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Test 5 Study Guide

by: Mari Rada

Test 5 Study Guide MKT 2030

Mari Rada


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Last test before the final!
Buyer Behavior
Dr. Ronald
Study Guide
Culture, Subculture
50 ?




Popular in Buyer Behavior

Popular in Marketing

This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mari Rada on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MKT 2030 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Ronald in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Buyer Behavior in Marketing at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 04/18/16
Culture  mental frames and meanings that are shared by most people in a social group  What do cultural meanings include?  Common perspectives, typical cognitions (beliefs), affective reactions (feelings), and  characteristic patterns of behavior  How can cultural meanings be analyzed?  ­Macro (Canada, France, UK) ­Subcultures (elderly, young adults) ­Social classes (middle/working class) ­Reference groups (social cliques) ­Family (limited or extended)  How are cultural meanings created?  By people  Cultural meanings are constantly in ____________ and can be subject to  _________ changes.  motion rapid  Social groups differ in the amount of ____________ people have to adopt and use certain _____________ meanings.  freedom cultural  Marketers typically focus on identifying the _____________ values of a society,  but culture is more than __________.  dominant values  What does the content of culture include?  ­Beliefs, attitudes, goals and values held by most people in a society ­Meaning of characteristic behaviors, rules, customs and norms people must follow ­Meanings of significant aspects of the social and physical environment including major social  institutions and typical material goods used by people.  What is the goal of cultural analysis?  To understand cultural meanings of concepts from the point of view of the consumers who create and use them  True or False: Behaviors can have important cultural meanings  True ­ etiquette varies by culture  Marketers need to _______________ the cultural meanings of their products and  brands.  understand/ be sensitive to  How do marketers measure cultural content?  ­Content analysis ­Ethnographic fieldwork ­Measures of values  What is content analysis?  Reading content from material goods produced by the social group  What is Ethnographic fieldwork?  Observations of consumer's emotional responses, cognitions and behaviors during their ordinary  daily lives  What are measures of values?  Use procedures to directly measure the dominant cultural values in a society  What are core values?  The abstract end goals people strive to achieve in their lives  By knowing the _______ _________ held by people in a society, marketers can  understand the basis for the customer­product relationship.  Core values  What can changing values in America create for marketers?  ­problems ­opportunities ­usually accompanied by changes in behavior  As consumers' _________ change, their means­end connections with existing  products and brands also change, which can change the ______________­ ____________ relationship.  values consumer­product  What is a cultural process?  describes how cultural meaning is transferred between locations by the actions of organizations  and individuals in society.  Where is cultural meaning present when looking at culture as a process?  3 locations: ­social & physical environments ­products & services ­individual consumers  What 2 ways are cultural meanings transferred into society?  1. Marketing strategies designed to move cultural meanings from physical & social environments into products & services 2. Consumers seek to acquire cultural meanings in products in order to establish a desirable self­ concept  How are meanings moved into products?  ­Advertising (symbols) ­Pricing strategies (prestige/value) ­Design strategies ­Distribution strategies (push/pull) ­Products, stores, & brands express cultural or symbolic meaning  Cultural ___________ of products vary across different societies  meanings  Do all people in a social group perceive a product, brand or activity to have the  same cultural meaning?  NO  Products can contain __________ meaning in addition to cultural meaning.  personal  What are rituals?  Symbolic actions performed by consumers to create, affirm, evoke or revise cultural meanings  Are all rituals formal ceremonies?  NO ­ many are common aspects of everyday life, however most people don't recognize their  behavior as ritualistic  What are the 4 types of rituals?  1. Acquisition (bargaining) 2. Possession (product nurturing/personalization) 3. Exchange, grooming rituals 4. Divestment ­ remove meaning from products  Shared cultural meanings of a brand are a ________ part of its brand  __________ or value.  large equity  Celebrities are ____________ objects with specific cultural meanings.  Cultural ­can be related to credibility and expertise  How can marketers help transfer cultural meanings from the products to the  customers?  