Study Guide Psych 257 – Exam 1
Study Guide Psych 257 – Exam 1 GWSS/PSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Robby Blood on Sunday February 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GWSS/PSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender at University of Washington taught by Ann Voohries in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 377 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Gender in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 02/15/15
Study Guide Psych 257 Exam 1 The very beginnings Late 19th century Europeans and Americans develop an interest in measuring intelligence Invent the IQ test but who invented the IQ test Rich white landowning males so they were very biased towards their own gender class and race FREUD psychoanalytic theoryfocus on personality differences and gender identity Biological Essentialism all differences between people are biologically based First Wave Late 19t Early 20th century Legal rights for women ie mostly suffrage and land owning Not a strong in uence on psychology DIRECTLY Very much a WHITE woman s movement The emphasis on biological essentialism probably was a reaction to the rising of women at the time Second Wave Mid 20th century Equality in schools society and the work place Differing views led to different types of feminists cultural liberal radical A new interest in understanding women and gender in a social context Still a white woman s movement overlooked diversity Hooks believed that the careerism movement left out single women women with children and women without access to educann Naomi Weisstein Rhoda Unger Carol Gilligan Sandra Bem Third Wave 19805 to Present Big focus on diversity within feminism Poverty and classism and racism Violence and domestic violence Exploitation Homophobia and intolerance Patriarchal dominance Men s Movements grew in response to the feminist movements Some supported feminist goals while others opposed and wanted to restore the traditional gender roles RESEARCH METHODS Quantitative Empirical evidence Objectivity Descriptive research describes does NOT explain survey Correlation research examines relationships correlation does NOT mean causation Experimental research determines causation By eliminating variables and measuring effects ie with independentdependent variables Qualitative Descriptions of phenomena are based on observation and interaction Subjective No numerical data Case study in depth description of one subject Ethnography in depth study of one group Interview open ended questions Focus group questions for and discussion within a group Subject Variable ie subject s weight height age or sex variables that are not measured speci cally or kept constant but information that the scientists keep track of to see if there s any correlation Social Category a collection of people who do not necessarily interact but share many of the same characteristics ie women men the elderly or youth All about Bias No experimental results come without bias Constructionists all knowledge is the subjective result of biased work no data is worth believing because nothing can possibly be objective 100 0 Science is built on the history of MASCULINE bias 0 Goals methods and conclusions are tainted because of this How do we deal with bias TWO GROUPS OF THOUGHT 1 Feminist standpoint epistemologies 0 Feminist social science should be practiced and researched from the standpoint of WOMEN because they are better equipped to understand certain aspects of the world 2 Feminist empiricists Just be more cautious and aware while doing research Sexism in the modern world 0 Begins in grade school girls are taught that they re supposed to be good at writing and reading while boys are taught that they re supposed to be good at math and science STEM elds are the worst 0 Even social sciences are not yet egalitarian o Sexism remains an issue through grad school and professional careers O CRITICAL THINKING 0 Psychology science based on empirical experimental evidence 0 Pseudopsychology claims without scienti c evidence Plays on emotions Focused on satisfying wants Re ects popular beliefs and values Offers simple explanations Not based on scienti c evidence 0 Gender and pseudopsychology claims As a culture we like to categorize and organize everything so we nd simple explanations that re ect what we expectwant There s a lot of emotion involved so it s easy to get a reader or the public emotionally attached to a speci c case study or survey or resulting data We all have our own experience with gender so gender research psychology is close to everyone s heart 0 Guidelines for critical thinking AEIOU ET Analyze assumptions and biases Emotional reasoning avoid Look into other interpretations Don t oversimplify Tolerate uncertainty De ne terms Examine evidence Hegemony leadership or dominance especially by one country or social group over another Temperance advocates for limiting or prohibiting alcohol consumption in terms of feminism the belief that drunkenness leads to sexual abuse of women Chapter 7 Queer Theory Queer theory opened the doors to the idea that bodies may not divide neatly into two types Elizabeth Grosz agreed The idea of queer made it possible for many people in our society to consider for the rst time that one s sex might not have innate properties Many queer theorists believe that even though queer is sometimes rejected because of it s