POLS 1337 EXAM 1 Study guide
POLS 1337 EXAM 1 Study guide Pols 1337 US Govt Congress Pres and Crts
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Pols 1337 US Govt Congress Pres and Crts
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alejandro Perez on Sunday February 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Pols 1337 US Govt Congress Pres and Crts at University of Houston taught by Sharon Davis in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 208 views. For similar materials see US Govt Congress, Pres and Crts in Political Science at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/15/15
Exam 1 Study guide Pols 1337 Politics Who gets what when and how How do politics and government relate The result of politics lters up through GOVERNMENT to produce GENERAL WILL Government Exists for two reason Order and Security Makes us give up some civil liberties in order to provide us with such order and security 0 This arrangement is called SOCIAL CONTRACT Such idea relates back to Thomas Hobbes People sel sh and greedy therefore they must trust their freedom to a government to ensure order Key functions of government Security To protect its territory citizens and promote national secur y Preserve order and stability Establish and maintain a legal system Provide services to do this it needs to raise and spend money Socialize the new generations mainly through school system Kinds of governments Monarchy single ruler Oligarchy elite few run gov Direct democracy every person has an equal say Indirect or republican democracy representatives of the people make enforce laws Totalitarian gov controls every aspect of life Authoritarian similar to totalitarian though gov shares powers with certain entities Philosophers that in uenced the formation of the US system Thomas Hobbes 0 Social contract 0 Promoted the idea of monarchy John Locke 0 Big in uence in former gov o Gov is required to protect people s natural rights in return for their restraint of rebelion Montesquieu 0 Separation of powers in more than one branch The creation of USA important concepts 18th century twotier governing system Colonies Britain British policy incites rebellion 17561763 quotSeven year warquot Due to seven year war Britain used the colonies to increase revenue for the war Parliament started passing more laws that restricted the freedoms of the colonies Continental congress demands for political rights Congress assembled the declaration of rights and grievances to the king King refused the declaration The con ict became military shortly after that Second continental congress Made George Washington commander of the continental army While preparation for war many colonies were unsure of cutting ties with Britain quotPaine s common sense took away such doubts Only through independence would Americans attain civil and religious liberty Jefferson s declaration all men have natural rights People had the right to choose their gov and to abolish it as well made declaration of independence unique Each state constitution established a republic representative democracy Articles of confederation 1777 Only one body of gov Congress unicameral legislature They opposed a strong central gov making every state responsible for their own gov Amending the articles took all 13 votes of the 13 states Congress had limited authority over the states Gave a lot of powers to the states Central gov did not have enough power to maintain order Framers of the constitution RepubHcan 0 Opposed any centralization of power Wanted states to have the power Federalists o Recognized the need of a strong central gov Crafting the constitution The James Madison Model 0 Favored separation of power Executive Legislative Judicial 0 Checks and Balances Between the 3 branches Created so none of the branches accumulates more power than the other Politicking and compromises New Jersey plan 0 Each state equal representation 0 Advantage for smaller states Virginia plan 0 Representation based on population 0 Advantage for bigger states The great compromise o Uni ed both plans 0 Favored the establishment of a bicameral legislature Three fths compromise o Counted slaves as 355 of a person The new process for election THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE Created because framers did not think general public was educated enough Limited number of officials directly elected by citizens The candidate that wins the popular vote goes to the electoral coHege Those representatives vote in the electoral college for the presidency 270 electoral college votes needed to win presidency Texas has 36 electoral college votes Critics AGAINST Electoral College Critics FOR Electoral College lrrelevancy of popular vote Prevents urban centric Focus on large swing states victory o For example Texas is o If popular vote won mostly a republican every time we d only state therefore a focus on big cities democratic candidate Maintains federal character would not spend a lot of the nation of time and money Neutralized turnout here disparities between states Third parties Discourages turnout and participation Amendment process Amendments can be proposed by a 23 votes of both houses of congress Or By a national convention called by congress at the request of 23 of the state legislators Amendments can be rati ed by legislators in 34 of the states Or By ratifying conventions in 34 of the states ANY CONVINATION OF THOSE 4 CAN WORK Types of governments Unitary system 0 Central gov gives power to subnational