HA & P Lecture Review Exam 3
HA & P Lecture Review Exam 3 Bio 2010
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsie Carter on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 2010 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Sabine Allenspach in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Lecture Exam 3 Review Chapter 9: Joints 1. Functional Classification of Joints: A. Syanthrosis- immovable (suture, gomphosis, synchondrosis, synostosis) i. suture: bones interlocked, are bound by dense fibrous CT (skull) ii. gomphosis: fibrous connection (periodontal ligament) (binds teeth into sockets) iii. synchondrosis: rigid cartilaginous bridge between two bones, epiphyseal cartilage of long bones (between vertebral sternal (true) ribs and sternum) iv. synostosis: fused bones, immovable, metopic suture of skull (epiphyseal plate) B. Amphiarthrosis- slightly movable (syndesmosos, symphysis) i. syndesmosis: distal joint between tibia and fibula ii symphysis: separated by fibrocartilage 9pubic symphysis) C. Diarthrosis- highly moveable, synovial joints (knee) I. planes of movement: Monaxial- movement in one plane, elbow and ankle Biaxial- movement in two planes, ribs and wrist Triaxial- movement in three planes, shoulder and hip 2. Structural Classification of Joints: A. Bony B Synovial C. Fibrous D. Cartilaginous 3. Synovial Joints: A. function: lubrication, nutrient distribution, and shock absorption B. moveable joints at ends of long bones C. within articular capsules, lined with the synovial membrane which produces synovial fluid D. Synovial Fluid- contains slippery proteoglycans secreted by fibroblasts 4. Joint Movements: A. Dynamic movements- linear (gliding), angular, and rotation i. planes or axes of dynamic motion: monaxial (one plane), biaxial (two planes), triaxial (three planes) B. Movement at synovial joints- gliding: two surfaces slide past each other (carpal and tarsal bones) C. Angular movement i. flexion: anterior- posterior plane, decreases the angle between articulating bones ii. extension: anterior-posterior plane, increases the angle between articulating bones iii. hyperextension: extension past the anatomical position iv. abduction: frontal plane, movement away from the midline v. adduction: frontal plane, movement towards the midline vi. circumduction: moving your arm in a loop D. Rotation- direction of rotation from anatomical position i. left or right rotation: rotation of the head ii. medial rotation or inward rotation iii. lateral rotation or outward rotation iv. pronation: turns the wrist and hand from facing front to palm back v. supination: palm is turned anteriorly, in anatomical position E. Special movements i. inversion: twisting movement of the foot that turns the sole inward ii. eversion: twisting movement of the foot that turns the sole outward iii. dorsiflexion: flexion at the ankle joint and elevation of the sole , as when you dig in your heel iv. planter flexion: extends ankle joint and elevate the heel, when you stand on tip toes v. opposition: movement of thumb toward the surface of the palm or pads of other fingers, enable you to grab or hold objects between your thumb and palm vi. reposition: movement of the thumb that returns the thumb and fingers from opposition vii. protraction: in the horizontal plane, pushing forward, pushing jaw forward viii. retraction: moving anteriorly, pulling back, pulling jaw back ix. elevation: when closing your mouth x. depression: when opening mouth 5. Axial movement: A. nonaxial B. monoaxial: one plane C. biaxial: two planes D. triaxial: three planes 6. Structures of Joints A. Shoulder Joint- also called the glenohumeral joint, allows more motion than other joints, is the least stable, suppoted by skeletal muscles, tendons and ligament i. glenoid labrum: socket of the shoulder joint, fibrocartilage lining, extends past the bone, deepens the socket of glenoid cavity ii. acromion (clavicle) and coracoid process( scapula): help stabilize the joint, superior to the humerus, iii. shoulder ligaments: a. glenohumeral b. coracohumeral c. coracoacromial d. coracoclavicular e. acromioclavicular iv. shoulder muscles- SITS a. supraspinatus b. infraspinatus c. teres minor d. subscapularis v. shoulder bursae: a. subacromial b. subcoracoid c. subdeltoid d. subscapular B. Elbow Joint- with articulations involving humerus, radius, and ulna i. humeroulnar joint: largest joint, limited movement, trochlea of humerus and trochlear notch of ulna ii. uneroradial joint: smaller joint, capitulum of humerus and head of radius iii. elbow ligaments a. radial collateral b. annular c. ulnar collateral C. Hip Joint- also called the coxal joint, wide range of motion i. ligaments of the hip joint: a. iliofemoral b. pubofemoral c. ischiofemoral d. transverse acetabular e. ligamentum teres D. Knee joint i. artculations: two femur-tibia articulations a. at medial and lateral condyles b. one between patella and patellar surface of femur c. medial and later menisci- fibrocartilage pads, cushion and stabilize joint, give lateral support