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Human Bonding Prelim 2 Study Guide- Part1

by: Ashley Notetaker

Human Bonding Prelim 2 Study Guide- Part1 HD 3620

Marketplace > Cornell University > Human Development > HD 3620 > Human Bonding Prelim 2 Study Guide Part1
Ashley Notetaker

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About this Document

Covers lecture material up to Love Sickness Symptoms Part 2 will cover the rest of lecture & reading material up to 4/14 Includes diagrams from lectures
Human Bonding
Cynthia Hazan
Study Guide
Human, Bonding, love, sex, infatuation, HD3620, hazan, psych
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HD 3620 at Cornell University taught by Cynthia Hazan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Human Bonding in Human Development at Cornell University.


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Date Created: 04/18/16
                WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW FROM LECTURE    What are some empirical study examples of propinquity effects on interpersonal attraction? On  what evidential basis can it be concluded that propinquity effects are powerful, enduring, intuitive,  and not explicit?  ­ Festinger et al 1950;  ­ Housing complex study:   ­ People who live next door are 4x more likely to be friends than people who live at  opposite ends of the hallway  ­ People who live upstairs will be 2x more likely to be friends with people downstairs  than they would with people who live in the middle of the hallway  ­ Building 17 had the fewest friendships  ­ Beck et al 2008  ­ Seating Arrangements Study  ­ Comparison of friendship intensity:  ­ Neighboring seats > same row  ­ Same row > different rows  ­ Why propinquity effects are powerful, enduring, intuitive and not explicit?  ­ When we list out factors we want in a mate, we don’t usually list propinquity as an element,  and yet these results show that it plays a huge role in developing interpersonal relationships  ­ Eg we have the implicit understanding that the course of having a “celebrity crush” can be  drastically changed if the person is placed in closer & consistent contact with the celebrity  (ie in an internship with the celebrity)     What is assortative mating?  A mating pattern and a form of sexual selection in which individuals with similar genotypes and/or  phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected under a randommating  pattern.     What are examples of ways in which mates are similar? What is the difference between mate  similarity due to active phenotypic assortment and mate similarity due to social homogamy?  ­ “Active Phenotypic Assortment” Hypothesis:  ­ Whatever your phenotypic traits are, you are always out there in the world actively  searching for a mate that has desirable characteristics  ­ “Social Homogamy” Hypothesis:  ­ When you meet someone who has a lot in common with you in ways that are important to  you, you might end up with them NOT because you’re actively seeking them out BUT  because they’re like the people that you spend the most time with  ­ There is evidence for both BUT social homogamy effects are kinda more powerful  ­ **Propinquity + Social Homogamy = Strong influences on our developing strong/important  relationships**    Research has shown that the very same person can be judged as more or less attractive  depending on a variety of contextual factors. Be familiar with such factors as physiological  arousal, mood, perceived scarcity, alcohol consumption, the color red (also pink), bodily scent,  and menstrual cycle phase and how each affects interpersonal attraction.  ­ Familiarity  ­ Repeated exposure enhances liking (only if first exposure was positive or neutral)   ­ Because it is easier to process and perceive familiar stimuli   ­ Stranger wariness & friend v foe judgements that occur within the first  milliseconds of seeing someone  ­ BUT new experiences are more exciting/stimulating and are thus more physiologically  arousing  whereas familiar interactions have the opposite effect and result in more relaxed,  comfortable feelings <­­Which can affect attractiveness  ­ Physiological Arousal  ­ If you’re more physiologically aroused (heart racing, shortness of breath, etc) you’re more  likely to find the person attractive  ­ Eg Capilano Suspension Bridge Study & Couples Exercise   ­ Mood  ­ Being in a more positive mood makes you more attracted to people  ­ Music increased people’s judgement of another  ­ Success on a task (pos instead of neg