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Date Created: 02/15/15
HIST 0187 WWII in Europe 16 Background of WWII 800 Charlemagne crowned emperor of Holy Roman Empire ruler in Europe since 768 christianized Europe quotbaptized or die sent troops to help Pope fell apart in 843 considered First Reich Germany in 300 entities Diet voting body of HRE Prussia Austria Bavaria delegates got one if they pleased an emperor at some point 1800 s French Revolution Napoleon governing brought more modern and enlightened ideas of government to Europe HRE dissapears expanded borders to bring new French administration to areas 300 to 39 principalities beaten at Leipzig in 1814 exiled to island in the Mediterranean raised an army again and beaten at Waterloo in 1815 Louis XVIII conservative began to roll back enlightenment changes trend same in other areas of Europe Congress of Vienna Hans von Metternich leader quothis role to prop up the rotting corpse of old Europe back to traditional forms pushed out economic innovation guard against reemergence of France military alliances balance of power model 3 systems of alliances to maintain peace Realpolitikrealism Most countries on board except England thought we should build relationships through trade instead of military alliances interdependence Internationalism Concert of Europe Recitation 18 Blood and Iron speech Otto von Bismarck Unifying Germany 18 113 Otto von Bismarck Nationalist birth of Nationalism following Napoleonic wars rose quickly through ranks Ambassador to many places Chancellor of North German confederation states north of Mainz river outcome of war between Austria and Prussia gained control of many German states Prussia was the stronger of the two quot7 Weeks War Third War of German Unification Franco Prussian War catalyzed in Spain needed a new king determined next in line was Kaiser s nephew Leopold Hohenzollern France worried about being surrounded by enemy through dynastic connection France Napoleon lll adopted son of Napoleon Wilhelm I met with Napoleon s representative at Ems came to an agreement Leopold would not accept would not agree that a German would never rule Spain not the outcome Bismarck expected Ems telegram look like Bismarck had been insulted by French ambassador public saw and called for war fought a war July 1870 September 1870 Prussia won and claimed AlsaceLorraine and pay indemnity to Germany loser pays costs of the war helped Germany to industrialize After the war AlsaceLorraine and other states joined Germany close to a recognizable Germany upsets balance of Power big Germany a brand new threat to France and Russia other states go on the defensive new Germany militarization encourage big business integration and interlocking directorates very rapid industrialization change for peasants from farming to working in factories 18731896 economic crash workers formed socialist party threat to Bismarck outlawed socialism in 1878 led first state led relief for workers oldage insurance education new classes showing up factory owners lmperialism 18701890 France and England took over most of Africa some pushing Bismarck to do the same reluctant wanted to focus inward Berlin Conference 18845 invited nations that had a presence in Africa and countries that wanted a presence presented himself as an honest broker help people to be an arbitrator outsider did not have an investment in Africa build international credibility balance of power in Africa similar to Europe wanted nations to be a little tense but not with Germany New lmperialism driven by industrialization Hypernationalism worried about imperialism and growing nationalism racism Expansionism send Europeans to conquered territories overpopulation in Europe James Froude Ratzel Lebensraum same model of thought as Hitler 115 Racism Europeans felt they were superior to the rest of the world because they were able to conquer the other races Darwinism 1859 Took his ideas for imperialism applications some people are richer because they are more fit 1870 New Imperialism takes off Viersche anthropologist study of German school children eye and hair color 10 had blonde hair and blue eyes among Jewish 10 had blonde hair and blue eyes see racism across the board more rabid in France at this time March toward WWI different trends peace and international cooperation globalism series of conventions and conferences Geneva conventions first in 1864 established rules for rendering aid to wounded and sick on battlefield established Red Cross development of ideas of international law four of them Berlin conference ongoing Hague convention 1899 called by Russian Tsar limit arms buildup and what