Geography 101 Test 3 Study Guide
Geography 101 Test 3 Study Guide GY 101
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elle Notetaker on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Eben Broadbent in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Atmospheric Processes & Patterns in Geography at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Test 3 Study Guide by Elle Gossman On Notes from 4/4 3 cell model 1) Hadley Cell: tropical lows to subtropical highs. Creates trade winds. Strongest in winter, with biggest temperature gradient. 2) Ferrel Cell: Air in the midlatitudes. Subtropical highs to subpolar lows. Creates westerlies in both hemispheres. 3) Polar Cell: polar highs and subpolar lows, run by thermal differences. Creates easterlies in both hemispheres. ● Semipermanent Pressure Cells of alternating high and low pressure gradually shift positions. ● Winds in the upper troposphere move very quickly because of reduced friction. Polar Fronts are boundaries between warm and cold air. Polar Jet streams are rivers of air. Subtropical Jet Streams move moisture and energy from tropics to poles and are stronger in winter. Troughs are dips in air pressure, Ridges are high pressure. Rossby are the biggest atmospheric long waves. 37 circle the globe at any given time, more in the summer. They migrate Eastward, shift energy North/South, and help find areas of storm development. Ekman Spiral is where water in oceans shifts to the right as you go deeper in a current, and is nil at 100m. Equatorial currents turn water west to make the equatorial countercurrent. Western basin edges have warm water going poleward, eastern edges have cold water going to the equator. Water temperatures affect the atmosphere. Upwelling pulls cold water up when offshore winds pull surface waters to sea. Most obvious off the western coast of South Africa. Monsoons are seasonal shifting of the winds. East Asian monsoons are dry, offshore in the cool months and wet, onshore flow in the warm months. Orographic uplift gives even more precipitation to the Himalayas. Foehn Winds flow down the sides of mountains and are initiated by midlatitude cyclones passing southwest of the Alps. Chinooks are on the eastern side of the Rockies and are made by low pressure systems to the east of the mountains. Both Foehn and Chinooks are more common in winter than in summer. Santa Ana winds in California spread wildfires and are more common in transitional seasons when high pressure is to the east. Katabatic winds originate when air is chilled over high elevations.. The air goes downhill. Common in Antarctica and Greenland icesheets. Also called Boras Winds of the Balkan Mtns. Notes from 4/6 Major Wind Systems Temperature differences between land and sea make wind. Land breezes originate on land, sea breezes start at sea. Valley breezes happen at night and flow up mountains; mountain breezes are in the day and flow down from the mountain. El Niño is every 25 yrs. Unusually warm waters in Eastern Equatorial Pacific, so more evaporation, lower air pressure. Reversal of Walker Circulation (usually air rising over W. pacific, sinking over Eastern). El Niño is also called Southern Oscillation. Pacific Decadal Oscillation happens every 10 years overpacific. North Atlantic Oscillation is in a positive phase when the pressure gradient is bigger than normal, negative phase when it’s smaller. Air masses have same temperature and humidity inside them. Fronts are 2 air masses greeting. Air masses form in source regions. cA Continental Arctic Cold, dry air. It’s very Forms over high lat. of Asia, stable and has few North America, Greenland, clouds. Antarctica. cP Continental Polar Cold, dry, stable air with Forms over high lat. continental few clouds. interiors. Canada, Siberia mP Maritime Polar Cold, damp air with lots of Forms over high latitude oceans. clouds. Air is somewhat unstable. cT Continental Tropical Air is hot, dry, and very Forms over low latitude desert. unstable mT Maritime Tropical Warm, humid air Forms over subtropical oceans Cold front: cold air goes toward warm air mass, bring thunderstorms. Warm Front: warm air goes toward a cold air mass and bring frontal fogs. Stationary fronts sit there, but may shift to the side. Occluded fronts are 2 fronts meeting. Cold type occlusion in the Eastern half of the US, Warm type occlusion on the west side. ON THE NOTES FROM 4/11 Drylines are where air masses with different humidities meet, function as fronts and often happen in the Great Plains. CloudCloud lightning is an electrical discharge in and between clouds, 80% of lightning. CloudGround lightning is 20% of lightning. Lightning Formation: 1) Ice crystals build up a charge in clouds 2) Electrical discharge between areas with different charges 3) Shaft of negatively charged air advances to the ground, electrons flow between the sky and ground. There can be more than one stroke to balance the charges. 