Psych Exam 2 Review Part 1
Psych Exam 2 Review Part 1 0010
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Spencer Poston on Sunday February 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Cynthia Lausberg in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 126 views.
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Date Created: 02/15/15
Intro to Psych Exam 2 Review Ch 3 4 56 Chapter 3 31 How does sensation travel through the central nervous system Sensation activation of receptors located in the eyes ears skin nasal cavities and tongue Sensory receptors specialized neurons that are activated by certain stimuli quotJust Noticeable Differencequot the point at which a stimulus is detectable half the time it is present Absolute threshold smallest amount of energy needed for conscious detection of a stimulus at least half the time it is present Habituation when the brain ignores a constant stimuli Ex White noise Sensory adaptation when the sensory receptors stop responding to a constant stimuli Ex Having a pierced tongue 32 What is light and how does it travel through the eye Brightness corresponds to the amplitude of light waves Color corresponds to the length of light waves Light enters the eye and is focused through the cornea passes through aqueous humor and then through the pupil The lens also focuses light on the retina so it can pass through and stimulate the rods and cones 33 How do the eyes see Cornea where the stimulus actually enters the eye lris a muscle that contracts the pupil Pupil changes in size according to light or dark Lens focuses images Retina location of transduction processes visual image then sends it to the occipital lobes Fovea point of central focus image is actually upside down here 0 Rods distinguish black white grey o Cones color vision Trichromatic Theory assumes three types of cones red green and blue All colors we perceive would be combinations of these three Opponentprocess Theory assumes four primary colors of red green blue and yellow Colors are arranged in pairs and one color of a pair is activated the other is not Blueyellow red green blackwhite Color blindness where color perception is limited to yellows and blues or reds and greens only 34 What is sound and how does it travel through the ear 0 Sound has three aspects pitch frequency loudness and timbre purity Organ of Corti contains auditory receptors which send signals to the brain about sound qualities 0 Place theory states that the location of the hair cells on the organ of Corti correspond to different pitches of sound relevant to pitches above 1000 Hz 0 Frequency theory states that the speed with which the basilar membrane vibrates correspond to different pitches of sound relevant to pitches below 1000 Hz 0 Volley principle states that neurons take turns firing for sounds above 400 Hz and below 4000 Hz 35 Why are some people unable to hear Conduction earing impairment caused by damage to the outer or middle ear structures solution hearing aids Nerve hearing impairment caused by damage to the inner ear or auditory pathways in the brain solution cochlear implants 36 How do taste and smell senses work Gustation sense of taste Taste buds receive molecules of substances which t into receptor sites 0 Types of taste sweet sour salty bitter and brothy Olfaction sense of smell Olfactory receptors receive molecules of substances and create neural signals that then go to the frontal lobes to be processed These are both chemical senses 37 Not relevant for test 38 What are perception and perceptual constancies o Perceptioninterpretation and organization of sensations Size constancy tendency to perceive objects as always being the same size no matter how close or far away they are 0 Shape constancy tendency to perceive objects as remaining the same shape even when the shape of the object changes on the retina Brightness constancy perceiving objects as a certain level of brightness even when the light changes 39 Gestalt Theories of Perception o The Gestalt Theories involve interpreting patterns in visual stimuli The principles are gureground relationships closure similarity continuity and common region 310 What is depth perception 0 Depth perception ability to see in three dimensions Monocular cues linear perspective relative size overlap texture gradient motion and accommodation Binocular cues convergence and binocular overlap 311 What are visual illusions Illusions are perceptions that do not correspond to reality or are distortions of visual stimuli Topdown processing information processing guided by higher level mental processes Bottomup processing analysis of the stimulus begins with sense receptors and works up to the level of the brain and mind Chapter 4 41 What is consciousness Consciousness a person s awareness of everything going on at any given moment 0 Altered states of consciousness are shifts in the quality or pattern of mental activity 42 Why do people need to sleep and how does it work Sleep a product of the activity of the hypothalamus melatonin serotonin and body temperaturecircadian rhythm Adaptive theory states that sleep evolved as a way to conserve energy and keep animals safe from predators Restorative theory states that sleep provides the body with the chance to restore chemicals that have been depleted during the day as well as the growth and repair of cell tissues 0 Most adults need 79 hours of sleep in a 24 hour period 43 What are the stages of sleep 0 Stages 1 and 2 0 Early light sleep 0 Brain wavestheta waves 0 High amplitude slow irregular o Spindles bunches of brain waves close together indicate transition into 2 0 Breathing eventually becomes more even Stages 3 and 4 o Deepest sleep 0 Brain wavesdeta waves 0 Slower larger amplitude 0 quotSlow wavequot sleep the restorative stages 0 Muscles are very relaxed takes time for person to wake up After we reach the fourth stage we go back in reverse order before starting REM REM Sleep occurs four or ve times a night associated with rapid movement of the eye muscles but paralysis of the other body muscles 44 Sleep Disorders Sleepwalking and sleeptalking occur in Stages 3 and 4 Night terrors attacks of extreme fear that the victim has during deep sleep Nightmares bad or unpleasant dreams that occur during REM sleep REM behavior disorder when sleep paralysis fails the person moves violently during sleep in attempts at acting out their dream Insomnia inability to fall asleep and stay asleep Sleep apnea when a person stops breathing for 10 or more seconds while sleeping Narcolepsy genetic disorder in which the person suddenly falls directly into REM sleep 45 Dreams Manifest content the actual content and events of a dream Latent content the symbolic content according to Freud Activation synthesis hypothesis the brain cells experience activation without there being any actual outside sensory information so the association areas of the cortex synthesize a story or dream to compensate Activationinformationmode information experienced during waking consciousness in uence dreams 46 Hypnosis and Consciousness Hypnosis when a person is especially susceptible to suggestion Hypnosis cannot enhance strength memory or regress people to an earlier age but it can produce amnesia reduce pain and alter sensory perceptions It is theorized that a hypnotized subject is under split consciousness where one half is susceptible to suggestion and the is aware of everything that occurs 47 Psychoactive Drugs Drugs can be physically addictive to cause cravings in the user When deprived the user will go through withdrawal symptoms can vary with substance 0 Drug tolerance occurs as the user becomes more accustomed to the drug s effects The user must take more and more to get the same effect Tolerance can be used to determine if a person has taken a drug more than once Psychological dependence the user believes that he needs the drug to function 48 Effects of Stimulants and Depressants Stimulants speed up body functions caffeine cocaine meth Depressants slow down body functions alcohol barbiturates Narcotics suppress sensations and mimic endorphins heroine morphine Hallucinogens distort perceptions causing hallucinations LSD ecstasy PCP 49 Effects of Hallucinogens 0 They are stimulants that alter the brain s ability to perceive creating hallucinations Marijuana is a mild hallucinogen producing a mild euphoria and feelings of relaxation Larger doses can lead to hallucinations and paranoia long term use can lead to impairments in learning and memory 410 How can consciousness explain supernatural events Vivid realistic hallucinations that occur in Stage 1 of sleep are often misinterpreted as ghosts or other supernatural entities 0 Similar hallucinations that occur when waking from REM sleep are called hypnopompic hallucinations
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