kind of weapons can be used in war establish international law permanent Court of Arbitration formed in1901 expansionism state officials and idealists made a number of statements on armaments prohibited use of projectiles and explosive from air balloons prohibited use of poison gas prohibited use of hollowpoint bullets 1903 Peace Palace Andrew Carnegie 15 million 120 progress of international law 1906 Second Geneva convention Translated to maritime law 1907 Second Hague convention supposed to occur every 7 years stopped by WWI called by Teddy Roosevelt progress on int l law maritime law consideration of rights and duties of neutral powers Carnegie endowment for peace Alliance systems 1879 Bismarck makes firm alliance with Austria 1882 Italy joins alliance Triple Alliance Germany AustriaHungary ltaly becomes Central Powers Great Britain and France rivals France and Russia ok Great Britain hates Russia has close ties with Germany King of England and Tsar of Russia were first cousins Wilhelm ll grandson of Queen Victoria same race AngloSaxon vs Slavic Russians not as threatened by Germany Wilhelm ll wants to build an empire seriously build its navy Britain and United States unhappy arms race between Germany and England serious economic slump healed by increase in navy set up partnership between land owner as factory owners IronRye Pact in Germany vote in favor of gov t contracts if they vote in favor of grain tariffs 1868 General Tirpitz responsible for navy buildup concerned England new First admiral Sir John Fischer 1904 Britain and France become friendly England should build a gigantic ship Dreadnought 1905 stirred up trouble in Morocco wanted to pose a danger to France hoped to drive a wedge between Britain and France condemned by international community only Austria supported Germany 19041907 First genocide Germans wanted farm land that Africans had Sent military there to gain land Herrero genocide killed leaders and sent rest to desert 34000100000 people died Causes of WWI Imperialism national prestige search for resources Kaiser Wilhelm ll different outlook than Wilhelm l personally committed to acquiring prestige national and personal grandson of Queen Victoria of England driving force in German history pushed Bismarck out of office because he wasn t committed enough to imperialism chancellors are expendable German Navy buildup English response Britain controls the seas assumed they had a right Germans tried to undermine Britain s domain over the seas lndustrialism in Germany gain power on seas and become an empire beyond Europe Dreadnoughts Navy bill to build a ship to compete with English dredged out ports pushed Britain and France together brought in Russia Wilhelm ll antagonized British Boer War rooted for Dutch Daily Telegraph what is your intent with ships said not to worry Telegraph Affair Fall 1908 antagonized newspaper reading public stirred up sentiments of the masses announced twopower standard idea that Great Britain s navy should be at least as big as the second and third biggest navies other dynamics at work Ottoman Empire becoming weak and starting to crumble sick man of Europe others see as an opportunity especially AustriaHungary Balkans Serbia wants to expand and build Yugoslavia at odds with each other not a large power stand up to AH 1911 June 281914 Assassination of Franz Ferdinand successor to the King Germany supported AustriaHungary blank check Austria to Serbia hand over all members of Black Hand or else Serbia stands up to Austria confident Russia will step in to back them up has agreements with France and Britain shortterm cause of the war Austria declared war on July 28 1914 Russia began to mobilize Germany challenged Russia Russia did not reply Germany declared war on Aug 1 Turkey entered war in October in place of Italy Italy eventually came In on snde of Britain and lrance Germany declared war on France in Aug 1915 hoped Britain would continue to stay out secret agreements between Britain and France in event of war British Mediterranean fleet would protect North Atlantic French NAtlantic fleet would protect Mediterranean Britain automatically involved Aug 5 1915 declared war on Germany atrocities in WWI desensitized world to atrocities of WWII Germany invaded neutral Belgium first big wave of volunteers to British Army Poison gas disallowed by Hague Convention Germans had better gas and gas masks than British uppenhand hear a lot about atrocity by British would change during war Machine guns never Europeans turning on other Europeans before trench warfare ignoble miserable and cowardly War from the air ungentlemanly civilians became involved sometimes impossible