4) Electrons approach the speed of light 5) Electrons run into atoms and knock loose more electrons. 6) The electrons in close proximity escape outward and let loose energy as lightning Ball lightning is a ball of electrified air. St. Elmo’s Fire makes tall stuff glow at the top. Sprites are electrical bursts going up from cloud tops as lightning goes on underneath. Blue Jets shoot up from the tops of thunderclouds. Thunder is because of the rapid heating and expansion of the air during lightning. About 70 people in the U.S. are killed each year by lightning. Don’t stand on a hill in a thunderstorm or underneath something tall. Don’t lay down on the ground. Don’t go swimming Air mass thunderstorms have several updrafts that follow these stages: Cumulus Stage (uplift begins, clouds form); Mature Stage (precipitation begins); Dissipative Stage (precipitation diminishes and sky begins to clear. Air mass tstorms are small, localized, shortlived, and have lots of lightning. They don’t cause much damage. ON NOTES FROM 4/11 Multicell Tstorms are formed by a bunch of air masses that develop into Mesoscale Convective Systems. 2 Types: 1) Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCC): round clusters 2) Squall lines (SL): lines of tstorms. Typically forms in warm sections of a midlatitude cyclone. Cell clusters either come from one place or from cells that made more cells. Outflow Boundaries are when one line of thunderstorms pushes out to make more. Supercells are one big, strong, spinning cell. Very destructive, winds over 59mph, hailstones over 1in. In diameter, and can make tornadoes. Development needs wind shear, high water vapor, uplift, and instability. Have what’s called a hook/hook echo. Downbursts can get over 165mph. Derechos are related to MCCs. Strong horizontal winds over deserts can make sandstorms called haboobs. Tornadoes are zones of really fast, spinning wind under a cumulonimbus. They go NE in the few minutes they last, with winds 65280mph winds. They can form near frontal boundaries, squall lines, MCCs, supercells, and tropical cyclones. The U.S. is a global tornado hotspot, and AL has the most fatalities. The U.S. Storm Prediction Center sends out tornado warnings and watches. A tornado outbreak is when a weather system makes at least 6 tornadoes. Notes on 4/18 Atmospheric Pollutants include: ● Carbon Dioxide (CO₂) ● Sulfur Compounds ○ Sulfur Dioxide (SO₂) respiratory irritant ○ Sulfur Trioxide (SO₃) acid rain and fog ● Nitrogen Oxides: ○ Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) harmless, colorless, odorless, natural. Comes from biological processes. ○ Nitrogen Dioxide (NO₂) toxic, pungent, corrosive, yellow to reddish brown gas. Comes from vehicle pollution. ● Volatile Organic Compounds/ Hydrocarbons come from plant and animal emissions, decomposition of organic compounds or combustion in cars. ○ Methane ○ Butane ○ Propane ○ Octane ● Photochemical Smog results from Ozone, NO₂, Formaldehyde, and other gasses combining w/ solar radiation. Like what’s in LA. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created the Air Quality Index (IQA) to measure air quality on a scale of 0500. 0 is perfect air, 500 is air that you won’t last 5 minutes breathing. Measures 5 different pollutants, the one in the highest concentration gives a place its AQI. Urban Heat Islands are areas of unusually warm temperatures that happen because of urbanization. Different biomes form because of different temperature and humidity levels. There are different types of forests, grasslands, and deserts depending on temperatures/ where they are. ● Tropical rainforests are the most productive ecosystems (Productivity describes how much CO₂ it takes out of the air). 5080% of the Earth’s terrestrial species. ● Grasslands are where we grow crops, are about 40% of Earth’s surface. Relatively productive, have deep, fertile soil. Temperate ones are where we usually grow food, Tropical is African savannahs and Australia. ● Deserts have low precipitation and are about 30% Earth’s surface. Little vegetation, low productivity. They can be made by rainshadow effect. Plants evolve to minimize solar exposure (tall and thin) and have wax coating to avoid much transpiration. Animals have hair that absorbs water, can hold it in, and have dry poop.
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