ii. supporting ligaments a. quadriceps femoris (responsible for extending the knee passes over the anterior surface of the joint) b. patellar ligament, is made up of patellar retinaculae (two ligamentous bands that support the anterior surface of the knee) d. popliteal ligaments (between femur and the heads of the tibia and fibula, reinforce the knee joints posterior surface) e. anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) f. posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) g. medical collateral ligament (MCL) h. lateral collateral ligament (LCL) 7. Clinical Application: A. Shoulder Dislocation: blow to the top of the shoulder causing the humerus to pop out of the socket B. Shoulder Separation: blow or tear to the shoulder ligaments not the shoulder joint 8. Clinical Note: Meniscus Tear A. one of the most common knee injuries, caused from forcefully twisting or rotating the knee, especially when putting your full weight on it B. Bucket Handle Tear: tear and separation in the central part of a semilunar cartilage with the ends intact that produces a resemblance to the handle of a bucket C. Parrot Beak Tear: a neglected radial tear, usually an oblique one, may try to heal itself and round off into a rounded beak like a parrots beak, this can catch on joints D. Symptoms: popping sensation, swelling, stiffness, pain when twisting or rotating the knee, difficulty straightening the knee E. Treatment: initially rest, ice and over the cunter medication, if symptoms don’t change physical therapy to strengthen the muscles surrounding the knee, the last resource: surgery Chapter 10: Muscle Tissue 1. Muscle Tissue A. skeletal muscle: i. functions: produce skeletal movement, maintain posture and body position, support soft tissue, guard body entrances and exits, maintain body temperature, store nutrients ii. muscle tissue, nerves and blood vessels, CT iii layers: a. endomysium: surrounds individual muscle fibers b. perimysium: surrounds fascicles, contains blood vessels and nerves c. epimysium: surrounds the entire muscle B. cardiac muscle: i. striated, found only in the heart, striations are made of internal arrangement of myofilaments ii. has cardiac muscle cells: a. they are small, single nucleus b. have short wide T tubules, no triads c. have SR with no terminal cisternae d. are aerobic (high in myoglobin, mitochondria) e. have intercalated discs -specialized contact points between cardiocytes - join cell membranes of adjacent cardiocytes through gap junctions and desmosomes iii. Functions of cardiac muscle a. automaticity: contraction without neural stimulation, controlled by pacemaker cells b. variable contraction tension: controlled by nervous system c. extended contraction time: ten times as long as skeletal muscle d. prevention of wave summation and tetanic contractions by cell membranes: long refractory period C. Smooth Muscle i. forms around other tissues: a. integumentary system: around blood vessels, regulate the flow of blood to the superficial dermis, smooth muscles of the arrector pilli elevate hair b. cardiovascular system: encircles blood vessels and control the distribution of blood and help regulate blood pressure c. respiratory system: contract or relax to alter the diameters of the respiratory passageways and change the resistance to air flow d. digestive system: play an essential role in moving material along the tract, in the walls of the gallbladder which contracts to eject bile into the digestive tract e. urinary system: in the walls of small blood vessels alter the rate of filtration in the kidneys, also in the ureters to transport urine to the urinary bladder, and the contraction in the wall of the urinary bladder forces urine out of the body f. reproductive system: help move sperm along the reproductive tract in males and cause the ejection of glandular secretions from the accessory glands into the reproductive tract, in females it helps move oocyte along the reproductive tract and also contracts the walls of the uterus to expel the fetus at delivery ii. characteristics a. long, slender, and spindle shaped b. have a single central nucleus c. have no T tubules, myofibrils or sarcomeres d. have no tendons or aponeuroses e. have scattered myosin fibers f. myosin fibers have more heads per thick filament g. have thin filaments attached to dense bodies h. dense bodies transmit contractions from cell to cell iii. functional characteristics a. excitation- contraction coupling: I. free Ca in cytoplasm triggers contraction II. Ca binds with calmodulin ▯ - in sarcoplasm ▯ - activates myosin light chain kinase iii. enzyme breaks down ATP, initiates contraction b. length- tension relationships: I. thick and thin filaments are scattered II. resting length not related to tension development III. functions over a wide range of lengths (plasticity) c. control of contractions I. multiunit smooth muscle cells - connected to motor neurons II. visceral smooth muscle cells ▯ -not connected to motor neurons ▯ - rhythmic cycles of activity controlled by pacesetter cells d. smooth muscle tone I. maintains normal levels of activity II. modified by neural, hormonal, or chemical factors 2. Neuromuscular Junctions- special intercellular connection between the nervous system and skeletal muscle fiber, controls calcium ion release into the sarcoplasm A. NMJ STEP 1: The cytoplasm of the axon contains vesicles filled with molecules of acetylcholine, or ACh. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, a chemical released by a neuron to change permeability or other properties of anther cell’s plasma membrane. The synaptic cleft and the motor end plate contain molecules of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which break down Ach. B. NMJ STEP 2: The stimulus for ACh release is the arrival of an electrical impulse, or action potential, at the axon terminal. An ation potential is a sudden change in the membrane potential that travels along the length of the axon. i. action potential: depolarization (influx of Na+), repolarization (efflux of K+), and hyperpolarization (sodium-potassium pump) C. NMJ STEP 3: When the action potential reaches the neurons’ axon terminal, permeability changes in its membrane trigger the exocytosis of ACh into the synaptic cleft. Exocytosis occurs as vesicles fuse with neuron’s plasma membrane D. NMJ STEP 4: ACh molecules diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to ACh receptors on the surface of the motor end plate. ACh binding alters the membrane’s permeability to sodium ions. Because the extracellular fluid contains high concentration of sodium ions, and sodium ions concentration inside the cell os very low, sodium rushes into the cytosol. E. NMJ STEP 5: The sudden rush of sodium ions results in the generation of an action potential in the sarcolemma. ACh is removed from the synaptic cleft in two ways. ACh either diffuses away from the synapse, or it is broken by AChE into acetic acid and choline. This removal inactivates the ACh receptor sites. F. excitation- contraction coupling: action potential reaches a triad i. release of calcium ii. triggering a contraction 3. Myosin Cross-Bridge A. Step 1: Contraction Cycle: the contraction cycle begins with the arrival of calcium ions within the zone of overlap in a sarcomere B. Step 2: Activate Site Exposure: calcium ions bind to troponin, weakening the bond between actin and the troponin- tropomyosin complex. The troponin molecule then changes position rolling the tropomyosin molecule away from the active sites on actin and allowing interaction with the energized myosin heads. C. Step 3: Cross-Bridge Formation: once the active sites are exposed, the energized myosin heads bind to them, forming cross-bridges. D. Step 4: Myosin Head Pivoting: after cross-bridge formation, the energy that was stored in the resting state is released as the myosin head pivots toward the M line. This action is called the power stroke; when it occurs, the bound ADP and phosphate group are released. E. Step 5: Cross-Bridge Detachment: when another ATP binds to the myosin head, the link between the myosin head and the active site on actin molecule is broken. The active site is not exposed and able to form another cross- bridge. F. Step 6: myosin reactivation occurs when the free myosin head splits ATP and ADP and P. the energy released is used to recock the myosin head. 4. Functional Units: A. thin filaments: actin, binding site on G- actin molecules, nebulin, tropomyosin, and troponin complex B. thick filament: myosin, head and tail C. elastic filament: titin D. I-Bands: light bands E. A-Bands: dark bands F. M-Line: is the center of the A- band, connects the central portion of each thick filament to neighboring filaments G. Z-Disk: mark the boundary between adjacent sarcomeres H. H-Zone: lighter region on either side of the M-Line, contains thick filaments but no thin filaments 5. Clinical Note: Rigor Mortis A. is the medical term that is used to describe the hardening of body muscles after death, is the result of the body’s loss of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) B. Timeline: i. 0-8 hours: body starts to stiffen, but is still movable ii. 8-12 hours: muscles become completely stiff iii. 12-24 hours: muscles stay stiff iv. 24-36 hours: stiffness dissipates and muscles become flexible Chapter 11: The Muscular System 1. Agonist: prime mover, primary muscle that produces a particular movement (biceps brachii) Antagonist: opposes the movement of a particular movement (triceps brachii) Synergist: smaller muscle that assists a larger agonist, helps start motion or stabilize origin of agonist (fixator) (brachialis) 2. Muscle Locations A. Dorsal Region: B. Spinal Extensors: i. Splenius: -origin: spinous process and ligaments connecting inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebrae -insertion: mastoid process, occipital bone of skull, and superior cervical vertebrae ii. Spinalis Cervicis: -origin: inferior portion of ligamentum nuchae and spinous process of C -insertion: spinous process of axis iii. Spinalis Thoracis: -origin: spinous process of inferior thoracic and