to bomb purely military targets Balloons bombing coastal British towns Oceans submarines gave people chance to evacuate before sinking stopped within 1 year of war signaled change from gentlemanly conflict to animalistic conflict Mines anything triggered without contact with enemy United States was a neutral power for much of the war trade with belligerent powers making lots of money raw cotton to Germany noncontraband materials wadding for explosive blockade by Britain Wilhelm pushed Germany toward unrestricted submarine warfare US bringing contraband to England Lusitania sank by Germans unrestricted submarine warfare brought US into war in winter 1917 antagonized US declared war in April of 1917 change dynamics of war Grand alliance Britain France Italy knock out blow obliterate Germany Impose peace on losers gave allies confidence US on board arrived in force in fall of 1917 October Revolution in Russia Vladimir Lenin sent back into Russia by Germany destroy Russia s capacity to fight on Eastern front exactly what happened land peace and bread Russia could not compete with industrialized nations soldiers not adequately equipped Lenin promised to pull Russia out of war pulled out in March 1918 peace meeting with German Peace of BrestLitovsk imposition of unilateral peace punitive peace pulling out of alliance obligations upset other allies feared another similar peace in WWII 122 WWI Invasion of Belgium Aug 4 1915 US entrance into war April 1917 David Lloyd George British prime minister knockout blow indicates intent to completely crush Germans no military strength to leverage in peace process means to unilaterally impose a peace demand surrender from Germans not allowed to until they met certain conditions abdication of Kaiser propaganda optimistic visions of postwar world war to end all wars biggest war ever last big war ever learn from horrors of this war war to make the world safe for democracy guarantee Germany will be a democracy thinking about new worldwide organization based on delegations from different countries itself be a democracy League of Nations members must be democratic 1916 October Revolution shortterm Lenin promised land peace and bread peace March 1918 Peace of BrestLitovsk sets background for WWII and 1919 Peace of Paris devastating for Soviets sent Leon Trotsky and inexperienced diplomats J AJ A LI A uLLu IJ get US DUI 0T U18 war no matter WflaI widespread civil war Antisoviets whites Aristocrats power depended on old Tsar Peasants devoted to Tsar father External powers sent aid to traditional powers many countries gained independence lost 26 of total population weakened new Soviet Union pay large war indemnity disastrous in backs of mind of Churchill and Roosevelt hoped Stalin wouldn t withdraw without consulting West want to regain territory lost US entrance turned tide of the war German people didn t understand what happened on the battlefield October 1918 German armies fairing poorly on battlefield Hindenberg and Ludendorff respected generals in Germany important for new government we have to surrender Kaiser didn t want to step down left someone else in control would return once things settled down Armistice on Nov11 1918 ceasefire armies stayed on field Jan 1919 work on treaty began ended in June quick as possible anxious to move society back from wartime Sloppy Peace of Paris 1919 Nations wanted their own states Big Four United States Woodrow Wilson Great Britain David Lloyd George ltaly Orlando France Clemenceau US GB and France did not take Italy seriously ltaly leaves did not feel they were adequately getting what they were promised unwieldy process needed translators to talk to each other experts reformulate natural boundaries Wilson idealist selfdetermination of nationsquot nations get their own states and boundaries highly complicated League of Nations Ewnnnl FldIIUU wondering how to defend itself from Germany barrier and buffer zone from Germany drive Germany back to preNapoleonic form Italy wanted other powers to honor their promises from treaty of 1915 George moderator between Clemenceau and Wilson League of Nations highly important to Wilson Clemenceau wanted to damage Germany Wilson did not would not agree to League of Nations if he did not agree to terms selfdetermination of nations Wilson wanted to redraw Europe Treaty of Versailles one of multiple treaties has to do with Germany take away Germany s powers strip Germany s extra European empire lost about 18 of territory 10 of population 15 of agriculture 20 of industry areas ceded to newlyformed Poland independent nations buffer zone between Germany and France demilitarization reduced Germany s