Popular in Intro to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Skibicki on Sunday February 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY110 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Gillis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
Reviews for PSYCHOLOGYchap1-5
You can bet I'll be grabbing Erin studyguide for finals. Couldn't have made it this week without your help!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/15/15
Erin Skibicki Chapter 1 Origins of Psychology 0 De nition the scienti c study of mind and behavior 0 1science because it uses the scienti c method 0 2mind product of a healthy brain 0 3behavior why the mind makes us do what we do and feel what we feel 0 6 approaches to psychology 0 Psychoanalytic Freud Explores the unconscious mind Freud introduced the idea of the subconscious Much of what you do is motivated by unconscious processes Humans aren t as rational as we believe 0 Behavior Watson Watson questioned Freud s theory of ID ego super ego Watson argued that the only thing we can observe is behavior not thought 0 Example Pavlov s dogs 0 The dogs salivate when they hear the bell because they associate it with food 0 Gestalt Wertheimer and Kohler Argued that quotthe whole is more than the sum of the partsquot Our brains are prewired to see things in a certain way 0 This creates movement 0 Newspaper example black dots become an expe ence o Humanistic Maslow and Rodgers Human motivations Every person is motivated to reach their full potential 0 We are born wanting to learn as much as we can 0 BUT we get stopped along the way by the negativity of important people 0 Cognitive You can study thought 0 Thinking memory language problem solving creativity 0 Biological Medical Physiological Overlapping elds Chemistry of the brain etc Fields of Specialization 0 Human Services Therapy 0 Clinical mental illnesses Counselor adjustment to everyday life 0 Applied Using science to research a process 0 Experimental Basic Better understanding things for the sole reason of understanding 0 Speci c Fields Cognitive 0 Thinking memory language problem solving creativity 0 Internal mental processes 0 Ex the ability to navigate campus in terms of internal maps Developmentalpsychology Factors that in uence development and shape behavior throughout the life cycle 0 Focus on a particular phase of the growth process 0 Ex television violence affecting child s behavior Personality psychology Uniqueness of the individual 0 Key elements of personalities How personality develops evolves and in uences peoples activities Biological psychology 0 Also quotphysiological or neuroscience Studies relationship between processes and behavior 0 Brain structures and processes involved in emotion learning memory disorders 0 Ex effect of drugs on behavior Clinical and counseling psychology 0 More than 12 the US 0 Diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems 0 Counseling is not focused on serious problems Ex high school setting 0 Clinical more serious health issues Ex mental health at jails Need PHD Educational psychology 0 Improve educational curricula train teachers School psychology 0 Evaluation of students abilities and interests 0 Assist schools in development of programs for gifted or challenged Industrial Organizational psychology Psychological concepts to make the workplace a more satisfying environment for employees and management 0 Enhance productivity 0 Job training programs Engineering psychology 0 Or human factors 0 Creation of optimal relationships among people and machines they operate 0 Finding optimal and functional efficiency Positive psychology 0 Understanding factors that contribute to self ful llment and happiness 0 Characteristics of healthy people 0 Does optimism affect your healthy physically Forensic psychology 0 Works with legal court and correctional systems 0 Help law enforcement personnel understand problems such as family con ict and substance abuse 0 Assist judges in making verdicts on intentions of the criminals Cultural psychology 0 Investigates how cultural and religious traditions and practices shape and contribute to differences in human behavior 0 Incorporate cultural difference into modern psychological theory Experimental psychology 0 Every area of psychology conducts experiments 0 Primary activity involves conducting research 0 Laboratory setting Health psychology 0 Interaction between physical and psychological factors 0 Effects of stress and how to eliminate or cope with them Diseases and their contributing factors Evolutionary psychology 0 Investigating and explaining human behavior in terms of natural selectionCharles Darwin Traits are a results of selection pressures 0 Ex perceptions and sexual attractiveness Arti cial Intelligence 0 Develop models that stimulate a variety of complex human cognitive processes Connectionism Uses computer models to stimulate parallel connections among neurons in the brain 0 History of Psychology 0 Charles Darwin published quotOrigin of Speciesquot in 1859 Earth shaking despite his religious background published his theory of evolution Natural selection nature selects