By understanding the role of rituals in consumer behavior.  What are some cross­cultural differences?  ­Consumption culture ­Self­concept (affects interpretations of product meanings and use) ­Similar cross­cultural changes create similar marketing opportunities in societies ­Materialism (possessiveness, envy, level of generosity)  International marketing managers should be ____________ to and have  _____________ for cross­cultural differences in meaning.  sensitive tolerance  Managers from the __________ culture bring an intimate knowledge of cultural  meanings to strategic decision making.  Local  ___________ is one of the most difficult regions to market to due to considerable  cross­cultural differences.  Europe  What is a subculture?  A distinctive group of people in a society that share common cultural meanings for affective and  cognitive responses, behaviors, and environmental factors  What are some types of subcultures?  Age, religion, race, income, nationality, gender, family type, occupation, geographic region,  community size  How can subcultures be analyzed?  At different levels of demographic characteristics ­ adding demographic criteria will segment  subcultures into smaller, precisely­defined groups  Marketers identify the typical ________________, ____________, and  ______________ tendencies shared by people in the subculture  Characteristics meanings behavioral  What is poly­cultural?  A mosaic of subcultures (U.S)  What 4 ways do regional subcultures arise?  1. Climate 2. Natural environment/resources 3. Characteristics of immigrants that settled in each region 4. Significant social and political events  Joel Garreau divided the continent into 9 nations of North America  New England, The Foundry, Dixie, The Breadbasket, The Islands, Mexamerica, Ecotopia, The  Empty Quarter, Quebec (Canada)  Age as a subculture  ­age groups have distinctive values and behaviors  What is cognitive age compared to chronological age?  How old a person considers himself to be/feels/behaves  What are the Age subcultures?  Baby Boomers Gen X Gen Y Milennials  Describe the teen market  ­growing affluence, size fluctuating ­major influence on HH purchases ­discretionary purchasing power ­forming brand loyalties  Describe the baby boomers  *considered largest & most affluent group in history ­born 1946­64 ­blend of "me generation" and old­fashioned family values ­health conscious ­quality, not bargain, hunters ­Most lucrative and challenging group for marketers  Describe the mature market  ­Over age 55 ­one of most rapidly growing subcultures ­considerable discretionary income ­more time to enjoy leisure & entertainment ­developing marketing strategy is difficult  What are the 2 main reasons for changing the ethnic makeup of the US?  immigration patterns & differing birthrates  What are ethnic subcultures?  Members' unique shared behaviors are based on common racial, language or nationality  background  What is the largest subculture in the US?  Hispanic  Describe the African American subculture  $1.1 trillion buying power (grow 25%) Younger than whites, less education, lower HH income (differences decease as function of  education) 1/3 incomes are >$50,000  What are the 3 broad segments of the Hispanic market?  Only spanish­speaking Bilingual favoring spanish Bilingual favoring english  Describe the Hispanic subculture  *Avg. HH income is low $1.2 trillion buying power (grow 33%) Income, education, language and identification with Hispanic culture change across generations *Level of acculturation major role, 40% of growth due to immigration  What ethnicities/nationalities comprise the Hispanic market?  Mexican Americans (66%), Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Other Latinos from spanish­speaking  cultures  What are the generational groups within the Hispanic market?  1. First generation (63%)­traditional values, lowest education & income, spanish­speaking 2. Second generation (19%)­bilingual, likely to identify as American 3. Third+ generation (17%)­ US born parents, highest education & income, English primary  language  What is bicultural?  Acculturating by adding a second culture, not replacing their first  Describe the Asian subculture  ­highest education & income $713 billion buying power (grow 37%) ­most diverse with numerous nationalities, languages & religions  What nationalities comprise the Asian market?  Chinese (29%), Filipino (22%), Vietnamese (13%), Korean (13%), Japanese (9%), Other (14%)  Describe the Native American subculture  550 tribes with unique language and traditions ­limited incomes, but vary by tribe $96 billion buying power (grow 28%)  What must marketers be careful of when marketing to Native Americans?  ­stereotyping history or current status ­names and portrayals must ensure accurate & appropriate use  Describe the Asian­Indian subculture  Share many traits: place high value on education, husbands have dominant role in decision­ making  True or False: Gender differences may be significant enough to consider males  and females as separate subcultures  True: ­marketers develop different strategies for each *Women today make or influence most purchase decisions  What are the 3 income levels to identify subculture?  