army from millions to 100000 no military aircraft allowed navy reduced to 30 small and mediumsized boats no fortifications to west lose Saar area AlsaceLorraine returned to France Germany crippled by treaty Reparations not set in 1919 treaty War guilt clause agreed entire war was Germany s fault drawn up by John Foster Dulles made possible massive reparations direct and indirect costs of war would take 2 more years to come out 1921 132 billion gold marks had Germany making impossible payments until 1984 signed on anniversary of assassination of Franz Ferdinand Notes from Chapter 3 Rise of the Dictators Ideology crucial to totalitarian dictators CommunismMarxism in Russia changed under Stalin focused on consolidation of dictatorship rather than just being temporary as in Marxism Fascism in Italy Nazism in Germany put powers at odds over goals eventually caused Hitler and Mussolini to join forces Lenin and the Bolsheviks first totalitarian government of interwar period Bolsheviks were victorious in Russian Revolution Led by Vladimir Lenin small minority of the population 7 omnll irhhl ArmaniIng nrnlln nF nrnFaooinnol PQIAIIIAHOPQD Olllall LIHIILly UIHGIIILGU HIUUIJ Ul JIUIGDDIUIIGI IGVUIULIUIIGIIGD faithful to Marx doctrine resisted those in favor of more moderate socialism party vanguard of the revolution Russian Revolution Lenin in exile at beginning of Revolution returned in April 1917 believed he could topple weak provisional government overthrew but had difficulty consolidating power had difficulty establishing popular support for Bolsheviks gained only 25 of assembly was then dissolved wanted a temporary dictatorship Civil War in 1918 Bolsheviks reds vs MensheviksantiBolsheviks whites War Communism requisitions of grain and difficult production standards Red won decisively in 1920 but economy in shambles New Economic Policy NEP allowed peasants to sell their goods on openmarket eliminated forced requisition used in order to gain support of peasants and workers established hierarchical system of soviets real power belonged only to the Communist party Central Committee Politboro Secretariat and Organizational Bureau Secret Police eliminate enemies of the party and state Stalinist Era Josef Stalin wins power struggle to succeed Lenin more domestically focused than others purged all other leaders make himself undisputed around 800000 party members died launched massive program of industrialization wanted to make Russia an industrial power collectivization merge land holdings into collective farms resistance from kulaks murdered by secret police led to famines 95 by 1939 abolished private ownership drastically increased production standards Fiveyear plans drastically increase heavy industry 1930 s had established a strong and loyal Communist dictatorship Fascism in Italy movement began in 1919 Italians dissatisfied with aftermath of the war gained little from conflict disenchanted by western powers disgruntled veterans and nationalists formed paramilitary groups Mussolini led one and gained loyalty of the rest Black Shirts fiercely antisocialist Mussolini marched on Rome became premier in the cabinet wanted to eventually impose a dictatorship narl39u Henri Iinlnnnn and in39l39imirln39l39inn n main 2 mneeiun mainrihl Pul Ly MOUU VIUIUIIUU unu IIIIIIIIIUuIIUII LU uulll u IIIUOOIVU IIIuJUIIly murdered most outspoken critic of Fascism dissolved all nonFascist parties and began censorship established Fascist Grand Council system of corporativism create understanding between workers and industrialists eliminating selfish individualism division of economic activity into seven categories Ministries Mussolini valued nationalism imperialism and militarism spoke of a new Roman Empire led him to alliance with Hitler oneparty state less totalitarian preserved much of oldsystem church monarchy capitalism landowning class milder than Nazism Hitler and the Nazis what isn t already covered in the lecture notes Mein Kampf superiority of Aryan race inferiority of the Jewish race associated them with Marxism and the Weimar Republic envisioned his dictatorship German nationalism need for Germany to absorb areas of ethnic Germans Austrians Sudetenland Danzig and Poland goal of Lebensraum for the German people in Europe convinced Nazis needed to come to power legally had his opportunity from the Great Depression Heinrich BrUning chancellor of Weimar republic in 1930 authoritarian and financial austerity views ruled by presidential decree called a parliamentary election Nazis and communists won major gains Nazis 2nd largest delegation resigned and replaced by Franz von Papen Hitler used his SA and SS to gain control of