the ttest characteristics and passes them on to the next generations in greater numbers through genetics In order for evolution to work at all there has to be variation in the gene pool 0 This led to investigation of individual differences in people which led to psychology 0 Sir Francis Galton Darwin s cousin quotIf Darwin is right and natural selection is at work there must be variation in people which run in familiesquot Galton looked for correlation between variables and relatives Anthropometric lab study and measurement of people 0 Wilhelm Wundt1879 founded 1st school of psychology School of Structuralism In Germany he was the rst one to pursue psychology scienti cally Used a method of introspection he and his students looked within themselves for research o Introspection was very subjective what we believe is not really the truth 0 Not very effective Titchener one of Wundt s students came to America and in 1893 was the 1st psychologist in the USA 0 William James1890 published quotPrinciples of Psychology quot Discussed the stream of consciousness As humans our consciousness is so much better than other beings School of Functionalism o What are the functions of the structures of the human 0 James was a strong believer in evolution 0 Sigmund Freud1900 Unconscious mind 0 Your personality is shaped largely by early childhood experiences 0 Particularly those that involve sexual development issues Studied the psychology of dreams 0 Ivan PavlovRussian physiologist In studying digestion he was recording the amount of saliva dogs produced when they were food Dogs began to associate the man feeding the dogs with food when they saw the man they salivated 0 John Watson1913 wrote a book on Behaviorism We must focus on things we can actually measure not thoughts hopes feelings Ethical Issues 0 In order to experiment one must give a detailed report of the play to the IRB International Review Board committee that determines if the proposal is ethical o Minimize risk Avoid any harm physically or mentally for the participant o Informed consent Participant must be informed of all guidelines and expectations 0 Right to privacy Anything gathered is strictly con dential o Debrie ng More info given after the fact 0 Record keeping Must be documented 0 Animal research Must be monitored Chapter 2 Methods of Psychology 0 Scienti c Method 0 Starts with careful observation 0 Leads to a theory An explanation for the observed data attempt to nd patterns in the data connect the dots o Create a testable hypothesis Needs to be discon rmable or falsi able 0 Test hypothesis lf prediction is right theory is supported lf prediction is wrong modify and get additional data 0 A theory is never proven only helps us understand an idea the more support a theory has the more valid it is o Randomly selecting subjects in some research Gives us a sample that represents a population of interest Allows us to generalize ndings from the sample to the larger population 0 True Experiment 0 Randomly divide subjects into 2 or more groups Not randomly select Equals the effect of all such extraneous variables 0 Doesn t control those variables but at least equals their effect on the dependent variable Avoids the third variable affect so that we can infer causality o Manipulate the independent variable Every group gets a different level 0 Measure the dependent variable 0 Test to see if results are statistically signi cant Ttest etc If so you may infer that x caused y 0 Correlation Method 0 Measure two variables 0 Calculate the relationship Use Pearson s correlation o This may lead to support for the hypothesis but COORELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION 0 There can be directionality problems or a third variable involved Ex cold mother interactions and autistic children Statistics 0 Descriptive goal is to present data is an easy way to understand Measures of central tendency Meanaverage Median50 percentile middle 0 Use this value when data is skewed Mode most frequent 0 When the data is symmetrical mean median and mode will be equal Measures of variability Range 0 Standard deviation 0 How does this person differentiate from the mean Variance Z score or standardized score 0 How many standard deviations away from the mean Allows us to compare between 2 different data sets Zvaluemeanstandard deviation The normal curve and zscores 1 standard deviation is 34 2 is the next 14 3 is the next 2 o 68 of the values fall between 1 and 1 if not symmetrical there is a skewed distribution Correlation Coefficient Pearson s o Ranges from 1 to 1 0 Two qualities direction and magnitude 0 Strength does not relate to sign 0 Negative correlation is not weak o 0 no relationship 0 lnferential uses descriptive statistics along with probability theory to make judgments or inferences about reality Z test Ttest Ftest or ANOVA Regression Chi squared Allow us to determine if obtained results are signi cant or reliable The result should replicate or not Chapter 3 Biological Basis of Behavior Nervous System 0 Peripheral Somatic vountary Autonomicself regulatory Sympathetic o Arousing Parasympathetic o Calming 0 Central Brain SpinalCord