governments 0 Most common form of gov 0 Local gov tipically have those powers rather than any reserved Confederal system 0 Where groups of the states retain their sovereignty over their geographic o BUT they agree to cooperate with other states US good example back in the day Federal System 0 Dual government 0 Divides government power Examples Australia Brazil lndia US 0 Certain powers are held by only one house and can t be overridden Advantages of the federal Disadvantages of the federal government government Permits diversity and Makes national unity difficult diffusion of power not all State gov can resist the power is at the top national policy More levels of government May permit inequality Local government solves a Laws and enforcement of local problem better them are uneven States may resist national Smaller units lack expertise government of treating complex policy Protects individual rights problems against concentrated Promote oca dominance for powers special groups Fosters innovation and Smaller units may lack funds experimentation of policy Separates us Takes away More access points for national unity political participation Powers of the national government Expressed powers 0 Article 1 Section 8 states most of them 0 Called quotenumerated powersquot Listed in the constitution as the responsibilities of the national government Within them there is something called quot the necessary and proper clausequot Such clause is used to enact whatever laws the gov deems necessary to carry out its powers created the implied powers Implied powers 0 Not stated in the constitution but implied in the government s needs to carry out its function Inherent powers 0 Major sources of powers recognized by all sovereign nanns o Inferred by the constitution 0 Based on the major role the constitution gets the president has the power to initiate executive agreements With other counties and does not require senate participation 0 President can send troops to battle without approval by congress Enumerated powers of national and states governments in constitution National Government States Government Can coin money Get their powers through Can conduct foreign the 10th amendment relations 0 Gave them RESERVED Can regulate commerce with other nations and between 0 powers All powers not vested states in the national Can provide for an army and government are navy reserved for states Can declare war Can establish national court system supreme Make laws necessary and proper clause to deem its necessities Right to bear arms States have the right to choose time place method of elections Can ratify amendments to the states constitutions Responsible for public health public safety and ethics Limits the state powers 0 Through the 14th amendment Texas constitutions Under the republic of Mexico 0 First constitution in Texas 0 Approved in 1827 0 Provided an unicameral legislature Republic of Texas constitution of 1836 0 When Texas declared itself as a republic independent from Mexico Statehood constitution of 1845 0 When Texas joined the union in 1845 0 First Texas state constitution Civil war and reconstruction constitutions of 1861 1866 and 1869 Constitution of 1876 0 Current constitution Constitutional Guarantees to States No state will be divided or combined without the consent of both states Each state is guarantee a republican form of government Each state has elections that select representatives for democratic policy Own militia Each state will at least have 1 member of the house of reps Every state participates in approving and disapproving the amendments of the constitution Interstate guarantees obligations lf disputes arise between states the supreme court used as a court of original jurisdiction is responsible to heardecide the case Citizens of each state are entitled to all rights 14th amendment privileges and immunities 0 Only one right that was protected by it was approved last year2013 DOMA Gay marriage rights Interstates contracts over 200 0 Many include all 50 states States cannot interfere with treaties and deals of foreign states States must not interfere with other states issues States forbidden to create taxes to other states Texas is not allowed to succeed from the US 0 The constitution is indestructible Gimmys When has government gone too far 0 Habeas corpus by Abraham Lincoln 0 McCarty era Where did the idea of Democracy come from o It was born in the ancient Greece Is the act of voting a good way to decide what people want o It does not really tell politicians what citizens want as it is a very blunt instrument to determine the general will How did Schwarzenegger become governor of California 0 By a recall election What parties do we link liberals and conservatives with 0 Liberals Democrats 0 Conservatives Republicans Which industrialized country has the highest income inequality in the world 0 The US First for of Government in the US o A confederation Texas is a quotright to votequot state What does that mean 0 You don t have to join a union to work in a company that has a union contract The last third party candidate to actually win Electoral College vote was 0 George Wallace How many times has the texas constitution been amended 0 Over 475 times State gov is many times refered to as laboratories of democracy 0 In federalists 51 Madison argued that adapting a federal government would protect the people from national government and unjust majority Last time congress declared war 0 WW2
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