Exam One Study Guide
Exam One Study Guide Biol 405
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monica Comer on Monday February 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 405 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Mark Dybdahl in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 264 views. For similar materials see Principles of Organic Evolution in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Principles of Organic Evolution Exam One Study Guide Evolution The change of form and function over time variation is the essential fuel Darwin s Insights Descent with Modi cation Evolution of species over time 9 Earth is old Species change over time o Lineages diverge from common ancestor All life forms related 0 Natural Selection Driving force behind the arisal of adaptations acts on individuals but causes populations to evolve Adaptation traits that increase the tness of an individual compared to individuals without the trait Four Postulates of Natural Selection LVariability Phenotypic properties of an organism morphology behavior physiology etc Discrete Trait size color only single locus Continuous Trait size polygenic many loci 2 Heritability Phenotypic variation due to alleles inherited from parents Genotype 3 Competition More individuals are born than can survive Differential reproductive success between individuals LNonRandom Fitness Variation Survival and reproductive success depend on phenotype and tness function Snapdragon Color 9 Bees prefer yellow to white yellow has higher reproductive success Gulf Coast Beach Mice 9 Light and Dark colored wax mice models placed on beach white sand and inland dark soil color correlated to increasedecrease in attacks Darwin s Finches o Unstable rain season larger beak better adapted to resources Illuminates Understanding of Origin and Diversity of Life Evolutionary relationships leading to model research organisms Human driven selection to bene t society Behavior Morphology Physiology and Life History Pathogens and how to ght them HIV Vaccine Primes immune system to recognize virus epitopes HIV Drug Therapy prevent replication using AZT to disrupt reverse transcriptase HIV undergoes rapid evolution gt Reverse transcriptase evolves to recognize AZT and remove from DNA Understanding HIV origins SIV allows better vaccine development History of Evolutionary Thought Special Creation George Cuvier early 1800 s gt Species do not change and are not connected gt The earth is young quotcatastrophismquot gt All life eradicated replaced by revolutions Lamarckian Evolution JeanBaptiste Lamarck gt Abiogenesis spontaneous generation produces change in form Progressive improvement to higher forms gt Beings acquire characteristic stretched neck and offspring receive trait long neck Darwin and Wallace gt 18311836 Voyage on the Beagle Darwin 18541862 Amazon Basin Wallace gt 1842 Preliminary sketch of Ideas Darwin gt 1858 Conceives of evolution by Natural Selection sends letter Wallace gt 1859 Publishes 0n the Origin of Species Joint effort In uences Thomas Malthus Population Growth checked Charles Lyell Uniformitarianism quotsteady accumulation of minute changes over long period of time Carolus Linneaus Typological thinking Variation quoterror in translation Evidence Paleontological Extinction temporal series anagenesis absence of quotprecambrian rabbit Biogeographical related species found together gt Wallace s Line gt Darwin s Finches gt Marsupials found on south America and Australia Molecular and Anatomical Homology sameness of species re ecting common ancestor Direct ObservationInference of Descent with Modi cation gt Rock Pigeon gt Fantail Capuchine Pouter and Ice pigeon gt Brassica oleracea gt Kohlrabi Brussel Sprouts Cabbage Kale and Broccoli Building Phylogeny gt Ancestordescendant relationships Evolutionary trees Root Direction of time Origin of novelties Nodes Branch points Common ancestors through time Sister taxa are closest relatives Branches time Transitions Modi cations of traits Ideal gt Ancestral condition known Homology veri ed gt Novelties appear once and are never lost gt Synamorphy shard novelties inherited by descent from common ancestor NonIdeal gt Traits arise more than once gt Homoplasy similar not by descent from common ancestor Convergence Trait derived multiple times from different ancestors Reversal Trait gained through common ancestor lost through recent ancestor Monophyletic group shares synamorphies an ancestor node and includes all descendants Paraphyletic includes ancestor and some but not all descendants Polyphyletic exclusion for ancestor inclusion of descendants from different families Parsimony and Outgroup Analysis gt Assumes evolutionary transitions uncommon Determines time s direction by comparing to outgroup gt Different traits indicate different phylogenies Sources of Variation Environmental Variation Phenotypic variation without genetic variation thus not inherited no evolutionary response to natural selection Source of Heritable Genetic Variation DNA Molecule gt New Alleles created by mutation majority of mutations lethal gt New Genes formed by gene duplication Maintain original function with difference in base pair reading Loss of function Obtain new function gt New genome polyploidy Epigenetic marks induced by environment alter gene expression and phenotypic expression The Modern Synthesis RA Fisher Sewell Wright JBS Haldane T Dobzhansky Evolution gt change in allele frequencies HardyWeinberg Equilibrium gt Allele won t change between generations gt Genotype frequency is predictable from allele frequency No genetic drift in nite population No migration No mutation No selection Random mating Frequency of event probability of randomly encountering event FrAp Fraq pq1 Multiplication Rule probability of two independent events both occurring is equal to the product of the independent probabilities of occurrence FrAA pquot2 FrAa 2pq Fraaqquot2 pquot22pqqquot21 Null model Allele frequencies do not change across generations Differential survival among genotypes Dij Average tness Dpquot2ii2pqijqquot21j Relative frequency lijl Frequency in adults pquot2ii quDijD qquot21jl Change in allele frequencies p pquot2iiquij Ap determines whether allele frequencies will change Ap pp pDpDiiqujD Selection and Polymorphism Deleterious recessive lethal or disadvantageous allele frequency decreases until near 0 and asymptotes Bene cial recessive Increases tnessadvantageous allele frequency increases until reaches xation 1 Rate of evolution is predictable proportional to heritable variation in relative tness 2 Dominance strongly in uences rate of evolution changes in rare recessive mutations take a long time Selection against alleles leads to xation of favored allele eg p0 q1 Polymorphism More than one discrete phenotype locus with more than one allele 3 Heterozygote advantage Overdominance ljii D Dij D j s and t are selection coefficients 1s 1 1t difference in tness between genotypes Polymorphic equilibrium Ap 0 when p0 1 and phat tst phat is the value of p at equilibrium Mutation and polymorphism introduces new alleles l 10quot4 to 10quot8 causes small changes in allele frequencies P1 1pquott Po t generations MutationSelection balance Migration as Evolutionary Force Migration the movement of alleles between populations either in diploid or haploid state Both allele and genotype frequencies change FI Acontinent Pc FI acontinent PI API mPc PI Equilibrium when API 0 Pc PI Island population evolves until migration homogenizes allele frequencies on both Evolutionary Divergence vs Migration quotMigrationSelection balance gt Lake Eeerie Water Snakes Banded favored on mainland unbanded favored on island gt Rock Pocket Mouse Selection coefficient at equilibrium m migration rate p q allele frequencies Aq sqquot2 mp mq Equilibrium at Aq 0 thus s m pqqquot2 This equation will determine the selection coefficient needed to counteract migration
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