the streets SA had 400000 men by end of 1932 Heinrich Himmler led the SS Nazis became Germany s largest party Hitler demanded chancellorship worked out a deal with Papen to become chancellor dissolved Reichstag and curtailed freedom of the press Nazis still not majority used intimidation strategies to gain two thirds majority brought state government under Nazi control eliminated other political parties and ousted opposing political figures Reichstag became Nazidominated assembly Changed educational curriculum established Hitler Youth foster love of Hitler and obedience to party and state Established secret police Gestapo created concentration camps Dachau and Belsin held political prisoners began to persecute the Jews niimgr l frnm nivil carving Puluvu IIVIII VIVII UVIVIVV faced discrimination and violence became more formal essentially completed revolution in 1934 Night of the Long Knives SA had become powerful nearly 1 million strong purge potential enemies in the SA army supported Hitler as a result Hitler wielded absolute power credited with German economic recovery deliberately had confusion duplication of effort and competition in government used to maintain unquestioning ascendancy over them 129 French in Ruhr valley didn t think German workers would fulfill the reparations worried about German ties to Soviet Union obstructionism workers stopped working not benefiting Germany French occupation used French imperial troops African troops upset Germans over underlying questions of race Weimar republic backed workers continued to pay them for no work led to hyperinflation Nov 1923 MunichBeer Hall Putsch planned by Nazi Party led by Hitler identify groups in Weimar republic that were threats modeled after march on Rome by Italian Fascists March from Munich to Berlin gather support along the way Police arrested leaders including Hitler convicted sentenced to 4 years at Lansberg prison wrote Mein Kampf released after 9 months Dawes Plan 1925 agreed to give a loan to Germany to help with hyperinflation 19251929 some prosperity Great Depression spike in appeal of Nazism ltaly postwar disenchanted with West after the war social and economic chaos Benito Mussolini organized fascist groups Blackshirts corporatism big business and land owners would cooperate with the government Fascism order in society order in the economy actionoriented ideology dedication to empire building 210 Germany entered League of Nations 1926 won Nobel Peace Prize for it Hitler removed 7 years later Hitler set up Nazi parties in other nations received lots of support from Berlin Austria Sudetenland Danzig helped Germany expand into Austria and Czechoslovakia Poland lost faith that West would defend them entered nonaggression pact with Germany threatened Soviet Union entered League of Nations in 1934 worried about German aggression make relationship with Czechoslovakia and France Hitler and Mussolini not on good terms Hitler had strong hand in assassination of Austrian leader Dolfuss further undermined their relationship Hitler announced he was rebuilding air force and military justifies using western terms selfdetermination of nations blatant violation of terms of Treaty of Versailles Why doesn t the west take action instead appeasement don t want another war hesitate to enforce terms of treaty serious questions about treaty many thought it was unfair fear of Communism Stresa front April 1935 Italy France Great Britain Mutual Assistance Pact May 1935 Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia Naval Agreement June 1935 Great Britain and Germany German navy allowed to rebuild to strength of 35 of Royal Navy 45 of strength of submarines if Soviet Union emerges as a threat Germany is allowed to build to full strength France joins Mutual Assistance pact as a result October 1935 Mussolini rebuilding Roman Empire ltaly invades Ethiopia Great Britain appalled threatened to take to the League of Nations could only threaten sanctions threatened to bomb British fleet in Mediterranean if sanctions Nail in the coffin of the League of Nations Stresa front is dead turning point between two Fascist powers Germany supported ltaly s ambitions Hitler moved his troops into the Rheinland supposed to be a demilitarized zone violation of Treaty of Versailles gets rid of buffer zone between Germany and France France builds Maginot Line Spanish Civil War 193639 Economic and political crisis in 1921 Crisis in Morocco Split in army Francisco Franco Fascist Mixed sides Republicans vs Fascists Stalin aided Republicans afraid of Fascist threat no one else would help the Republicans Mussolini sent thousands of soldiers Hitler sent less help