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Learning and Memory

by: Josef Mechure

Learning and Memory Psych 101 Voorhies - Intro to Psychology

Josef Mechure
GPA 3.3
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Voorhies

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About this Document

Definitions of different types of learning and the seven sins of memory. How memory is processed, stored, and encoded. The use of different studies to define how an organism learns.
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Voorhies
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Josef Mechure on Sunday February 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 101 Voorhies - Intro to Psychology at University of Washington taught by Dr. Voorhies in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 253 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 02/15/15
Learning and Memory Study Guide Memory 1 Provide an accurate and appropriate de nition of memory encoding storage and retrieval 0 O O 0 Memory the ability to store and retrieve information over time Encoding the process when we transform what we perceive think or feel into an enduring memory Storage process of maintaining information in memory over time Retrieval process of bringing to mind transformation that has been previously encoded and stored 2 Discuss the distinctions between elaborative encoding Visual imagery encoding organizational encoding and encoding of survivalrelated information 0 O Elaborative encoding process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory Visual imagery encoding process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures Organizational Encoding process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items Survival 0 Survival encoding condition feeling stranded 0 Moving encoding condition imagine moving away 0 Pleasantness encoding condition pleasantness of a word 3 Describe sensory memory storage and distinguish iconic memory and eclroic memory 0 O O Sensory memory storage holds sensory information for a few seconds or less Iconic Memory fastdecaying store of visual information Echoic Memory fastdecaying store of audio information 4 Distinguish the shortterm memory store from working memory describe the capacity of shortterm memory and discuss how rehearsal and Chunking contribute to the success of retaining information in it 0 O Shortterm Memory Store holds nonsensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute Working memory active maintenance of information in short term storage Capacity memory is limited in how long and how much information can be held Rehearsal process of keeping information in shortterm memory by mentally repeating it Chunking combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in shortterm memory 5 Describe the capacity of longterm memory storage and the role of the hippocampus contrast anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia O O O 0 Longterm memory storage A type of storage that holds information of hours days weeks or years Hippocampus acts an index that links together all of these otherwise separate bits so that they can be remembered as one memory Anterograde Amnesia inability to transfer new information from the shortterm store into the longterm store Retrograde Amnesia inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date usually the date of an injury or operation 6 Discuss memory consolidation reconsoiidation and the function of sleep in the consolidation of memories 0 O 0 Memory consolidation process by which memories become stable in the brain Reconsolidation process by which memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled requiring them to become consolidated again Function of Sleep sleep protects us from encountering information that interferes with our ability to remember 7 Describe the process of longterm potentiation LTP and how it contributes to the formation of memories 0 0 Longterm potentiation a process whereby communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens the connection making further communication easier Formation of memories 8 Discuss why and how the encoding speci city principle state dependent retrieval and transferappropriate processing are all aspects of retrieving information from memory 0 Encoding speci city principle a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps recreate the specific way in which information was initially encoded Statedependent retrieval tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval Transferappropriate processing the idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding contexts of the situations match 0 Retrieving information from memory 9 Describe several ways in which retrieval of a memory affects subsequent memory and then discuss the brain structures and functions underlying memory retrieval 0 Retrievalinduced forgetting process by which retrieving an item from longterm memory impairs subsequent recall of related items 10Distinguish among explicit memory Implicit memory and a special type of implicit memory termed procedural memory giving examples of each type 0 Explicit memory when people consciously or intentionally retrieve past experiences 0 Implicit memory in uence of past experiences on later behavior even without an effort to remember them on an awareness of the recollection 0 Procedural memory gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice or quotknowing how to do things 1 1Def1ne priming discuss how priming is useful and describe the brain mechanisms underlying priming o Priming An enhanced ability to think of a stimulus such as a word or object as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus 0 Brain mechanisms Occipital lobe involved in visual processing frontal lobe