superior lumbar vertebrae -insertion: spinous process of superior thoracic vertebrae iv. Longissimus Capitis: -origin: transverse processes of inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebrae -insertion: mastoid process of temporal bone v. Longissimus Cervicis: -origin: transverse processes of superior thoracic vertebrae -insertion: transverse processes of middle and superior cervical vertebrae vi. Longissimus Thoracis: -origin: broad aponeurosis and transverse processes of inferior thoracic and superior lumber vertebrae; joins iliocostals -insertion: transverse processes of superior vertebrae and inferior surfaces of ribs vii. Iliocostalis Cervis -origin: superior borders of vertebrosternal ribs near the angles -insertion: transverse processes of middle and inferior cervical vertebrae viii. Iliocostalis Thoracis: -origin: superior borders of inferior seven ribs medial to the angles -insertion: upper ribs and transverse process of last cervical vertebra ix. Iliocostalis Lumborum: -origin: iliac crest, sacral crest, and spinous processes -insertion: inferior surfaces of inferior seven ribs near their angles x. Semispinalis Capitis: -origin: articular processes of inferior cervical and transverse processes ` of superior thoracic vertebrae -insertion: occipital bone, between nuchal bones xi. Semispinalis Cervicis: -origin: transverse processes of T1-T5 or T6 -insertion: spinous processes of C2-C5 xii. Semispinalis Thoracis: -origin: transverse processes of T6-T10 -insertion: spinous processes of C5-T4 xiii. Multifidus: -origin: sacrum and transverse if each vertebrae -insertion: sinous processes of adjacent, more superior vertebrae xiv. Rotatores: -origin: transverse processes of each vertebrae -insertion: spinous processes of adjacent, more superior vertebrae xv. Interspinales: -origin: spinous processes of each vertebrae -insertion: spinous processes of more superior vertebrae xvi. Intertransversarii: -origin: transverse processes of each vertebrae -insertion: transverse process of more superior vertebrae C. Spinal Flexors: i. Longus Capitis: -origin: transverse processes of cervical vertebrae -insertion: base of the occipital bone ii. Longus Colli -origin: anterior surfaces of cervical and superior thoracic vertebrae -insertion: transverse processes of superior cervical vertebrae iii. Quadratus Lumborum: -origin: iliac crest and iliolumbar ligament -insertion: last rib and transverse processes of lumber vertebrae D. Pelvis Diaphragm: 3. Muscle Actions: A. Shoulder Muscles i. Levator Scapulae: elevate scapula ii. Pectoralis Minor: depresses and protracts shoulder, rotates scapula so glenoid cavity moves inferiorly (downward rotation) iii. Rhomboid Major: adducts scapula and performs downward rotation iv. Rhomboid Minor: adducts scapula and performs downward rotation v. Subclavius: depresses and protracts shoulder vi. Trapazius: depends on active region/state of other muscles may (1) elevate, retract, depress or rotate scapula upward, (2) elevate clavicle, or (3) extend neck vii. Serratus Anterior: protracts shoulder, rotates scapula so glenoid cavity moves superiorly (upward rotation) viii. Supraspinatus: abducts shoulder ix. Infraspinatus: lateral rotation of shoulder x. Teres Minor: lateral rotation of shoulder xi. Subscapularis: medial rotation of shoulder xii. Deltoid: while muscle abducts shoulder, anterior part flexes and medially rotates humerus, posterior part extends and laterally rotates humerus xiii. Teres Major: extension, adduction, medial rotation at shoulder xiv. Coracobrachialis: adduction and flexion at shoulder xv. Pectoralis Major: flexion, adduction, and medial rotation at shoulder xvi. Latissimus Dorsi: flexion, adduction, and medial rotation at shoulde 4. Muscle Fasicle Arrangement A. Parallel (fusiform): i. fibers are parallel to axis of muscle ii. biceps brachii iii. depends on total number of myofibrils iv. directly relates to cross section of muscle v. 1 inch (6.45 cm) of cross section develops 50 lb 923 kg) of tension B. Convergent (collect into 1): i. broad area converges on attachment site (tendon, aponeurosis, or raphe) ii. muscle fibers pull in different directions, depending on stimuli iii. pectoralis major C. Pennate: i. angle of the fibers form an angle with tendon ii. do not move as far as parallel muscles iii. contain more myofibrils than parallel muscles iv. develop more tension than parallel muscles v. they shorter vi. pennate muscles: a. unipennate: fibers one side of tendon, extensor digitorum b. bipennate: fibers are on both sides, “V” shape, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius c. multipennate: tendon branches within muscle, deltoid D. Circular: i. also called sphincters ii. open and close to guard entrances of body iii. orbicularis oris or oculi 5. Clinical Note: Acute Compartment Syndrome A. occurs when the tissue pressure within a closed muscle compartment exceeds the perfusion pressure and results in muscle and nerve ischemia, typically occurs subsequent to a traumatic event, most commonly a fracture B. symptoms: new