wanted to prolong the war to keep focus off him international sides Communists sending aid grew from 40k to 250k sent 5th column Hitler waited until middle of the war to aid Franco s men asked him for help sent Condor Legion Junker airplanes test run for technologies in WWII Nov 1936 RomeBerlin Axis Axis world would revolve around the axis of Rome and Berlin Pact of Steel May 1939 AntiComintern Germany Italy and Japan Franco wins Spanish Civil War sent aid to Fascists organized spy network against allies stayed in power until 1978 Fascism still regarded as bulwark against Communism Austria Nazi party illegal not sympathetic to unification with Germany Schuschnigg wanted a plebiscite Hitler demands his resignation Seysslnquart put in power paved way for Anschluss west did nothing Fall 1938 moved to take over Czechoslovakia Sudetenland 3 million Germans Hitler made same argument as for Austria 4x6 notecard both sides for exam 212 Increasing tensions Mussolini originally didn t like German annexation of Austria changed when they became friends Czechoslovakia drawn by Woodrow Wilson selfdetermination of nations drawn to include two major ethnicities Czechs and Slovaks also lots of Germans 3 million mostly in Sudetenland area Sudeten German party driven by Nazi structure and ideology Konrad Henlein agitated ethnic turmoil created as much publicity incidents of antiGerman violence publicized Hitler used as an excuse for intervention argued they should be ruled by Berlin Germans wanted them to hand over the Sudetenland refused thought they had a chance bc they would be backed up by France and Soviet Union Mutual Assistance Pact looked like Europe was about to go to war desperately wanted to avoid Munich conference September 1938 Neville Chamberlain ceded it to Germany Germany took over rest of Czechoslovakia War looks inevitable at this point Stalin upset that the West had kept him out understood he needed an alliance with Germany installed Molotov as his foreign minister practical military reasoning reasoned that Hitler would not want a 2 front war would want to make peace with Soviet Union Poland Hitler stirred up trouble in Danzig Gdansk East Prussia blocked from Germany by Polish corridor not officially politically Germany international city governed by League of Nations lots of Germans but also lots of Poles Nazi Party being manipulated from Berlin lead by Albert Forster told to instigate tensions between German and Polish officials Polish in charge of customs threatened to cut off import of foodstuffs Hitler argued danger to Germans Hitler needed to slow it down before he signed pact with Soviet Union called in League of Nations representative Burkhart trying to buy time for Molotov and Ribbentrop to sign a treaty Burkhart reported to Britain and France Ribbentrop told Mussolini to prepare for war Nazi Soviet Pact August 23 1939 On the surface 10year nonaggression pact promised neutrality if either country went to war with a third party secret parts Soviet Union promised return of land from Treaty of BrestLitovsk divided up Poland Everything set for war Operation Canned Meat Heydrich planted dead bodies in Polish uniforms stage an attack by Poland on Germany activated battleship in port of Danzig Schleswig Holstein September 1 1939 Hitler declared war on Poland Mussolini wanted negotiations with the West like Czechoslovakia Lebensraum Living space for ethnically German people Blood and Soil September 3 1939 Britain and France declared war on Germany Germany has rebuilt their army more people annexation of Austria and Sudetenland more industry Skoda works in Czechoslovakia still not completely on its feet ready for war generals not thrilled with war fielded 1500 tanks and 1250 planes 1 million men ready to go to war enough to beat Poland but not France and Britain Poland not very militarized War with Poland heroic efforts by Poland but an easy victory for Germany and Soviet Union 90000 of Polish army escaped south came back to fight elsewhere Polish Home Army ended on September 28 Germany and Soviet Union partitioned Poland Hitler accomplished what we wanted and asked for peace France and Britain refused 217 German Blitzkrieg attack on Poland Worked very well Special forces followed initial forces eliminated certain groups Jews Poles other Slavs Hitler sues for peace after invasion of Poland Hitler said that this was all the Lebenraum he wanted Britain and France still declare war Britain government still full of appeasers France still aware of the enemy they faced concerned with its own defense Maginot Line still didn t realize the technology of the coming war thought it would be trench warfare