involved in word retrieval cortex involved in perceiving a word or object to identify the item after a recent exposure to it 12Distinguish between semantic memory and episodic memory provide an example of each and discuss the role of episodic memory in mental time travel 0 Semantic memory a network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world 0 Episodic memory collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place 0 Mental time travel projecting ourselves into the past and revisiting events that have happened to us Allows us to connect our pasts and our presents and to construct a cohesive story of our lives 13Discuss the memory quotsinquot of transience incorporating the curve of forgetting and how retroactive interference and proactive interference each contribute to the loss of information over time o Transience forgetting what occurs with the passage of time 0 Curve of forgetting rapid drop off of retention followed by a slower rate of forgetting o Retroactive interference situations in which information learned later impairs memory for information acquired earlier 0 Proactive interference situations in which information learned earlier impairs memory for information acquired later 14Describe the memory sins of absentmindedness and blocking o Absentmindedness lapse in attention that results in memory failure 0 Blocking a failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it 15Describe how the memory sins of misattribution and suggestibiiity involve elements of distorting remembered information discuss how source memory and false recognition might contribute to faulty eyewitness accuracy 0 Misattribution assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source 0 Suggestibility tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections 0 Source memory recall of when where and how information was acquired 0 False recognition a feeling of familiarity about something that hasn t been encountered before 16De ne bias and compare the memory distortions created by consistency bias and change bias 0 Bias distorting in uences of present knowledge beliefs and feelings on recollection of previous experience 0 Consistency bias bias to reconstruct the past to t the present 0 Change bias tendency to exaggerate differences between what we feel or believe now and what we felt or believed in the past 17Explain why persistence is considered a failure of memory when it involves an enhanced memory for some events 0 Persistence the intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget 18Discuss whether the seven sins of memory are virtues or vices 0 Seven sins of Memory the price we pay for the many bene ts that memory provides the occasional result of the normally efficient operation of the human memory system Troubling yet adaptive the costs we pay for bene ts that allow memory to work as well as it does most of the time Learning 1 List three key ideas in the de nition of learning and discuss the relationship between learning and behaviorism 0 Learning the acquisition of new knowledge skills or responses from experience that result in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner o Behaviorism an approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scienti c study of objectively observable behavior 2 Describe classical conditioning In doing so identify the unconditioned stimulus US unconditioned response UR conditioned stimulus CS and conditioned response CR in Pavlov s experiments and other preparations including drug overdoses 0 Classical Conditioning when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response 0 Unconditioned Stimulus something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism o Unconditioned Response a re exive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus 3 Compare the acquisition secondorder conditioning extinction and spontaneous recovery of a classically conditioned response 0 Acquisition the phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together 0 Secondorder conditioning Conditioning in which the stimulus that functions as the US is actually the CS from an earlier procedure in which it acquired its ability to produce learning 0 Extinction the gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented 0 Spontaneous recovery the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period 4 Discuss how stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination occur in classical conditioning o Stimulus Generalization a process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition 0 Stimulus Discrimination the capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli 5 Describe how John Watson conditioned a fear response in Little Albert 0 By taking masks a white rate a dog a rabbit and a burning newspaper and pairing them with the striking of a large steel bar with a hammer to produce a loud noise 6 Identify the cognitive elements of classical conditioning with focus on the principles identi ed in the RescorIaWagner mode 0 First to theorize that classical conditioning occurs only when an animal has learned to set up an expectation The sound of a tone because of its systematic pairing with food set up this expectation for the laboratory dogs 7 Distinguish between delay and trace conditioning and discuss how these procedures can shed light on the role of consciousness in classical conditioning 0 Delay CS is a tone that is followed immediately by the US 0 Trace conditioning uses the identical procedures with one difference In trace conditioning there is a brief interval of time after the tone ends and ebfore the air puff is delivered 8 Identify the neural elements of classical conditioning with a focus on the involvement of the cerebellum hippocampus and amygdala o Cerebellum critical for both delay and trace