Appendix D Outline
Appendix D Outline MGMT 276
Popular in Statistical Inference in Management
Popular in Management And Operations
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Anderson on Monday February 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT 276 at University of Arizona taught by Delaney in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see Statistical Inference in Management in Management And Operations at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Appendix D 1 Scienti c Method i phenomenon that scientists study is called the variable 1 is anything than can change ii is a broad idea or set of closely related ideas that attempts to explain observations and make predictions about future observations tell us the relationship between variables on a conceptual level explain why things happen l 2 is an educated guess that derives logically from a theory prediction that can be tested collecting data and analyzing it a definition that provides an objective description of how a variable is going to be measured and observed in a particular study should be specific enough to allow for exact replication of the measurement must first agree on what you are going to measure before establishing an operational definition crunching those numbers mathematically to see if they support predictions Ni iii iv all the information researchers collect in a study i based on the results of data analysis ilthod that allows researchers to combine the results of several different studies on a similar topic in order to establish the strength of an effect E9 types of research in business 9 i research that determines the basic dimensions of a phenomenon defining what it is how often it occurs and so on ii describes a phenomenon iii includes 1 observations 2 surveys presents and standard set of questions or items to obtain peoples selfreported attitudes or beliefs about a particular topics 3 interviews 4 an indepth look at a single individual performed mainly by clinical psychologists for either practical or ethical reasons iV value 1 allows researchers to get a sense of a subject of interest but cannot answer questions about how and why things are the way they are E9 a study that takes repeated measurements over time the intention may be to look for general trends over time within a culture or business market or to look for changes over time within an individual ii 39 99 iii iV Vi Vii Viii ix xi xii Ni can suggest potential causal relationships because if one variable is through to cause changes in another it should at least come before that variable in time casual relationships are not completely clear study that measures multiple groups at some point in time as though we are taking slices of measurements for each group intention is to compare the different groups to determine whether a causal relationship exists between variables is a carefully regulated research design in which the researcher manipulated an independent variable holding other variables constant eliminating confounding variables and measures the effects of the manipulations on the dependent variable crucial characteristic is the random assignment of the participants to the different levels of the independent variable only true experiments can provide evidence for cause and effect relationships means that researchers assign participants to groups by chance about making sure that experimental and control groups are equivalent reduces likelihood that the experiments results will be due to any preexisting differences between groups research design that resembles a true experiment but lacks the control of a true experiment no random assignment more vulnerable to bias due to confounding variables cannot provide evidence for a cause and effect relationship manipulated experimental factor the variable that the experimenter changes to see what its effects are can have several independent variables confederate is a person who is given a role to play in a study so that the social context can be manipulated is the variable that may change as a results of manipulations of the independent variable represents the outcome in an experiment variable that is not controlled in a study and varies systematically with the different levels of the independent variable making it impossible to know the reason or cause of the effect on the dependent variable more likely seen in quasi experiments than true experiments consists of the participants in an experiments who receive the drug or other treatment under study those who are exposed to the change that the independent variable represents participants in an experiments who are as much like the experimental group as possible who are treated in every way like the experimental group except for the manipulated factor or the independent variable each subject participates in only one level of independent variable so no overlap of participants in the different experimental conditions each subject participates in every level of the independent variable so that there is a total overlap of participants in the different experimental conditions posttest is one example of within participant design one type of repeated measures design refers to the soundness of the conclusions that a researcher draws from an experiment the degree to which an experimental design actually re ects the realworld issues it is supposed to address xiii xiv XV XVi XVii 2 b 990692 the degree to which changes in the dependent variable are due to the independent variable Is the experiment free from biases and logical errors occurs when the eXperimenter s eXpectations in uence the outcome of the research important because it introduces systematic differences called confounds between the eXperimental group and the control group any aspects of a study that communicate to the participants how the eXperimenter wants them to behave occurs when the behavior of research participants during the eXperiment is in uenced by how they think they are supposed to behave or by what their eXpectations are about what is happening to them occurs when participants eXpectations rather than the eXperimental treatment produces a particular outcome a harmless substance that has no physiological effect ie sugar pills given to control group eXperimental design in