Charles de Gaulle Hitler saw war as the ultimate way to gain land ultimate goal of politics keep races fit quotwhat mankind has gained it has gained through struggle build an empire of constant con ict always a struggle against something not fully prepared for war in Fall 1939 believed if he conquered France England would surrender feeling in Germany to make good on sacrifices of WW1 and correct injustices of Versailles people enthusiastic excited by the appeasement after Poland drop off of enthusiasm lukewarm some discontent ongoing policy in Germany avoid extraordinary draft committed to a traditional German household Hitler finds himself needing to settle discontent domestically and being at war with France and Britain plots against Hitler breaks in trust with high command Poland region has military importance for deployments already planning to break NaziSoviet Pact ongoing racial policy difference in treatment of people west of Germany than those to the east starving and extracting labor from people Katyn Massacre AprilMay 1940 Soviets invaded from the east rounded up potentially important people executed 22000 8000 Polish officers get rid of military leaders denied by Soviet Union Hitler used as a diplomatic chip later in the war Strategizing about moving troops westward preparations in west Germany British anticipated bombings US set up Cash and Carry program willing to sell war materials to France and Britain policy changes through war Blitzkrieg in Poland Sitzkrieg quotPhony War in France Finland Winter Warquot NaziSoviet Pact was supposed to return losses of Treaty of BrestLitovsk included territory in Finland actually was very difficult for Soviet Union Finns outnumbered 31 lasted for 3 and a half months heavy losses for Soviet Union 127000 casualties vs 26000 for Finnish army fought on Finnish home terrain Finns better equipped and clothed lack of leadership of Soviet Army heavy purging of commanders by Stalin lack of experience in command Britain and France willing to help Finland couldn t get there Sweden and Norway wouldn t let them through officially neutral making money off Nazis led Hitler to underestimate the Soviet army heartened by this struggle eventually won Finland was important defensive zone for protection of Leningrad British naval blockade very ineffective wanted to cut off resources coming from Norway and Sweden port of Narvik recommend laying of mines around Narvik Winston Churchill April 1940 Hitler ordered invasion of Denmark and Norway April 9 1940 right after British finished mining end of the Phony War British and German forces fought at Narvik and Trondheim haphazard engagement turned out badly for British criticism of lack of accomplishment on the water still sunk many German ships have an impact on Germany s capacity to invade Britain May 10 1940 Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister regarded as a warlike official risktaker Dramatic changeovers in government Reyna ud in France more warlike dif cult change over HIST 0187 Section HW 130 Character of Theodore Lohse and how he achieved success family disappointed in him death in the war would have been better than surviving and achieving nothing conflicted silent timid lacked selfconfidence now as a civilian possessed courage as an officer very proud of his military service suspicious of Jews blamed them for his lack of success ambitious murdered Klitsche because he wanted to move up liked being around the high and mighty craved recognition thought very highly of himself had grandiose fantasies of himself frugal Condition of German society postWWI people of all walks of life people were in poverty kids firing shots unruly crime out in the open illness sweeping through poor houses workers like ghosts old people trampled tough lives everyone prematurely aging group of wealthy people lots of violence and antisemitism many people from the military attempting to reintegrate into civilian life Place of Jewish people in German society postWWI relationship between state and Jews suspicion of Jewish people believed the republic was a Jewish plot lectures on harmful nature of the Jewish race father warned daughters against contact with Jews destroyed army developed socialism aimed at world domination lived better than the rest of them links between Russia France socialism and jewry all things Germans hated Spider web in the novel how Lohse controlled the fate of the communists he could have them arrested he was the spider and they were the flies he stepped back waited for his moment and then struck Gunther Klitsche 26 Reactions to Fascism saw Hitler as a bulwark to spread of Communism and Russian western