Neuron 0 Cell body somawhere the cell functions occur Metabolic functions Nucleus with DNA Can receive impulses but it is not the primary receptor 0 Dendrites like antennae collection of bers that receive the most transmitted signals Greek word for tree 0 Axon sender Takes the signal and transports it along the entire length Neural impulses always travel from left to right 331mm in rm M Muni lr ih i other quot other limlmn I m u mans their ignmiinal butleri5 I I n u i 7 n39 a neuron J39l I i P i C Sheath kgquot 1 outside W cells on the i39 39 I work as quotorle h III FIHHEF I sent down neumni awn nfluence neum r E4 I insulators to protect from signals coming in 39 Synapse or out 0 Eliminate short circuits 0 Speeds up transmission 0 Terminal button Small bulblike structures at the end of the axon that store and release chemical substances neurotransmitters Works across the synapse or synaptic gap 0 This gap is very important in regulation Like a traf c cop controls the impulse manually HEEIEiiiul39iliig 39 N e U rot EM ra nsmit ters o o 0 Sending 0 WE mn Neural impulse o Vesicles A containing C neurotransmitter 39 ety c h o I n e o N 0 re pi n e p h ri n e Am r1 terminal D O p a m i n e 0 Se r otonin Gammaamino butyric acid GADA Once the chemical is released into the synapse it must be destroyed immediately metabolized pieces are broken down and taken back up in REUPTAKE then RESYNTHESIS There is a constant cycle of storage release metabolize and resynthesize ileumIra nsmi er Va 39 lm lEEUIEEv j W tquot L A presynapuc neuron Naur transmltter molecules in synaptic vesicles Terminal huttun iquot Sy ptiiC 39 cleft gilt A quotRELEA r quotE i 39 b Hampton sites KChangeln FosEyn aptin 39 potential potential SEEM rrngl receptor site 0 The Brain 0 Lesions Stimulation recording used to determine how certain ports of the brain effect behavior and physical functioning Now we have CAT PET MRI FMRI Used to capture images of the brain 0 Cerebral Cortex or cerebrum or neo cortex Thin outer layer of the brain 4 Lobes o Frontal movement 0 Broca s area speech Aphasia the disability to speak Parcetal body sensations Temporal lobe hearing 0 Wernicke s area language comprehension Occipital lobe vision Mvptnr cantral area Sangery praiectiicm area Parietal lube 39 sensatignsl Brnca s 7 v area39ispeechl Fisual carter Occipitali lobe Frnntal lnbe Vl l nl plantling mv f lll l l39l g quot ernntinnal behavior 39 g organizing rer rsrzrr39gir Temral infarmatidn llplae hearing l Wernicke s area language CErElllJiEl lum mavement Spinal mm ceprdinatinn Figure 215 The farm babes attire erebral Left hemisphere 0 Analysis 0 Verbal activity Talking understanding speech reading writing Right hemisphere Synthesis 0 Seeing the whole 0 Putting elements together maps 3d sketches O Elwyn m i39 E L39lL I l I ll Miami I39lFlsal f S imlpllE E mmehension r 13 Right hemisphEre lteft hie miisplh are PVC primary visual cortex we see things but we don t understand them 0 The geography of the visual eld is retained in the primary visual cortex 0 Images are stored within the brain damage in PVC results in blind spots but we can adjust to them and ll in pieces of information VAC association visual cortex helps us comprehend what we see very serious if damaged 0 Visual Agnosia 0 Results from damage in the VAC cannot recognize or comprehend what we see Corpus Ciosum thick bundle of bers that connect the left and right Damage here results in miscommunication between our thoughts and actions Contraatera Connection working opposites 0 Left side of the brain connects to the right side of the body and the right side of the brain connects to the left side of the body Cerebellum movement and coordination M yinn33 t7 lag ii39 ni39 l E39u39hwhgrs En Irmspiaiuncy 13 Eri im 3 page 4i View mpreaenlatiam Eli Eh ti ziiilquot in in MI m tm marital and iii S 39 l quot cortex dewuted it with haw1 Fi a Head r Trunk HIP 5mmng MIch Tmm k39 quot9 a l Arm lKnnea Shoulder 7 u KiwiE Elb w A Euh w rm 39 A are grirH j v g l lm 1 LEE Ham Wrist V H v r 7 r 39 I I nlkll Ful l lil39l Limb 0quot f quotLi s 39 Fling ll h If Jra L Neck I l H 1 i 1 Brow A I I f Face Toes I Genitals Input Sensory writzit 39 Ilsedim just behind cantrall fissure animal Mahatma 7 Section just in front of Dental Esme Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception Vision is our best developed sense 0 Visual Perception of Form 0 Figure Ground Description Being able to distinguish gures from their background 0 Why we can see any object MC Escher artist who utilizes this ability 0 Illusory Contour Line or background that doesn t really exist but we create it in our minds 0 Grouping of ElementsGestalt Laws of Grouping Law of proximity objects that are close together are perceived as belonging together Law of similarity objects that are similar we group together Law of continuity we see the world in the way that males the most continuous sense Law of closure we ll in the missing pieces Law of common fate objects that move together are perceived as belonging together 0 Ex Motion pictures 0 Depth Perception o Binocular Cues 2 eyes Binocular disparity leads to stereopsis