conditioning part of the hindbrain and plays an important role in motor skills and learning 0 Hippocampus important for trace conditioning but not delay conditioning o Amygdala experience of emotion including fear and anxiety critical for emotional conditioning 9 Identify the evolutionary elements of classical conditioning especially conditioned food aversions and preferences and the concept of biological preparedness 0 Biological preparedness a propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others 10Def1ne operant conditioning and distinguish between a classically conditioned response and an operant response 0 Operant conditioning a type of learning in which the consequences of an organism s behavior determine whether that behavior will be repeated in the future 1 1 Describe Thorndike s puzzle box and state the Law ofE ect o Thorndike s puzzle box the decrease of ineffective behaviors while the cat is trapped in the box trying behaviors such as scratching meowing or putting its paws through the openings 0 Law of Effect the principle that behaviors that are followed by a quotsatisfying state of affairs tend to be repeated and those that produce an quotunpleasant state of affairs are less likely to be repeated 12Discuss the methodological and theoretical contributions of B F Skinner to the study of reinforcement and punishment de ne and give an example of positive reinforcement primary and secondary negative reinforcement positive punishment and negative punishment 0 Reinforcement any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it o Punishment any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it 0 Primary reinforcement innately satisfying ie food physical contact 0 Secondary reinforcement associated with satisfaction ie money tokens 13Discuss the role of context in operant conditioning by noting the roles of discrimination and generalization in the stimulus control of behavior 0 Discrimination Contextual cues present during the behavior and consequence paring o Generalization Behavior is repeated in a wider variety of contexts o Stimulus Control a particular response only occurs when an appropriate discriminative stimulus is present 14Describe how an operant response is extinguished and contrast operant extinction with extinction of a classically conditioned response 0 Operant extinction When the reinforcement stops 15Explain how schedules of reinforcement affect learning include examples of xed Interval xed ratio variable Interval and variable ratio schedules 0 Fixed interval an operant conditioning principle in which reinforcements are presented at xed times provided that the appropriate response is made 0 Fixed ratio an operant conditioning principle in which reinforcement is delivered after a speci c number of responses have been made 0 Variable interval an operant condition principle in which behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement 0 Variable ratio schedules an operant conditioning principle in which the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses 16Explain how the shaping of successive approximations to a desired behavior can eventually produce that behavior 0 Shaping learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a nal desired behavior 17Explain how accidental associations between behavior and rewards can result in superstitions 0 Correlation between responses and reward when even though the connection is merely accidental 18Identify the cognitive elements of operant conditioning especially the concepts of latent learning and cognitive maps identi ed by Edward Chace Tolman o Latent learning something is learned but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the future 0 Cognitive maps a mental representation of the physical features of the environment 19Identify the neural elements of operant conditioning with a focus on the involvement of structures in the quotpleasure center of the brain 0 Pleasure center Eating drinking and engaging in sexual activity 20Discuss the evolutionary elements of operant conditioning especially the quotmisbehaviorquot of organisms that was rst identi ed by Marion and Kellar Breland o Misbehavior adaptive strategy for survival 21 Discuss how observational learning can occur in humans noting especially Bandura s research on modeling aggressive behavior and explain how observational learning can spread via a diffusion chain 0 Observational learning learning takes place by watching the actions of others 0 Diffusion chain individuals initially learn a behavior by observing another individual perform that behavior and then serve as a model from which other individuals learn the behavior 22Describe several studies demonstrating observational learning in animals 0 Pigeons in a box getting reinforced for either pecking at a feeder or stepping on a bar 0 Monkeys born in the wild in comparison to being raised in a environments that included human contact 23Identify the neural elements of observational learning with a focus on mirror neurons 0 Mirror neurons when an animal performs an action 24De ne Implicit learning and describe a simple form of implicit learning habituation o Implicit learning learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of information acquisition 0 Habituation general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction 25Describe how cognitive and neural approaches to the study of implicit learning have yielded characteristics of implicit learning that distinguish it from explicit learning 0 Distinct regions of the brain may be activated depending on how people approach a task 0 Arti cial grammar learning and sequence learning on the serial reaction time task language production tied to arti cial grammar learning


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