political science LECTURE
political science LECTURE POL201
Popular in Political Science 201
Popular in Political Science
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Date Created: 02/15/15
Poly Science notes for Test 2 101414 In 1901 President McKinley was assassinated by an anarchist in Buffalo NY His VP became president Theodore Roosevelt turned himself into the trust buster The situation was viewed as it was in 1988 George Herbert Walker Bush when he got extra security because he was liked Roosevelt ran on the name of the trust buster He set as his nemesis the evil JP Morgan This guy personi ed all that was wrong with monopolization His only problem was that he was born with a heart problem and the effort to overcome that he became a tness nut That s how he got the name teddy Roosevelt The name teddy bears came from when he rescued a bear cub Hence teddy bears TR was the most popular president in the history of the country That popularity he used to get Taft elected He soon found out the error of his thinking Taft had a mind of his own TR couldn t control Taft so what he decided to do was form his own political party and run against Taft and against the democratic candidate What he did with his political party The Bull moose Party was effectively split the republican party and that allowed Wildrow Wilson to win the presidency in 1912 Bullmoose party split the party and allowed the democrats to win Wilson was a con rmed paci st Wilson kept us out of the war and that was good WWl 19141918 was beyond anything anyone could imagine It was the end of the royal controlled Europe the end of the 19th century the industrial revolution picked up it paste dramatically Technology increased beyond strategy Bad things were developed There weren t any rules in WWl The machine gun poison gas wooden bullets were developed Vietnam war 19621975 and during that time there were 58000 casualties At that time we killed over 60000 people on our highways During this 13 year period Vietnam lost about a million people In 1 battle in WWl Battle of the Somme there were 12 million casualties The toll was that an entire productive generation in Europe of men between the ages of 1835 were wiped out We didn t get in till 1917 We lost a lot of casualties but nothing compared to what the other antagonists lost Our productive mechanism has not been touched By the time we pulled through the post war recession and we entered the 205 we found ourselves in a nice economic position Europe didn t have anything after the war so they had to come to us for products We entered a new period of great prosperity Unfortunately we didn t know how to handle our prosperity The attitude was that if you sell as much as you make why not up production Consequently all this pro t that was being made was being dumped right back into the industrial sector of the economy But although this made the industrial sector completely wealthy the agricultural and service vectors got nothing But the rest of the country was not going to sit down while the industrials were getting rich The rest of the vectors gured out investing in the stock market The stock market was completely unregulated If you didn t have enough for a stock you put 5 down on it and then hope to sell it short This caused the market to in ate like a balloon because there wasn t any substance Eventually people who are invested in the market gured that this cant continue like this and they took their money out in 1929 The result was the collapse of the stock market We lost 50 of our wealth overnight We entered The Great Depression Hoover told us to be patient because this was a normal downturn of the economy and that the economy will be stronger than ever In areas that were dependent on labor like the coal elds of Kentucky and ohio there was 0 employment There wasn t any government aid at that time If you were in a coal mining community with 0 employment and nobody to borrow money from you just starved In 1932 Franklin D Roosevelt offered the country a new deal based on the economic theory of economist of John Maynard Keynes of Cambridge University After WWI we entered an international economy Keynes said that you should decrease unemployment by having the government spend money for government jobs They would get the money by borrowing it Keynes was a communist though But by 1932 communism was going downhill It became apparent that to make communism work you hade to impose fascism In 1932 the Soviet Union had Joseph Stalin the most evil guy He was busy imposing his 5year economic plan on the Soviet Union But we were in such awful economic condition that FDR was elected The new deal was put into effect the NRA National Recovery Act 1 Address people who were in economic effect immediately Welfare social security 2 Be the employer of last resort provide work 2 biggest agencies assigned were a Works Project Administration WPA b Civil Conservation Corps CCC The new deal worked The depression ended with a bang on 755 AM Sunday morning Dec 7 1941 when Pearl Harbor happened We went from 25 unemployment to 0 Everybody had a job Women built most of our equipment Minorities were also put to work in good paying jobs People were making lots of money People were so suspicious of any institution at that time that we thought for sure that we were going to lose the war in 1942 We had a plan similar to the Australians We were going to let the Japanese land and get as far as Denver and die Even during that time we couldn t sell war bonds because people didn t trust them Food was rationed You couldn t buy a car So people were jars and cigar boxes 1943 we were hopeful we were going to win 1944 we knew were going to win We just had to starve them down 1945 we absolutely knew we were going to win We realized that the people who were saving their money for 4 years were going to buy all the junk they could after the war ended and we would be in the same economic mud hole we were in 1941 because of in ation In a capitalist economy it was business responsibility to keep economy running One of the principles of our country was to keep Government out of business But we knew that gov had to exercise some