oncederogatory meaning reclaiming it as an accepted term is a valid goal Judith Butler 1956 gender is the repetition of acts within a highly rigid regulatory frame that congeal over time to produce the appearance of substance David Halperin homosexual is not a name for something natural universal or static any more than the term quotwomanquot queer should be used instead of gay or lesbian because it is more gender neutral To queer one39s gender to blur the linesmake it more illusive and merge with another type of gender or sexuality Roland Barthes 19605 questioned the obvious truth of identity positioned that humans are unable to think freely because society prescribes much of our identity therefore people are unable to separate themselves from environmental conditioning Chapter 3 Feminism First wave feminists Estelle B Freeman feminism is the belief that women and men are inherently of equal worth and because most societies privilege men as a group social movements are necessary to achieve equality between men and women Mary Wollstonecraft English feminist writer one of the rst upper class women to start writing and involving middle class women about legal issues wrote about how theories or representation and independent rights were only being applied to men A Vindication of the Rights of Woman John Stuart Mill one of the rst male allies to feminism Arrested at age 17 for passing out birth control Elected to parliament and became a very active voice for feminism in government 0 quotThe Subjection of Womenquot not only should the legal situation be equalized for men and women but also women s situation was far worse than slavery Margaret Fuller like John Stuart Mill was one of the rst writers to stir the pot and criticize the notion that women are most attractive when quiet vulnerable and small Elizabeth Stanton 0 Organized the rst women s suffrage gathering in Seneca Falls New York and got many men and women to sign a document Sojourner Truth one of the rst African American women to speak out publically and widely about women s rights was a very powerful speaker Lucy Stone one of the few white supporters of African American women s involvement in the rst wave of feminism publisher of quotWoman s Journalquot Emma Goldman huge advocator for free speech and contraception the woman s movement was being limited by only ghting for legal and educational rights she demanded reproductive and sexuality rights too Charlotte Gilman a maternalist feminist believed that lifegiving women are superior Susan B Anthony cofounder of the NAWSA was in o promoting temperance and moral codes spoke around the country and was an active voice in the suffrage movement blamed prostitution on the lack of jobs for women 0 1920 the 19th Amendment the Anthony Amendment gave women the right to vote Equal Rights Amendment adopted into Congress 1972 but not into the Constitution says that equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex Eleanor Roosevelt big rejecter of racism and antiSemitism many women looked up to her and diversi ed their view of feminism because of her Margaret Sanger coined the term quotbirth control and advocated for it Marie Stopes also a birth control advocate Second wave feminists Simone de Beauvoir quotThe Second Sexquot the lack of birth control childcare and economic independence for women has held them hostage the idea of 39woman exists only in opposition to 39men men neutral and positive woman negative Betty Friedman wrote the Feminist Mystique a book about how in the 19505 and 19605 after WWII women were told to idealize being at home and being satis ed with making beds perfectly and taking good care of their children but what if this wasn t satisfying enough for women What if women were thinking quotIs this allquot Women began asserting their desire to raise children AND ear equal wages Third wave feminists Rebecca Walker believed feminism is about creating an ideology of female empowerment and equality How did Gender come about 0 Western Civilization 0 1 The bible portrayed women as either pure sexless virgins placed on a pedestal or sexual beasts who were condemned for being such dehumanized women All religious leaders were white men 0 2 The Enlightenment changed the study of anatomy from a quotonesex science to a quottwosex science 0 This allowed for a solid foundation for understanding the differences between men and women 0 3 Darwin male anatomy employed more varied and complex strategies to attract mates and were generally supedor 0 Men are more courageous pugnacious and energetic than women and they have more inventive genius He did not study females 0 This led to the idea that because males are more intelligent and aggressive they should be the parent that works and O O 0 because females are more nurturing and emotional they should take care of the children Conservative sociobiologists believe that men are naturally masculine and women are naturally feminine for a reason natural selection and the ones that did not survive did not survive for a reason Margaret Mead studied many tribal groups and ancient societies and concluded that many of the men and women were equally aggressive if not the men were actually more amboyant 4 Economic Trends Women s value and nature have been called into question repeatedly in the west by both theological and biological explanations of male dominance
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