feedback) results in higher ratings of attractiveness  ­ Make a room uncomfortable (too hot or too cold) results in higher attractiveness ratings  ­ Perceived Scarcity  ­ The more choice you have, the less appealing each individual is (than they would be if they  were in a smaller mix of people)  ­ Alcohol Consumption  ­ The person who is evaluating will find people more attractive after alcohol consumption  (Parker et al 2008)  ­ Red/Pink  ­ A girl wearing a red shirt or with a red background will get a higher attractiveness  rating  even though the girl pictured is the same person  ­ For males: male competition (2013 study) red= aphrodisiac that would attract higher  testosterone males   ­ Bodily Scent  ­ MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex):  ­ Codes for disease and pathogen resistance  ­ Female humans * mice prefer the scents of males whose MHC is different from  their own  ­ *Note: These preferences are reversed for people on hormonal contraception/who  are pregnant  ­ These women (who are with males with similar MHCs to their own are  more likely to cheat and have less sexual chemistry)  ­ Men find female body odor much more attractive (elaborated on in next bullet about  Menstrual Cycle)  ­ Menstrual Cycle phase   ­ Men are more attracted and show increased testosterone response to women in follicular  stage of menstrual cycle  ­ Follicular phase > luteal phase > menstrual phase  ­ Smile  ­ Duchenne Smile > Pan American Smile  ­ Overall TakeAway     How do personality and social status affect interpersonal attraction?  Personality  ­ Positive emotion  ­ Warmth & kindness (think of seeing a pic of them with babies/puppies)  ­ Sense of humor (very powerful)   ­ When you can make someone else smile, you geel great and the other person is  more attracted to you  ­ Same principle works when we are talking to babies to make them laugh or  relax  ­ **Same person can be more attractive when THEY are in a positive mood and/or elicit  positive emotion from US  Social Status  ­ Material Resources  ­ Power (physical, mental, social)  ­ competence/confidence  ­ Focus of attention (celebrity)  ­ Locally defined​ : unlike phsyical appearance (which has a pretty set criteria), social status is  more local/whether that’s being the best dancer, smartest, singer in your socail network.  The person who is most accomplished in whatever it is (locally valued) is the “top”  preferred.    According to a study of over 10,000 people in 37 different cultures, how were male and female  respondents similar and different in what traits they reported seeking in a long­term mate?  ­ Same top 12 responses, just ordered differently after the first 4:  ­   ­ Pair A: warm > wealthy M/W, ST/LT  ­ Pair B: attractive > warm M/W ST; warm > attractive M/W LT  ­ Pair C: attractive > wealthy for M/W, ST/LT    How does reciprocal liking affect interpersonal attraction? What about playing “hard to get?”  ­ Appeal of those who find us attractive  ­ If someone doesn’t like you: “they’re probably a jackass”  ­ If someone likes you: “they’ve got good taste”  ­ We love people who are ​ hard​ for other people ​to get    According to the process model of mate selection presented in lecture, how do the multitude of  factors (including propinquity, similarity, familiarity, appearance, personality, status, context, and  reciprocal liking) help narrow the large pool of potential mates down to one?   ­ The reciprocal liking point is the ‘tipping point’: when you realize that you DO have a chance to get  the person that is hard for everyone else to get AND that you like them      Be familiar with the symptoms of romantic infatuation, its average duration and time course, its  underlying neurochemistry, and its theorized function.​   ­ Acute onset  ­ Come on all of a sudden  ­ Physiological Arousal  ­ Feel like they have a lot more energy BUT they eat and sleep less  ­ Mental Preoccupation******  ­ Imp feature of romantic infatuation  ­ It’s all youre thinking about all the time. BUT it’s INTRUSIVE thinking  ­ Mood Dependency  ­ Emotional roller coaster­­depends on if the person they’re interested in is interested back  ­ Idealization  ­ Arguably the most dangerous features of romantic infatuation  ­ You overlook the negative aspects that could potentially be disastrous   ­ Single Target  ­ You can only be infatuated with one person at a time (b/c it takes SO much energy)   ­ **Note: men become infatuated more quickly than women**     


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