control over our economy so what was proposed was to institutionalize the new deal We realized that employment was the sore spot from depression Employment Act This was a half truth but someone came on to add some problems it was called full Employment Act 1946 This gave the Gov the responsibility of guaranteeing the lowest possible unemployment rate but at the same time the lowest rate of in ation They were inversely related so they had the responsibility of balancing these to tasks After the Korean way in 1953 we went through the post war recession When we entered the 19605 it made our economic condition after the rst WWI look petty After WWI the entire world suffered except us We were the suppliers of stuff to the rest of the world This period of prosperity in 1960 caused fundamental and social economic changes in the world especially here One of the principle reasons of the income tax in 1914 was to redistribute wealth and the result was a burgeoning middle class The 80th percentile of our economy was middle class Abraham Maslow was an industrialist psychologist had their objectives as motivating people in their organizations His thing was focusing on the individual He said that everybody is motivated by some level of need by his hierarchy The bottom level was the basic needs If the individual gets some of the basic needs this individual is no longer motivated for basic needs so the next level is social needs to be loved and so on We should be able to apply Maslow s theory to society By the early 19605 everybody 90 of the economy had at least a 3 bedroom 2 bath house in the suburbs This means that 90 of the society had its basic needs accommodated If so society should move on to social needs The big issues of the 19605 were social issues like civil rights 1964 illegal to discriminate Rachel Carson wrote her Seminole work Silenced Spring where she told us about our prosperous use of chemicals such as DDT we would kill everything Then the environment became the next social issue such as consumer product safety Ralph Rader presidential candidate took on General Motors GM by writing a phanplet Unsafe at any speed He was attacking VW beetle So VW make a bigger beetle That got congress to look at the problem so we got department of safety transportation and then we got airbags We were developing new data techniques and determine that a lot of people in the country were being killed by bad consumer products Perhaps the factories weren t safe so we got the Occupational safety and health act OSHA Occupational safety and health administration After WWII we had the atomic bomb but then they stole it from us Spotnik passed over this country diagonally so you could watch it This made us realize that our educational system wasn t ef cient We never had to take a math or science course Education is one of those powers in the constitution that states that it s reserved to the states The government changed it by giving some money to the states and all they had to do was take a federal suggestion in math science Purpose of education is to promote interest The rst technical device that excited was a TV in the 19505 In 1962 birth control pills were made Sexual revolution No bald eagles were being born because of the effects of DDT In 1968 the national geographic did a study that said that we would be wouldn t have an sustainable resources by 20305 computers were made Then calculators Then personal computers were made by Wang industries This business regulations were different from the industrial and economic regulations SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT Social regulation was different It caused businesses to spend money up front Principle social issue of 19605 was Vietnam It was the rst war that was televised home front and back front Students are always the rst to understand social situation because they spend most of their time learning 1937 japan attacked china because japan doesn t have any natural resources 1940 Mao took over 1 year later north Korea invaded south Korea Late 19505 after Vietnam had gained its independence north Vietnam invaded south Vietnam Hochimen the leader of N Vietnam was our friend He worked at the park plaza hotel for 12 years He came to president Eisenhauer and asked for help to get the French out Hochimen practiced his own form of communism 1021 chinese and Vietnamese don t like each other at all Second was Maus take over in china and north Koreans invading south korea This time the north Koreans were poised north of the 38th parallel ready to strike at any moment and mau being in china and here come the north Vietnamese down into the south Vietnam This was another pinsar movement We didn t take into considereation pochimen was friendly torward us He worked here for 12 years went to heisenhaur to ask for help against the French Former colonies when they threw off the yolk of their colonial masters and they left a vacuum and in that vacuum was a civil war One of the faction was communism but not Marxism or mauism it was the ascended gov own form of communism l5 was pochimens form of communis equal distribution of resources in the colony We looked at this as another pinsar movement First people to catch on are always students As the war escaladed 1965 we had half a mill troops in Vietnam and we had a draft That draft was plucking us out of society whether we wanted to go or not Problem was that we knew what was happening lnspite of the foreign policy we knew that this was a civil war This had nothing to do with us Secondarily it was lopsided at best The amazing part of the veitnam war was these little people poorly supplied were able to withstand America for as long as they did We were asked to go over and murder vuetnamese It was a lottery system to be drafted One of the principle problems was getting soldiers to shoot people Natural aversion of killing a person if we don t know them We used to train ppl with targets that were typical circular bullseye Did that through WWI till we realized that it wasn t good enough We developed train re where we had targets in the shapr of human beings and they were knocked down when you hit them to condition