expansion pacifism did not want another bloodbath like WWI economies still crippled after Great Depression rearmament expensive and time consuming misinterpreted Hitler s intentions firmly believed he only wanted to amend restrictions from Treaty of Paris 213 Anschluss saw as inevitable Hitler demanded proNazi Arthur Seyss lnquart be appointed Schuschnigg had a plebiscite thinking Austrians would say no Hitler demanded Schuschnigg s resignation and Seyss lnquart be appointed chancellor of Austria Plebiscite in favor of German annexation didn t see anything intrinsically wrong but disliked Hitler s tactics Czechoslovakia West essentially reneged on military alliance believed German army was stronger than it actually was believed they could not win a war with Germany right now appeasement Neville Chamberlain bowed to Hitler Britain pressured Czechs to allow cede Sudetenland to Germany Hitler decided it wasn t enough and took the rest of Czechoslovakia anyway What were the different military lessons from World War for the Allied countries and Germany didn t want to fight a long stalemated trench war like WWl victory won by defensive firepower massive casualties of charging in WWI built the Maginot Line not sure if tanks were the future of war Germans appreciated the value of tanks What was the Blitzkrieg and the Sitzkrieg Discuss in relation to the German invasion of Poland Blitzkrieg strategy to gain victory quickly and decisively with few German casualties panzer divisions smash through enemy lines encircle large amounts of enemy troops infantry follow behind and consolidate gains Luftwaffe destroys other air force hopefully catching many planes still on the ground first used in the invasion of Poland Case Whitequot Germany had vast technological edge way more modernized planes and tanks caught Poles off guard gained remarkable progress reached Warsaw in a week did not catch air force on the ground won with remarkable speed even though it wasn t flawless Sitzkrieg even though Germany was at war with Britain and France there was no fighting on the Western front phony war Allied blockade of Germany Britain used time to strengthen air force Germans negotiated economic understanding with Soviet Union Hitler wanted intended to attack in Fall 1939 ended up being delayed until May 1940 How was Scandinavia involved in the war RussoFinnish War Finland refused Soviet demands of land and bases Soviets attacked Finns initially repelled but were eventually overpowered by Soviets terms of peace harsher than initial Soviet demands convinced Hitler of Soviet weakness opened Scandinavia as a theater of operations Allies contemplated helping Finns Norwegians and Swedes wouldn t allow them to move troops through their territory 40 of German ore came from Swedish mines Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway 2 essay proposals felt abandoned by Western allies never consulted in cessation of land actually possessed stronger defenses that would have challenged Germans capitulated without a fight disgruntled soldiers fear of Communism after Russian Revolution Great Depression needed a scapegoat Essay questions Why did Germany invade Poland Why did Britain and France choose to focus on defensive tactics Most important cause of WWI How did the treaty of Versailles lead to rise of dictators Wilson s redrawing of Europe Fourteen points selfdetermination of nations Why did the Weimar republic fail Policy of appeasement Consequences of World War I How do international ideologiesfoundation of international relations change over the course of the 1900 s imperialism nationalism Realpolitik balance of power Life in Nazi Germany persecution Weaknesses of the Treaty of Versailles Consequences of WWI in paving way for WWII mention postwar restructuring of borders Freikorps large influence on people integrate primary sources Ideological foundations of fascist state synchronization corporate states state would make way for capital to be invested make sure workers were happy mediator of conflicts Various dynamics of the war itself tactics Life under the Nazi state how is synchronization achieved in Nazi state Germany wanted Norway s heavy water plant for potential creation of an atomic bomb Capturing Norway protected the German northern flank and made Sweden support them provided air bases that Germans used to attack British ships Why was Czechoslovakia so psychologically scarred before the beginning of World War II How did nationalism lead to the rise of Mussolini and Hitler in the 1930 s both disenchanted with the west and upset about terms of Treaty of Versailles
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