which neither the eXperimenter nor the participants are aware of which participants are in the eXperimental group and which are in the control group until the results are calculated allows researchers to distinguish the specific effects of the independent variable from the possible effects of the eXperimenters and the participants eXpectations about it psychology39s research methods observation survey and interview case study correlation research eXperimental research research samples psychologists usually want to draw conclusions that will apply to a larger group of people than the participants in the studythe population the entire group about which the investigator wants to draw conclusions the subset of the population chosen by the investigator for a study sample that gives every member of the population an equal chance of being selected improves the chances that the sample is representative of the population typically only approximates this about selecting participants from a population so that the sample is representative of the population research setting setting does now determine the types of research it is laboratory controlled setting in with many of the compleX factors of the real world removed including potential confounds drawbacks ii iii ii ii i1 iii ii 9 93 9393 P9P Ni almost impossible to conduct research in a lab without the participants knowing they are being studied not the real world can cause participants to behave unnaturally those going to university lab may not be representative of groups from diverse cultural backgrounds observation of behavior in real world setting ie sporting events work shopping analyzing and interpreting data mathematical methods for reporting data re the mathematical procedures researchers have developed to describe and summarize sets of data in a meaningful way describe and summarize data reveal the big picture the overall characteristics of the data and the variation among them is a single number that indicates the overall characteristics of a set of data mean the average calculated by adding all the scores in a set of scores and then dividing by the number of scores good indicator for the central tendency for a group of scores not so helpful when a group of scores contains a few extreme scores median score that falls exactly in the middle of the distribution of scores after they have been arranged from highest to lowest middle score in a sample mode score that occurs the most in a dataset least used measure of central tendency useful in cases in which information is desired for preferencepopularity describes how much the scores in a sample differ from one another give us a sense of the spread of scores or how much variability eXists in the data range measure of dispersion that is difference between the highest and the lowest scores rather simplistic estimate of the variability within a group of scores takes into account only the lowest and highest score it can be misleading picture of how different from one another scores in the dataset really are standard deviation measures how much scores vary on average around the mean of the sample most commonly used in psycological research more informative measure of dispersion Calculate by taking each person s difference from the mean and multiply it by itself add all these together divide by the number of cases minus 1 then square root mathematical methods that are used to indicate whether results for a sample are likely to generalize to a population tools that help us to state whether a difference is unlikely to be the result of chance inferential statistics yield a statement of probability about the differences observed between the two or more groups this probability statement gives the odds that the observed differences were due simply to chance iii ii ii ii 9quot 9quot E91 9 915 P Pt F P F NE bridge between a sample and a population because they tell us the likelihood that the results we found with a sample re ect differences in a larger population research that examines the relationship between variables whose purpose is to examine whether and how the 2 variables change together Tells relationship between two variable statistical technique correlation that is typically used to analyze these types of data key feature is that the factors of interest are measured or observed to see how they are related degree of relationship between 2 variables is eXpressed as a numerical value most commonly represented by the letter r statistic that tells us two things about the relationship strength told my or magnitude of the correlation direction told by or as one variable incr other also incr as one variable incr other also incr zero correlation means no systematic relationship falls between l00 and 100 CORRELATION DOESN39T EQUAL CAUSATION circumstance where a variable that has not been measured accounts for the relationship between 2 other variables also known as confounds good for studying everyday eXperience conducting ethical research ethics comes into play in every psychological study ethical guidelines developed to ensure that research is conducted ethically base is that person participating in psychological research should be no worse off coming out of the study than on the way in developed guidelines for its members that instruct psychologists to protect their participants mentally and physically what their participation will involve and what risks might develop researchers are responsible for keeping all of the data they gather on individuals completely confidential after study is completed participants should be informed of the study s purpose and the methods that were used researchers must ensure that the deception to the participant will not harm the participants and that they will be told the true nature of the study as soon as possible thinking critically about research ndings when attempting to understand psychological information follow 5 guidelines avoid overgeneralizing based on little information ii iii iV distinguish between group results and individual needs look for answers beyond a single study avoid attributing causes where none have been found Do not draw conclusions from correlation studies consider the source of psychological information
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