troops to kill the enemy You didn t kill someone in Vietnam you zapped them WWll we knew the germans as Crouts we dehumanized them Japanese were called nips orjaps dehumanized In Vietnam they were known as zipperheads Nature of that war that was lopsided unjust we were involved in a civil war that had no effecet on us at all Those social issues that was not favorable to businesses but the Vietnam war was the rst war that was televised Front lines and homefront Students took lots of drugs and you show up in very public places Students have 2 general characteristics they tend to be impetuous they don t like something they wanna x it now and they tend to view the world in black and white Grey comes with age By 1968 lindon johsnon declined to run again By 1968 after the teth offensive the nation just like students earlier on decided that they wanted a change Richard Nixon was the republican candidate His campaign slogan was quotpeace with honorquot The nation changed sides to republicans vietnameses refused to negotiate and Nixon wanted to drive them back to the negotiating table in Paris The way he did it was with operation linebacker This meant that we would carpet bomb north Vietnam It was a technique developed in WWII when our bomb sites weren t too accurate You would eliminate a quarter of that city to get 1 speci c place bombed 20 years later our bomb sites improved dramatically The 852 would carpet bomb You would them photograph what you bombed the photographs showed nothing We were erqasing north Vietnam But Americans were outraged by these photso Public opinion then changed Change in attitude towards Vietnam war This also changed attitude about social issues In 1973 we got out of the war But the attitude of mainstream America toward the social issues made business reconsider At rst they were still adversarial Slowly the business community came around We headed to the depths of recession when carter was elected We were looking at double digit in ation At the same time interest rates were topping 20 Oil embargo in 1979 Ronald ragean the busness candidate was elected in 1980 took his election as a mandate to get rid of those antibusiness social policies His rst policies to go were environmental policies dismattled the EPA He did the same with all social policies The center of the issue was environemtnal policy was to the people who were opposed to clean air and clean water Where civil rights were concerned Best and brightest rose to the top We had to come up with a new way to regulate Command and control Incentive regulation In 1994 you set a max lvl of pollution for a particular region This would require anybody in that region who was pollution to purchase a permit to cover to amount the polluting they were doing Liquor licenses would kill u if you wanted to go into business with a bar Policy process in this country is already incomprehensible its so complex We live in a republic with democratic ideas Policies produced by people arguing to come to some sort of a compromise All these talk about the same thing Institutional model Theodore lowi Pluralist model david truman Elitist model These are the true social groups of America it s a triangle There are lobbying each other 1028 students realized that we were murdering people There was a draft going on and we were being plucked out of society against our will In 1968 LBJ decided not to run The country decided it was time to change sides from democrats to republicans because the war was still going Richard Nixon was running He was running on a ticket of peace with honor He carpetbombed North Vietnam American opinion changed They didn t like the capitalist system After Nixon got caught and general Ford took over we decided in 1976 that we were ready for another change The republicans screwed up so we became democrats This lead to the disaster ofJimmy Carter He inherited the 1974 aftermath of the Opac oil embargo which sent the economy into a tailspin We were suffering double digit in ation it was up to 14 Interest rates were as high as 22 At rst it was the building industry that collapsed people couldn t buy houses anymore Carter had his own oil embargo in 1979 In 1979 the Iranian revolution resulted in the capture of US diplomats of the US embassy Carter made a failed attempt to rescue them He put together the new Delta Force but we didn t know how to ght in the dessert at the time The helicopters crashed from all the sand This symbolized the failure of the carter administration Ronald Reagan was the business candidate he wanted to put dignity back into America and he won Reagan didn t go to war in WWII His principle job was serving as the president of the screen actors guild guild being union Reagan ewas extremely liberal at that time He scored recruiting lm contracts during WWII where he portrayed a bomber pilot The lms were designed to make men want to sign up for the war Reagan started to believe the message himself and he was picked up in a big business in San Francisco and they told him that they can make him president They did First he was governor of California and then he ran for presidency in 1980 as the business candidate He looked at his victory as a mandate He wanted to dismantle these pesky agencies that were administrating these social regulations The agencies he didn t dismantle he convinced congress to defund these agencies In 1984 somebody in the business community realized that these social programs were annoying but if you took a social program and got down to the center you would nd an irrefutable nut of truth For example where environmental regulations were concerned who could be opposed to clean air and clean water Nobody Same thing applied to all social programs We decided that the problem was not with the issue itself but rather with the administration of the programs The response from the business community was that the way we were regulating them were not workable The environmental agencies EPA would tell companies that they had to reduce their emission of chemicals because it was to close to the people So the companies would build high smoke towers But that would cause 02 and NOx to mix with clouds