymous morality display of simple obedience avoiding punishment 39 Stage 2 individualism emergence of self interest Rules followed when they are in one s self interest everyone allowed same freedom expecting reward Level 2 Conventional 39 Stage 3 interpersonal conformity living up to what others expect Treating others how you want to be treated conforming to group expectations 39 Stage 4 social systems recognition that one must fulfill duties to which one has agreed Doing one s duty respect for authority and maintaining social order all goals in this level Laws upheld unilaterally except in extreme cases where they conflict w other f1xed social duties following rules broader society and individual s role in it O Level 3 Postconventional Stage 5 social contract and individual rights becoming aware that one is obligated by whatever laws agreed to by due process Social contract demands we uphold laws even if they re contrary to best interests because they exist to provide greatest good for greatest number autonomous moral agent rules of society relative fundamental rights respect other b c of social contract obligation to all of society law is good unless harming weak Stage 6 universal ethical principles these are self selected and guide this person Follow principles even if laws violate Principles include equality of human rights and respect for dignity of humans as individual beings regardless of race age socioeconomic status or contribution to society valuing human beings go w ethics over law may violate social norms Hobbes Locke Rousseau State of nature Constant war poor nasty brustish and shortquot Perfect equality and freedom Freedom to act as one wishes irrational Give up amp gain Give up natural Give up perfect Give up natural rights freedom full of liberty Gain safety danger Gain civil liberty security Gain protection of an equivalent for life liberty estate everything lost Purpose of Security Avoid state of war The enact the government protect property general will Authority Sovereignawe Legislature w Sovereign the terror fiduciary power people collectively Hobbes Locke Rousseau Rights Granted by the Godgive against Not discussed in Sovereign divine right of depth what the kings collective decides Duties To the law the None except to self Implicit in the Sovereign contract required look after others Morality Arises only win the contract Exists independent of society quotrightquot Arises w the contract quotRightquot quotrightquot defined by defined for self defined collectively Sovereign Property Granted by and The key purpose of Owner is steward accountable to society is use property for Sovereign protection of property pubhcgood
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