and persistent deep ache in an arm or leg, pain that seems greater than expected for the severity of the injury, numbness, swelling, tightness, and bruising C. treatment: surgeon makes a long incision through the skin and fascia layer underneath (fasciotomy), releasing excessive pressure Chapter 12: Neural Tissue 1. CNS- Central Nervous System, consists of the spinal cord and brain, contains neural tissue and CT and blood vessels A. function: i. process/integrate/coordinate sensory information and motor commands ii. Sensory data from inside and outside body iii. motor commands control activities of peripheral organs (skeletal muscles) iv. higher functions of brain; intelligence, memory, learning and emotion 2. PNS- Peripheral Nervous System, contains cranial nerves, all neural tissues outside of the CNS A. function: i. delivering sensory information to CNS ii. carrying motor commands to peripheral system B. Afferent Division: carries sensory information from PNS receptors to the CNS C. Efferent Division: carries motor commands from CNS to PNS muscles and glands i. Somatic Nervous System (SNS): controls voluntary skeletal muscle contractions and involuntary (reflexes) ii. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): controls subconscious actions, contractions of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, and glandular secretions a. Sympathetic Division: fight or flight, stimulating effect b. Parasympathetic Division: rest and digest, relaxing effect 3. Cells of the Nervous System A. Neuron i. cell body ii. dendrites: highly branched, receive information from other neurons iii. organelles: in the cell body a. nucleus and nucleolus: command center of the cell b. perikaryon: cytoplasm c. mitochondria: power house, produces ATP and energy d. RER and ribosomes: produce nuero transmitters e. cytoskeleton: -neurofilaments and neurotubules in place of microfilaments and microtubules - nuerofibrils: bundles of neurofilaments that provide support for dendrites and axon f. nissl bodies: dense areas of RER and ribosomes, make neural tissue appear gray (gray matter) iv. axon: carry electrical signals and action potential to the target v. axolemma: specialized cell membrane of the axon, covers the axoplasm vi. axoplasm: cytoplasm of the neuron, contains neurofibrils, neurotubules, enzymes and organelles vii. axon hillock: thick section of cell boydy, attaches to initial segment viii. telodendria: fine extensions of distal axon ix. axon terminals: tips of telodendria 4. Neurons A. Multipolar: common in the CNS, all skeletal muscle and motor neurons B. Unipolar: found in sensory neurons of the PNS, also call psedounipolar C. Bipolar: found in special sensory organs D. Ananxonic: found in brain and sense organs 5. Neuroglia in the CNS A. Astrocyte: large cell bodies with many processes B. Oligodendrocytes: smaller cell bodies with fewer processes C. Ependymal Cells: cells with highly branched processes’ contact neuroglia directly D. Microglia: smallest and least numerous neuroglia with many fine- branched processes 6. Neuroglia in PNS A. Satellite Cells or Amphicytes: surround ganglia B. Schwann Cells: form myelin sheath (neurilemmal) around peripheral axons 7. Receptors: reflex arch, detect changes or respond to stimuli, neurons and specialized cells, complex sensory organs (eyes, ears) A. Internoceptors: sensory receptors monitoring the functions and status of internal organs(digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, reproductive) and systems and internal senses (taste, deep pressure, pain) B. Propioceptors: monitor position and movement (skeletal muscles and joints) C. Exteroceptors: external senses (touch, temperature, pressure) and distance senses ( sight, smell, hearing) 8. Resting Cell Membrane Potential of a Neuron A. leak channels: Ca and Na B. environment inside and outside of the cell 9. Clinical Note: Polio A. is a contagious viral illness that in its most severe form causes paralysis, difficulty breathing and sometimes death. In the U.S., the last case of naturally occurring polio happened in 1979. i. Nonparalytic polio: doesn't lead to paralysis (abortive polio). This usually causes the same mild, flu-like signs and symptoms typical of other viral illnesses. ii. Paralytic polio: the most serious form of the disease. Paralytic polio has several types, based on the part of your body that's affected — your spinal cord (spinal polio), your brainstem (bulbar polio) or both (bulbospinal polio). B. Causes: Poliovirus can be transmitted through contaminated water and food or through direct contact with someone infected with the virus. Polio is so contagious that anyone living with a recently infected person is likely to become infected too C. Treatment: Because no cure for polio exists, the focus is on increasing comfort, speeding recovery and preventing complications. D. Prevention: Polio vaccine - Currently, most children in the United States receive four doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)
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