and when they mixed with the moisture in the clouds the water converted them into mild sulfuric acid and mild nitric acid which is mild acid rain As the clouds were carried over Canada it nearly caused an international incident It would kill all the sh and destroy all the forests The way we got rid of af uence was through a bivalve pipe and dumped it into water Clean water acts prohibited this You had to either reprocess the af uent and reuse it expensive process and not worth it unless it was Kodak because there was silver in lm and the silver would lter out and they would reuse it or recycle it or dispose of it in an acceptable way by putting them in sealed cases and deposit it in approved locations All these ways were expensive So what happened was the businesses were putting pipes down under and then having them go in the water so the coast guards couldn t see because they were regulating the water This made us realize that we needed a new regulation because the old one Command and Control Regulation didn t work We realized that if we were going to successfully administer these social programs and enforce the regulations we needed a new regulation The process was to bring business and government together instead of the antagonistic relationship they had before Bring business and government together when there was a problem and let them gure out the solution The solution was to use the market to regulate itself Incentive Regulation It works All air pollution regions come under a similar standard HC CO and N02 had max standards set Those standards were applied to each region Anyone engaged in polluting activity in that region were required to purchase a part of pollution in that region to cover their pollution activity in that region When the program went into buy pollution it was cheap When more people wanted to move into the area and they also need some pollution pie the value of the slices of pie will go up The way we dealt with liquor sales was to issue liquor licenses On the one hand we wanted lots of booze out there to attract tourists but on the other hand we decided that we can only issue so many per year The predictable occurred it got to the point where if you wanted to open a bar or buy an existing business the business itself might cost 15million but then you would need a liquor license which would cost 30 million The state nally loosened up and issued enough licenses The analog with air pollution licenses is clear As the values of air pollution slices increased they became securities More air pollution slices will allow to create better plants and then you can put one of your slices on the market for pro t We do the same thing for water pollution The pollutants are different You come up with a graph for every type of water pollutant It changes the sea bed and tou can see that for the outfalls of turkey creek as they dump reactors into surface water This causes the manatees to come to the turkey creek plant because the water becomes warm With business involved you have another factor involved in this already complex system People comprehend complex things much better if they see a visual model The essence of the pluralist model is power because it s the interaction of groups The group with the most power prevails When we re dealing with a pluralist model the essence is power The elitist model Karl Marx He was a German economist The technology of the end of the 19th century and the rapid advancement of industrialism left society in its wake The people were in awful condition in countries that were industrializing Marx wasn t the only one who was outraged Charles Dickens was also outraged In a triangle the top was the elite and below them were the people who sell their labor to the people who control production at a discount Marx thought this was outrageous and predicted that the people would eventually take over the means of production This implied that when this happened the result would be heaven Marx s philosophy lasted 90 years What Marx was saying communism works just ne in an agriculutural economy Trouble was that Marx was writing in an industrial economy and it doesn t work in an industrial exoxnomy This country was founded on the tenants of communism The pilgrim farmers survived by putting everything they produced into the same place and people took out what they needed If someone gets sick and is unable to harvest their crops everybody pitches in and harvest the crops for them They celebrate by weekly potluck suppers This communal atmosphere is communism is ne in an agricultural setting But this doesn t work in an industrial economy because it requires innovation Without innovation it dies Kalashnikov invented the AK 47 the most famous gun in the world He didn t get nothing at the time because of communism If he invented this now he would be super rich But then again another guy would see how much he got for this gun and he would try to make a better one But during communism there wasn t an incentive for anyone to build a better gone because there wasn t any reward Why would you make new innovation without anything in exchange What happened was everybody knew that they got the same piece of economic pie no matter wht they did There was no incentive to innovate The result was that instead of expanding it got smaller While Marx was right in the agricutlral aspect he was wrong in the industrial one A large percentage of the population went along with Marx philosophy because they were so desperate they became known as anarchists people who thing there s no point for government They wanted to get rid of government so the situation in many countries was so desperate like Russia Since lenon was exiled in Germany he was supplied with a whole bunch of money and was sent back to Russia with the intention of bringing back communism The result was the bloshevot revolution in 1917 The anarchists eliminated the zar and all his aquinatnces Almost instantenoulsy when gov had been removed Russian society grew a new elite Gaetano Mosca an Italian scientist proclaimed that in any society its always comprised of 2 groups a group that governs elite and a group that is governed