in the brain 0 Our fusion of the two images each of our eyes see as one Convergence the ability to pull our eyes together to focus on a close up object o Monocular Cues 1 eye Motion parallax relative motion Objects at different distances appear to move at different speeds Elevation above horizon Height on a plane lnterposition overlap Objects in foreground block objects in the background Linear perspective 0 Parallel lines appear to converge in the distance Aerial perspective 0 Atmospheric haze 0 Distance appears blurrier Relative brightness Objects in the foreground are brighter and clearer Texture gradient Objects get smaller in the distance so the texture changes Shading Shows the 3 dimensionality of objects shadowing Perceptual Constancy 0 Size constancy smaller further away 0 Shape constancy shapes appear different at different perspectives Door closed rectangle Door open trapezoid o Brightness constancy or color constancy consciously correcting and understanding color regardless of light 0 Processing 0 Top Down processing see the whole before the pieces 0 Bottom Up Processing see the pieces and assemble the whole 0 Attention o Psychoogica selection mechanism Dichotic listening studies in the 1950 s where participants shadowed one ear while ignoring input to the other ear 0 quotCocktail party phenomenonquot you can hear your name or swears above all other things 0 Our brain edits what is coming in and we pick and choose what to focus on Chapter 5 Sleep and Altered States 0 What is consciousness 0 Awareness of being aware and understanding the same about others Joint attention 2 people know both are aware can interact on the same level 0 Rouge and Mirror Test Put a child in front of a mirror with a rogue Will they laugh at themselves or understand it is themselves and show embarrassment Other chimpanzees elephants dolphins and apes can pass this test too 0 quotThe Tarzan syndromequot 0 Only large animals great apes that climb trees develop this self awareness needed to know how heavy they are and how they impact their environment 0 Altered consciousness o Meditation sleep prayer hypnosis dreaming intense emotions When you re not fully aware 0 Sleep EEG sleep stages Best studies altered state Early studies measured brain waves in sleep EEG Beta waves awake and alert 3 4 5 6 Er Hours of sleep 0 Stages 15 each cycle lasts about 90 minutes for the average person Awake Hypnogogic stage between awake and stage 1 when you are about to fall asleep reviewing the day etc 1lightest sleep REM rapid eye movementthe stage in which dreams occur Dreams tend to get longer each REM cycle 0 O O O 5 deep sleep restoration Circadian Rhythms cycles of being awake and asleep 0 We are not nocturnal so we sleep during the night Due to evolution it is in our best interest to sleep during the night Melatonin hormone that produces tiredness and leads to sleep SAD seasonal affective disorder 0 People get depressed in the winter because the days are shorter May become dysfunctional because of this Holidays often brighten the mood during these short cold days Why do we sleep 0 Repair Theory The day wears you out we sleep to restore our energy and bodies 0 However harder work does not require more sleep so this theory is 100 true 0 Adaptive Nonresponding We sleep the way we do because evolution made it so it is on our best interest as humans to sleep this way 0 Food is available predators are less prevalent Why do we dream 0 Repression Hypothesis Freud s theory Your unconscious mind is the sea of repressed memories Dreams are motivated by the unconscious mind quotA dream is the royal road to the unconscious mindquot Dreams represent wish ful llment anxiety quotDream landscape is the private property of the dreamerquot No one can tell you what your dream means Manifest content apparent content Latent content hidden meaning 0 Activation Synthesis Hypothesis Dreams are random neural activity The cerebral cortex is partially turned off but still shoots random neural activities O O The lower brain which is still on tries to make a pattern out of this random activity from the cerebral cortex 0 Dreams don t mean anything Problem Solving Hypothesis Dreams help us to solve problems and cope with anxiety of life Dreams help us nd answers and relax Multiple dreams try to synthesize a current problem 0 Without dreams we may become psychoUc Memory Consolidation Hypothesis Dreams serve to move our recent knowledge into long term storage 0 Sleep Disorders 0 O O 0000 Insomnia insufficient sleep Narcolepsy sudden sleep attacks triggered by intense emotions Sudden infant death syndrome SIDS newborn baby suddenly dies because they have a faulty C02 detector and continuously breathe in their own C02 quotback to sleepquot program ay babies on backs Sleep Apnea forgetting to breath during sleep associated with snoring and being overweight not able to get deep sleep because constantly waking Up Somnambulism sleep walking Sleep talking Enuresis bed wetting Nocturnal myoclonus insufficiently paralyzed during sleep and dreams leads to dangerous thrashing and kicking
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'