BIO 1230 Test #4 Study Guide
BIO 1230 Test #4 Study Guide BIO 123
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Joannes on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 123 at Clemson University taught by Professor Minor in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Biology in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Exam 4 Study Guide Chapters Covered (as always, study from your notes. I take questions from what we go over in class. Use the listed chapters to help you understand) Chapter 13 and 13a Chapter 14.1-14.4 Chapter 15 Chapter 23 – very select parts, use your notes Chapter 24 – very select parts, use your notes Respiratory System Stages of respiration (ventilation à transport à exchange à cellular respiration) • Ventilation: moves air to moist membranes for diffusion of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide into/out of blood • Transport: uses the cardiovascular system • Exchange: movement of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide • Cellular respiration: uses Oxygen to burn Glucose Purpose of respiratory system • Provide the body with oxygen and to dispose of carbon dioxide, which also regulates the acidity of body fluids. This is done by the four stages of respiration listed above. Surface area and relationship to respiration • Increasing surface area allows for a larger exchange surface for these two gases increasing the efficiency of oxygen uptake every time somebody breaths Respiratory anatomy (parts and functions – see diagram) How we breathe – anatomy and physiology Respiratory measurements • Tidal volume: amount of air inhaled or exhaled during a normal breath • Inspiratory reserve: additional volume of air that can be brought into the lungs after normal inhalation • Expiratory reserve: additional volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs after the tidal volume • Vital capacity: maximum amount of air that can be moved int o and out of the lungs during forceful breathing o Tidal volume + inspiratory reserve + expiratory reserve = vital capacity • Total lung capacity: total volume of air contained in the lungs after the deepest possible breath o Residual volume + vital capacity = t otal lung capacity Lung disease including cancer and dangers of smoking • Can be classified based on pathology o Muscle Excitation problems § Impairs ability of the 2diaphragm o Problems with lung elasticity § Lungs become stiff o Airway resistance problems § Something is in the path of air (upper or lower airway) o Lung Cancer § Non-small Cell Cancers (easy treatment IF caught early) • Adenocarcinoma • Squamous cell carcinoma • Large cell carcinoma § Small Cell Cancers • Very rapidly growing • 87% of these are caused by smoking Digestive System Mechanical and chemical digestion – where each takes place for protein, carbohydrates and fat • Mechanical Digestion: happens in mouth and stomach • Chemical Digestion: starts in the mouth, then small intestines Anatomy & Function of each Major Organ • Nutrition What is a Calorie? • Calorie: the amount of energy needed to raise 1 kg of water 1 degree C • Calories are NOT nutrients. A nutrient is a substance the body needs for growth, maintenance or repair. Macronutrients: molecules our body cannot make to meet our needs and MUST be consumed • Carbs: fuel sources, simple sugars, starches, fiber • Proteins: most of us have protein overconsumption • Fats: fatty acids, saturated fats, unsaturated fats, cholesterol Micronutrients • Vitamins: organic compounds needed in small amounts o Prokaryotes living in our large intestines provide us with vitamins • Minerals: calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfer, chlorine, sodium, magnesium BMI, BMR, TMR • BMI: considers only weight relative to height o Body fat composition of 18% (male) – 20% (female) • BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) o Energy the body needs to maintain its essential functions o Depends on body surface area, age, gender, body temperature • TMR (Total Metabolic Rate) o Amount of Calories needed to fuel ALL activities o Depends on activity and food ingestion Immune System What can make us sick? • Bacteria: sometimes toxic producing, in which antibiotics can actually worsen • Viruses: most common, cannot be treated with antibiotics • Parasitic Protozones • Fungi: uncommon in normal immun e systems • Parasitic worms • Prions: infectious protein, Mad Cow Disease • Allergens • Self: autoimmune disorders, humans may actually be “too clean” 3 arms of defense • Non-specific defenses: attack everything the same. o Objective is the keep things out, and to p revent infection § Barriers: skin § Protecting the portals: tears, sweat, saliva, mucus § Out compete them: normal flora to the rescue o Key Players § Phagocytic White Blood Cells • Macrophages: big eating cells, eat the mess that natural killer cells make • Natural Killer Cells: like “throwing a hand grenade”. Attack cells indiscriminately § Cellular Proteins • Interferons: produced by viral infected cells to block additional viral infection • Complement: working in conjunction with other defense systems to aid in attack • Cytokines: increase WBC production, call in specific defenses o Inflammatory Response § Histamines go to capillaries • Specific defenses: specialists are called in when necessary o Key characteristics § Specificity: antigen recognition § Memory: secondary res ponses faster than primary responses o Two Components § T-Cells (cell-meditated immunity): one -on-one battle • Cytotoxis T cells: Killer T, snypers • Memory T cells • Helper: aircraft control • Suppressor: end of disease, shut off o If this doesn’t work, Auto-Immune Disorders occur § B-Cells (Humoral immunity): lymph nodes make antibodies • Cultural defenses: things we do to prevent diseases. o Examples: sewer systems, sneezing practices Active vs Passive Immunity • Active Immunity: body is stimulated to produce antibodies. o Lifetime o Ex: Disease or vaccination • Passive Immunity: antibodies are acquired in some manner o Temporary because the body still does not produce its own antibodies o Ex: newborns from mother in breastfeeding Actions of Antibodies Feeding a Hungry Planet – Human Impact on Ecosystem Current human population • ~7.2 billion people Population Models – r-selected vs K-selected • R-selected: predator & prey relations o “Boom” & “Bust” patterns of population • K-selected: reaches a carrying capacity o Exponential & plateau phases Carrying Capacity • Definition: the point at which an environment can sustain no further population growth • Limiting factors determine carrying capacity such as: foo d availability, shelter availability, reproductive capacity • Scientists believe that carrying capacity could be reached at 9 -12 billion people Ecological Footprint • Definition: balance of available resources and consumption of these resources • Biodiversity Land: the leftover lands that people have to work with. o Decreases when the population increases Costs of Feeding the human population • Costs of Grain and Vegetable Production • Costs of meat production Energy Pyramids • Sufficient energy is lost between trophic levels • Only about 10% of energy is transferred between trophic levels. Since humans eat high on the trophic levels, we lose a lot of the energy from the original producer Main Food Sources • Croplands • Rangelands • Oceanic Fisheries Solutions to Feeding a Hungry Planet • Technology solutions • Biotech solutions • Aquaculture solutions • Greater utilization of all crops • Transport solutions • New methods of growing Concerns with Feeding a Hungry Planet • Genetically modified foods • Food safety: spinach, castebury c hili, raspberries, chicken
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