Mosca had a prodigy Robert Michels that joined the French communist party that said Mosca s law doesn t go quite far enough This principle applies to any organization Michels gave us the Iron Rule of Oligarchy rule by few He who says organization says oligarchy Founding fathers designed a government thtat excluded the masses The house of representatives was to be popularily elected In the constitution all nancial matters are required to be initiated in the house The senate was elected by the electoral college Supreme court gets nominated by president and they are con rmed by the senate who was not popularily elected If we start listing peoples characteristics we know that they are apathetic The people are authoritarian Thye also tend to be prone to violence They collectively tend to be intolerant They also tent to have lower education Theyre also antiintellectual They also tend to be fundamentalists you seek simple answers to complex problems Theyre also nationalistic Nationalisms relies on enforcing the will of the masses people and in extreme cases they dress up in uniforms and have the ag as an arm band This is anything but democratic Government by the people is anything but democratic In our society people who manintan democratic principles are the elite Leader of the masses is anti elite and is called a demagogue What causes the masses to act up We know that there are 2 factors that cause mass activism 1 loss of a major war 2extreme loss of economic dislocation When Russia had been defeated by japan russsia realized they needed a new government The zar collected eggs that he contrated with fabrige to produce the most exquisite bejeweled eggs while people were eating dirt Russias demagogue didn t appear till 1920 revolution Some people say it was Lenon but it wasn t the true demagogue was when stalin had Trotsky murdered in mexico 1929 when depression hit it spread through the industrialized world Germany wasn t immune They had nothing From the mass movement to the right the conservatives the rhetoric was the return to the old order They believed that somebody took something away from them even thought they didn t this was Hitlers evil manipulation 1949 Mau showed up in china same factors as Hitler The japanese had invaded china and it was humiliating Little old japan invading big china and the chinese couldn t get rid of them Mau was responsible for murder of 30 million people Next was Castro Cuba was run by the mob The mob took all the pro ts leaving nothing forth epoeple Puppet president Batista and the demagogue showed up We are members of the bourgeoisie As the elie we have a responsibility to maintain democratic principles in our society to prevent mass activism to prevent mass gov Federal tax purpose is redistribution of income Some of the other things we do to keep the masses in place is giving them meaningless activities such as belonging to political parties and voUng If we look at voting behavior there are several sources we can look at The American voters series keep track of changes in the electorate They re all predicated on one thing the American electorate is normally distributed between the ideological left and ideological right From that we can conclude that we are governed from the middle The center is where all candidates strive to conquer What that means is it doesn t matter who we elect were going to be governed from the center no matter what In 2000 GW Bush promised everybody that if you voted for him he was going to give us a big tax return When he was elected he presented his tax package to congress they said no The same thing is happening to the health care and slowly its going back to the center Campaign strategy relies on this We have 2 political parties technically but since they overlap we can make a point for 1 This overlap is a good thing from the standpoint of stability from our gov In order to grow your economy you need a stable gov and that s what the American revolution was about When a campaign is in the initial stages when the candidate is seeking the parties nominations that s the only time we will hear about issues That s because he has to appeal to all the parties This is the only time we hear discussion of issues Issues we can hear from the democratic party protecting the environment choice abortion should be legal no capital punishment No death penalty gay marriage allowed no immigration laws no weapons issues we can hear from the republican party no abortion death penalty no gays no immigrants everyone should be allowed to have concealed weapons once a candidate gets a nomination of his or her party they must forget about their issues and jump into the center They re after the Comstock load Kennedy was assassinated in 1963 and LBJ took over Election of 1964 LBJ was running for presidency and was challenged by Berry Goldwater Goldwater committed political suicide himself There was an overriding issue the coldwar that was being manifested by Vietnam A term that hasn t been used since the Mexican war Pops and H Johnson was the king of deal making in congress He stuck Berry on the frenges Television was being used in 1964 for campaign There werern t any rules like there were today Johnson campaign put a national ad Election of 1972 Nixon was running for his 2nCI term He got the nomination and jumped into the center In 1972 the electoral changed This changed everything We were dragging 18 year olds and dragging them to Vietnam so the electoral changed that allowed the 18 19 and 20 year olds to franchise George montogvern senior sentator from S Dakota Distribution wasn t skewed The 18 19 and 20 year olds didn t vote Richard Nixon didn t need to break into democratic headquarters at all Ronald Reagan is a good example of campaign strategy If we take the 2 dimensional diagram and collapse it into 1 dimension according to voting behavior sources between 37 of electorate are intellectual ideologs 95 of electorate vote on 1 Party identi cation 2 Economy In 1960 kennedy was running against Nixon First campaign that was televised If we had a catholic for president the pope could run the country
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