Public Health final stuyd guide
Public Health final stuyd guide Public health 2000
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Public health 2000
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by rh389814 on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Public health 2000 at Ohio University taught by Heather Harmon in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 267 views. For similar materials see Intro to public health in Public Health at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Public Health Final Study Guide Prevention levels Primary: trying to put off developing a disease in a period of time Secondary: early measures taken to quickly find and treat a disease Tertiary: rehabilitating the infected/injured Government in Public Health Why? To help protect people from other people Political controversies Social ecological approach to change Recognize issue Enter community Organize a group of people Assess community Set goals Create plan Carry out plan Evaluate outcomes Infant, Child, & Adolescent health Teen pregnancy o More likely to drop out of school, not get married or get divorced, rely on public assistance, and live in poverty o More likely to smoke during pregnancy and less likely to receive prenatal care o Babies are more likely to die during first year; children will be more likely to become pregnant as a teen o Teens more at risk for pregnancy complications Title X o Part of public health service act 1970, helps provide funds to family planning for those who have too low of income Gag rule o 1984, banned physicians and nurses that were in clinics and receiving federal funds from counseling patients about abortions Unintended pregnancy o Can result in late prenatal care, substance use, unsuitable weight gain, higher risk of poverty & having limited education. o Family planning helps reduce unintended pregnancies o ½ of pregnancies in US are unintended, 40% of those end in abortion. Child mortality o Leading cause of child death is unintentional injuries. o Fire, burns, suffocation, vehicle injuries (no seatbelt) WIC program o Provides nutritional and health related goods & services to pregnant, breastfeeding, & postpartum mothers (child up to one year) Elders Aged: “state of being old” Aging: “change that occurs naturally with age” Gerontology: “study of biological, psychological, and social processes of aging and elderly” Geriatrics: “branch of medicine concerning care of elderly” Many myths about the elderly are not accurate, the reality is: o Many are active and well o Many still work o Many are still participating in the community (volunteer) There are significantly more elders today o baby boomers are becoming elders Life expectancy has greatly increased over the years Labor force ratio: number of people actually working and those who are not Elder men are more likely to be married than elder women o Elder women 3x more likely to be widowed. Number of divorced elders are increasing (50% of married couples get divorced today) More than a quarter of elders (not in nursing homes) live with another person o Only 4% of elders live in nursing homes o 80% own their house, 20% rent More than ½ of elder population live in 11 states: CA, FL, NY, TX, PA, OH, IL, MI, NC, NJ, GA Elderly population growing more diverse o 2010: 80% white, 9% black, 7% Hispanic, 3% Asian o 9% of elders lived in poverty (2010) Sources of income: o Social security o Assets o Private pensions o Gov. employee pensions o Earnings Baby boomer generation is the most educated of the elderly population Health status is typically not as good as the younger population, although life expectancy and functional health has improved Mortality: o Heart disease, cancer, CLRD, stroke, Alzheimer’s are responsible for 2/3 of elderly deaths. Morbidity: o Activity limitations, chronic diseases, & impairments Typically have better health behaviors than the young population o Need more improvement in the areas of physical activity and immunizations o Obesity levels are increasing Elder abuse/neglect o Reports have been increasing in recent years Injuries Poison is leading injury death (pain killers, drugs, overdose) nd 2 is vehicle injury 3 is firearms: keep firearms out of anyone’s reach, or don’t have firearms in the home at all. Leading injury death for infants is suffocation Leading cause of death for people ages 144 o Male higher than female, black higher than white Unintentional vs intentional o Unintentional: accidents, (i.e. vehicles) o Intentional: on purpose (suicide, homicide) Psychosocial factors Alameda study o Study found that those who followed these 5 practices lived longer, healthier lives: Avoid smoking Exercise regularly Keep a healthy body weight Get 78 hours of sleep each night Watch and control alcohol consumption Socioeconomic status o Homicide rates higher in locations with low SES o Higher SES = healthier habits & behaviors o SES effects quality of life: nutrition, stress, medical attention, poverty cycle, cleanliness, physical environment Mental Health 1 in 4 adults suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a year Most common mental disorders: o Anxiety o Mood disorders o Substance disorder Anxiety disorders; o Panic disorder, OCD, PTSD, generalized anxiety, phobias Mood disorders: major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, bipolar disorder (manic depression) Drug abuse o Addiction to pain killers, illegal drugs, alcohol etc. o Some drugs can cause symptoms of mental health problems Mental health: “emotional and social wellbeing, including one’s psychological resources for dealing with day to day problems of life.” Mental illness: “a collective term for all diagnosable mental disorders” Mental disorders: “health conditions characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior associated with distress and/or impaired functioning” Cultural competence: “service provider’s degree of compatibility with the specific culture of the population served, for example, proficiency in languages other than English, familiarity with cultural idioms of distress of body language, folk beliefs, and expectations regarding treatment procedures and likely outcomes.” Racial & Ethnic Majority group: “characteristics that are found in more than 50% of a population” Minority group: “subgroups of the population that consist of fewer than 50% of the population” Refugee: “a person who flees one area or country to seek shelter or protection from danger in another” Immigrant: “individuals who migrate from one country to another for the purpose of seeking permanent residence” Alien: “a person born in and owing allegiance to a country other than which they live” Illegal alien: “an individual who entered this country without permission” Infant mortality o Black American infants are 2x as likely to die before 1 year than white American infants o Black American, native American, and Hispanic women are less likely to receive early and complete prenatal care. o Black Americans and native Americans are more likely to give birth to low birth weight babies Cancer o Death rates per 100,000 were highest for black Americans for lung, colon and rectum, and prostate cancer. o 1/3 of people who get cancer will die from it Cardiovascular disease o 1 in 3 adult Americans suffer from hypertension o Black Americans suffer from coronary heart disease and stroke o Black Americans typically develop hypertension before white Americans Diabetes o Hispanics are 1.7x more likely, black Americans 1.8x more likely, & American Indians are 2.2x more likely to have diabetes than white Americans. HIV/AIDS o 2007: Black & Hispanic Americans accounted for over half of the HIV/AIDS cases Environmental Point source pollution: pollution from one identifiable source Nonpoint source pollution: pollution comes from many sources Environmental hazards o Radiation o Lead o Pesticides o Mercury o Asbestos o Industrial chemicals Air pollutants o Particulate matter o Sulfur dioxide o Carbon monoxide o Nitrogen oxides o Ozone o Lead Clean Water Act o Lakes and rivers should be fishable and swimmable Clean Harbors Act o Focused on debris Safe Drinking Water Act o EPA should set standards for local potable water o Surface water o Ground water is generally cleaner Government in environmental health o Local governments can provide clean water and rid of wastes properly o Increase population = increase environmental problems o More than individuals can handle o EPA, USDA
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