1. Downscale (<$33,000) 2. Middle income ($33K­$55K) 3. Upscale (>$55,000)  What is acculturation?  How people in one sub/culture understand and adapt to the meanings of another sub/culture  What is consumer acculturation?  how people acquire the ability and cultural knowledge to be skilled consumers in different  sub/cultures  Why is acculturation important?  For people who move to different regions within the same country and must adapt to different  subcultural meanings ­depends on level of cultural interpenetration  What is cultural interpenetration?  amount and type of social interactions with people in the host culture  What are the 4 stages of acculturation?  1. honeymoon 2. rejection 3. tolerance 4. integration *proficiency in the language is important  Is the US religious or secular?  Largely secular, but religion does directly influence the behaviors of many Americans and has  historically influenced traditions and values of American society ­holidays, products consumed/avoided, religious behaviors  What are the Christian religious subcultures?  1. Roman Catholic ­ 21% Americans, larger avg family size, fewer consumption restrictions 2. Protestant ­ 45% Americans, values shape core American culture, most are middle­of­the­road conservative, many types of faiths 3. Born­Again Christians ­ literal truth of Bible, lower education & income, traditional values  What are the non­Christian religious subcultures?  1. Jewish ­ combination of ethnic and religious identity, higher income & education,  conservative & mainstream distinctions 2. Muslim ­ culturally diverse, all follow Koran, family­centered, conservative consumption of  alcohol and sexual permissiveness 3. Buddhist ­ Asian Americans or whites, believe in samsara, karma, and nirvana, largely ignored by marketers  What is social class?  National status hierarchy by which groups and individuals are distinguished in terms of esteem  and prestige ­influenced strongly by education and income ­can be further classified as over­privileged, average, underprivileged  What are the 4 social class groupings?  1. Upper 2. Middle 3. Working 4. Lower  Social classes are __________ but differ in characteristics like mobility and  openness.  universal ­American Rags to Riches mobility ­Caste systems (India) closed to mobility  If social class is not the same thing as money, what is it related to?  Lifestyle, tastes and preferences *People befriend people like them (social equals)  "Upper Crust" social class  Well­established family names Inherited wealth through family "Blue bloods"  "Nouveau Riche" social class  1.6% of population Newly earned money No well­established family name Attention­getting, conspicuous consumption  "Educated Elite" social class  Upper middle class Work is career Professions enabled by education Must work to achieve success  "Typical American" social class  Lower middle class work is means to end of getting paid DIY market  "Working class"  blue­collar paycheck­paycheck innovation & globalization undermine financial security  Disenfranchised class  homeless, live on subsidies from gov. social policies are used to direct resources to this group  What is meant by "haves and have nots"?  The gap between rich and poor is widest than ever in history  CEOS in the US make over _________ times what the average worker earns.  260  What is the difference between high, low and no­brow consumption?  High brow: luxury purchases like fine wine, cruise vacations, opera tickets Low brow: boxed wine, bowling, Chili's No brow: not specific to upper or lower class patrons, commonground (McDonald's, WalMart)  Why do people buy counterfeit or knockoff goods?  opportunity to own status goods at substantially lower prices ­ may be inferior or contaminated ­ growing demand  Generational cohorts:  Share similar life experiences, ages, life stages, needs and earning potential and tend to perceive  the world similarly.  Seniors Rule*  By 2020, 65+ seniors will outnumber teens ­more women (live longer than men) ­Fastest growing age group Significant events: great depression, WWII, Korean War, Rock'n'Roll, Elvis ­marketers should accommodate physiological changes of aging ­Financially and socially conservative  Baby Boomers ­ the Coca Cola Generation  1/3 population largest buying power products shaped to their expectations most challenging generation Event: JFK assassination  Generation X ­ Just Do It  Smallest generation entrepreneurial record high numbers of working moms and dads  Generation Y Millennials  Grew up on technology Instant gratification­focused Wifi/charging stations Serious influence on family purchase decisions  How should marketers treat Boomers, Seniors, Gen X and Gen Y?  Boomers & Seniors: Mass media, marketing by saturation the norm Gen X & Y: One­on­one, marketing by permission; stealth marketing, WOM, Social media,  gaming virtual reality 


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