Guide Exam 3
Makina Olt a Good Leavince Group E to make olt a cood leavincs Croup, protonate it by addince
- Ht to make it H2O
It will then be able to partisipate in substitution
Y + HBr > -And Elimination Reactions. Addinc H2SO4 or H3 PO 4 will
alexeys lead to elimination. Elimination reactions prefer to go through a tertian alcohol - if tertiary, Es is prefered. If you want to learn more check out What are the functions of foreign corporations in the us?
+ H2O - I acts like a base, took alt soa double bondcould form
Trans-Major oletess stenic hinderence
Cis-minor ble more storic
to, you could add PBro to make OH a good LG
-H Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of desegregating public transportation, montgomery, alabama?
for add SOCIz or make it a sulfonate ester R-$10%, like: We also discuss several other topics like How does air pressure depend on height in the atmosphere?
CHS De Choice as a sci
FA weaker base is a better leaving Group, and therefore more
If breaking a bond on either side of the oxygen would result in If you want to learn more check out What is the male sex-role identity paradigm?
a tertian, carbocation, then do Sul. The nucleophile attaches to the carbocation & the O is protonated
If breaking a bond next to Oxygen results in only pamainy and methyl Don't forget about the age old question of In economics, what are the types of product differentiation?
carbocations, then it coas through SuzO is protonated the bond to the least stable carbocation breaks, the nucleophile attaches to that. Don't forget about the age old question of What species was selam, and how old is her fossil?
OH + Br-CH3
Epoxides - In acidic conditions: H protonates 0, and the Nu will attack
the carbon attached to o that is more substituted, and has sever hydrogens.
er + H-Brz
If basic conditions: The nucleophile attacks the carbon that
is less Substituted, t has more hydrogen. Then Ois protonated
voo + CHOH CH s Nao) LOHocha
Occhiametelic Compounds - The carbons take é from the bond with the metal and acts like
ananionic naxleophile. Methyl is the most stable, tertiary is the least stable.
^ Br + 2li
IR Spectroscopt -Lichter atoms + Stroncsec bonds have higher frequencies
Amines - lamines have 2 spikes, 2 amines have I, + 3° amines have none
OH and Carbonyl Groups -
•Carbonyl Group X-Sharp Spike around 1700
• OH croup - broad oval above 3000
· Carboxylic Acid Jou-Spike at 100, and ovalis brodert closer to smo
CH bonding - sp is before 3000, sp2 is just before 3000, and Sp3
is just after 3000
FA molecule with resonance cuill bave a slightly lower absorption spectan
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
If civen benzene with no substituents, any I could be replaced
by an electrophile If benzene has an Electron Withdrawing Group attached, then
an electrophile can only attachio a metal position - except for halven EU
a NO2 If benzene has an Electron Darretina Group attached then an electrophile
can attach in Ortho or para positions. Halogens also follow this rule, even though they are EWGs
· EDG: -OR, -OH4, -NH2, -NR, , -R.
FEDG are more reactive than benzene, which is more reactive than
Ewls. Halocens are more reactive EWGs. -Friedel Crafts Acylation in
• An acyl group carbonyl replaces H
- Friedel Craft's Alkylation
· An alkyl group replaces H.
Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution -To do this, you need at least one EWG, a cood LG in ortho or
para position, and a nucleophile to add._ If the conditions are not met, the reaction will not accucoccuill be
EAS. If electrophile instead of Nu-EAS. If LG in meta Ne-norxn.
Addition Reactions - Nu is added to carbonyl carbono takes the
e and is then protonated. If it has possibility of resonance it is Stroncser base t reacts more easily
Substitution Reaction - There is a LG attached to the carbonyl
carbon, t it is replaced by a Ne
+ SH R Ch. SR cil - Reactions at the a-Carbon - The most acidic a-H is taken by a
base. The most acidic H is the one without which the compound
can do the most resonance
0:0 te + :80 Retr<->te + H-BA
1 Ketones R&R are more acidic than esters R ochs ?
Addinge nucleophiles to carbonyl croups
if a strong nucleophile is used-add Ne ist, then pootorcate o
Ho Ho No
2 R R = RR if a weak nucleophile s used - protonate o, then add No
O-H i Nor No OH
+ More methyl groups = less reactive bkc less space to react - More electronegative substituents = more reactive
Excimples of carbon Nuclrophiles for Addition Beactions - Gricmard Reassents to makes 1,20, or 3° alcohols
CH3CH2-MOBc + H H -> CH3CH2CH20. + HGS > CH3CH2CH2OH -Acetylide Amions as Carbon nucleophiles
H-C=C. Na tr
CH3CH + :N=C: -
The Chs attached replaces the =0
+ Ph, P=0
- Adding Hydrogen Nucleophiles
Li Al Hu and NaßHy donate a Ht
Substitution Reactions of Carboxylic Acids caith Leaving Groups - The weakest base is the best leaving group A nucleophile cuill a Hach more easily if the LG is more electronegative,
if the structure can resonate;t if there isn't a lot of steric Mindecance
PNo | -26 is replaced by No, making it a carbonyl group again