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Appendix E Outline

by: Morgan Anderson

Appendix E Outline MGMT 276

Morgan Anderson
GPA 3.0
Statistical Inference in Management

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Complete outline of Appendix E online reading.
Statistical Inference in Management
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Anderson on Monday February 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT 276 at University of Arizona taught by Delaney in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Statistical Inference in Management in Management And Operations at University of Arizona.

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Date Created: 02/16/15
ii iii iv b i ii iii WopPvar39 Appendix E Why conduct surveys surveys are a common and important method of studying behavior surveys provide us with a methodology for asking people to tell us about themselves survey method is an important way for researchers to study relationships among variables and ways that attitudes and behaviors change over time survey research is important as a complement to eXperimental research findings variables such as attitudes current emotional states and selfreport of behaviors are most easily studies using questionnaires or interviews is a tendency to respond to all questions from a particular perspective rather than to provide answers that are directly related to the questions can affect the usefulness of data obtained from selfreports most common response set is called social desirability or faking good leads the individual to answer the most socially acceptable way Constructing Questions to Ask what is it he or she wants to know survey questions must be tied to the research questions that are being addressed Questions about attitudes and beliefs focus on the ways that people evaluate and think about issues Factual questions ask people to indicate things they know about themselves and their situations asking demographic information is necessary to adequately describe your sample can focus on past behaviors or intended future behaviors cognitive psychologists have identified a number of potential problems with questions wording from difficulty with understanding the question including unfamiliar technical terms vague or imprecise terms ungrammatical sentence structure phrasing that overloads working memory embedding the question with misleading information questions should be relatively simple provide a brief description of a term before asking a question about it questions ask two things at once simply ask two separate questions is written to lead people to respond in one way avoid questions with negatives ii ii ii iii iV ii p k p k Qt when you ask several questions about the same topic there is a possibility that a respondent will employ a response set to agree or disagree with all the questions Responses to Questions limited number of response alternative are given more structured approach easier to code and the response alternatives are the same for everyone more likely to be used when the dimensions of the variables are well defined respondents are free to answer any way they like require time to categorize and code the responses most costly most useful when the researcher needs to know what people are thinking and how they naturally view their world closed ended questions agree or disagree yes or no ask people to provide how much judgments on any number of dimensions amount of agreement liking confidence can have many different formats format used depends on factors such as the topics being investigated requires a mark along a continuous 100 mm line that is anchored with descriptions at each end is a measure of the meaning concepts that was developed by Osgood and his associates Osgood Suci amp Tannenbaum 1957 respondents rate any concept on a series of bipolar adjectives using 7point scales research on semantic differential shows that virtually anything can be measured using this technique ie point to the face that shows how you feel about the toy assumes that the middle alternative is a neutral point halfway between the endpoints Finalizing the Questionnaire Formatting the questionnaire printed questionnaire should appear attractive and professional easy to identify questions and response alternatives stick to particular scale format think about sequence Refining questions give to sample group to better improve questions Administering Surveys two ways written questionnaires use an interview format i ii iii iV V Vi ii iii iV Vi b PPquot P F t aeovewpp epp ee questions are presented in a written format and respondents write their answers less costly than interviews allow respondent to be completely anonymous as long as no identifying information require respondents be able to read and understand questions can be administered in person to groups or individuals or through mail internet other technologies TYPES distribute questionnaires to groups of individuals you have the captive audience that is likely to complete the questionnaire once they start it can be mailed to individuals at a home or business address very ineXpensive way of contacting the people who were selected for the sample low response rates easy to design questionnaire for administration on the intemet both open ended and closed ended questions can be written and presented to respondents responses are immediately sent to researcher after completion Feldman Barrett and Barrett 2001 refer to this as with pager cell phones and other wireless communication devices it is possible to contact people at various times and ask them to provide an immediate report of their current activities and emotional reactions People are more likely to agree to answer questions for a real person rather than a mailed questionnaire response rates are higher Interviewer can clarify any problems person might have in understanding questions can ask followup questions if needed to help clarify answers describes all of the biases that can arise from the fact that the interviewer is a unique human being interacting with another human TYPES interviews tend to be quite eXpensive and time consuming most likely used when sample size is fairly small and there are clear benefits to a facetoface interaction almost always used for largescale surveys less eXpensive than facetoface allow data to be collected relatively quickly because many interviewers can work on the same survey at once computerized telephone survey techniques lower cost of telephone surveys by reducing labor and data analysis cost computer assisted telephone interview CATI system the interviewers questions are prompted on the computer screen and the data are entered directly into the computer for analysis focus group is an interview with a group of about 6 to 10 individuals brought together for period of usually 2 to 3 hours usually some sort of monetary or gift incentive to participate ii iii 90693 questions tend to be open ended group interaction is possible group discussion is usually recorded and transcribed then analyzed to find themes and areas of group consensus and disagreement survey designs to study change over time surveys most frequently study people at one point in time where the same people are surveyed at two or more points in time important when research question addresses the relationship between one variable at time one and another variable at some later time two people are surveyed at two points in time people are surveyed at three points in time Four waveetc sampling from a population most research projects involve sampling participants from a population of interest is composed of all individuals of interest to the researcher allows us to infer what the population is like based on data obtained from a sample when researchers make inferences about population they do so with a certain degree of confidence gives information about the likely amount of the error sampling error or margin of error iii2 best estimate of the population value i ii iii ii iii Ni ii larger the sample size will reduce the size of the confidence interval can be determined using a mathematical formula that taken into account the size of the confidence interval and the size of the population you are studying larger sample size is not a constant percentage of the population sampling techniques each member of the population has a specifiable probability of being chosen every member of the population has an equal probability of being selected for the sample the population is diVided into subgroups or strata and random sampling techniques are then used to select sample member from each stratum assurance that sample will accurately re ect the numerical composition of the various sub groups researchers can identify clusters of individuals and then sample from these clusters cluster sampling requires a series of samples from larger to smaller clusters multistage approach researcher does not have to sample from lists of individuals to obtain a truly random sample of individuals we don t know the probability of any particular member of the population being chosen cheap and convenient or convenience sampling take them where you find them sampling limit your ability to use your sample data to estimate the actual population values iii iV ii Ni results may not be generalized to your intended population but instead describe only the biased sample that you obtained purpose is to obtain a sample of people who meet some predetermined criterion good way to limit your sample to a certain group of people not a probability sample esearcher who uses this technique chooses a sample that re ects a numerical composition of various subgroups in the population similar to stratified sampling but random sampling does not occur when you use quota sampling evaluating samples highly representative of the population is the actual population of individuals or clusters from which a random sample will be drawn in a survey is simply the percentage of people in the sample who actually completed the survey indicated how much bias there might be in the final sample of respondents lower the response rate the greater the likelihood that such bias may distort the findings and in turn limit the ability to generalize the findings of the population of interest


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