Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide COMM 1041
Popular in Interpersonal Communication
Popular in Communication
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marissa Mangini on Monday February 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1041 at George Washington University taught by Lally in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Communication at George Washington University.
Reviews for Midterm Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/16/15
Interpersonal Communication Review Chapter 1 Communicationprocess of action on information Impersonal Communicationprocess that occurs when we treat others as objects or respond to their roles rather than to who they are as unique persons Interpersonal communicationa distinctive transactional form of human communication involving mutual in uence usually for the purpose of managing relationships Elements of the Communication Process 0 Sourceoriginator of a though or emotion who puts it into a code that can be understood by a receiver 0 Messagewritten spoken and unspoken elements of communication to which people assign meaning 0 Channelpathway through which messages are sent 0 Receiverperson who decodes a message and attempts to make sense of what the source has encoded o Feedbackresponse to a message Models of the communication process 9written out Otherorientedto be aware of the thoughts needs experiences personality emotions motives desires culture and goals of your communication partners while still maintaining your own integrity Chapter 2 SelfconceptA person s subjective description of who he or she is Attitudeleamed predisposition to respond to a person object or idea in a favorable or unfavorable way BeliefWay in which you structure your understanding of reality what is true and what is false of you Valueenduring concept of good and bad right and wrong Material selfconcept of self as re ected in the total of all the tangible things you own Social selfconcept of self as re ected in social interactions with others Spiritual selfconcept of self based on thoughts and introspections about personal values moral standards and beliefs Disclosurepurposefully providing information about yourself to others that they would not learn if you did not tell them Attachment stylea style of relating others that develops early in life based on the emotional bond one forms with one s parents or primary caregiver 0 Secure attachment stylethe style of relating to others that is characteristic of those whoa re comfortable giving and receiving affection experiencing intimacy and trusting other people 0 Anxious attachment stylethe style of relating to others that is characteristic of those who experience anxiety in some intimate relationships and feel uncomfortable giving and receiving affection o Avoidant attachment stylethe style of relating to others that is characteristic of those who consistently experience discomfort and awkwardness in intimate relationships and who therefore avoid such relationships Personality asset of enduring behavioral characteristics and internal predispositions for reacting to our environment 0 Extraversionoutgoing talkative positive emotions and sociable o AgreeablenessFriendly compassionate trusting and cooperative o ConscientiousnessEfficient organized selfdisciplined dutiful and methodical o Neuoticismnervous insecure emotionally distressed and anxious o Opennesscurious imaginative creative adventurous and inventive Social Learning Theory a theory that suggest people can learn behavior that helps them adapt and adjust their behavior toward others FaceA person s positive perception of himself or herself in interactions with others Faceworkusing communication to maintain your own positive selfperception or to support reinforce or challenge someone else s selfperception Selfesteemyour evaluation of your worth or value based on your perception of such things as your skills abilities talents and appearance Selfeff1cacya person s belief in his or her ability to perform a specific task in a particular situation Chapter 3 Interpersonal Perceptionprocess of selecting organizing and interpreting your observations of other people SelectingProcess of choosing one sound while sorting through various sounds competing for your attention Selective perceptionprocess of seeing hearing or making sense of the world around us based on such factors as our personality beliefs attitudes hopes fears and culture as well as what we like and don t like Selective attentionprocess of focusing on specific stimuli locking on to some things in the environment and ignoring others Selective exposuretendency to put ourselves in situations that reinforce our attitudes beliefs values or behaviors Selective recallprocess that occurs when we remember things we want to remember and forget or repress things that are unpleasant uncomfortable or unimportant to us Organizing the second stage in the perceptual process in which we assemble stimuli into convenient and efficient patterns Superimpose to place a familiar structure on information you select Punctuationprocess of making sense out of stimuli by grouping dividing organizing separating and categorizing information Closureprocess of filling in missing information or gaps in what we perceive Interpretingthe final stage in perception in which we assign meaning to what we have observed Impressionscollection of perceptions about others that you maintain and use to interpret their behaviors Impression formation theorytheory that explains how you develop perceptions about people and how you maintain and use those perceptions to interpret their behaviors Passive perceptionperception that occurs without conscious effort simply in response to one s surroundings Active perception perception that occurs because you seek out specific information through intentional observation and questioning Implicit personality theoryyour unique set of beliefs and hypotheses about what people are like Uncertainty Reduction theorytheory that claims people seek information in order to reduce uncertainty thus achieving control and predictability Primacy effecttendency to attend to the first pieces of information observed about another person in order to form an impression Regency effecttendency to attend to the most recent information observed about another person in order to form or modify and impression Halo effectattributing a variety of positive qualities to those you like Horn effectattributing a variety of negative qualities to those you dislike Attribution theorytheory that explains how you generate explanations for people s behaviors Casual attribution theorytheory of attribution that identifies the cause of a person s actions as circumstance a stimulus or the person himself or herself Standpoint theorytheory that a person s social position power or cultural background in uences how the person perceives the behavior of others Culture learned system of knowledge behaviors attitudes beliefs values and norms shared by a group of people Material culture housing clothing automobiles and other tangible things Social institutions schools governments religious organizations Belief systems ideas about individuals and the universe Stereotypeto place a person or group of persons into an in exible all encompassing category Selfserving biastendency to perceive our own behavior as more positive than others behaviors Chapter 4 Sexbiologically based differences that determine whether one is male or female Gendersocially learned and reinforced characteristics that include one s biological sex and psychological characteristics Racegenetically transmitted physical characteristics or a group of people Ethnicitysocial classification based on nationality religion language and ancestral heritage shared by a group of people who also share a common geographical origin Issues relating to def1ning Race and Ethnicity tendency to discriminate and unfairly inaccurately or inappropriately ascribe stereotypes to racial or ethnic groups Ageyour generation has important implications for interpersonal communication Social class distinctions 0 Way of life family job money and education Cultureleamed system of knowledge behavior attitudes beliefs values and norms shared by a group of people Cultural dimensions 0 IndividualismNorth America value individual achievement and personal accomplishment more loosely knit socially o Collectivisticvalue group and team achievement more loyalty to and from the community Cultural contextaspects of the environment andor nonverbal cues that convey information not explicitly communicated through language Highcontext cultureculture in which people derive much information from nonverbal and environmental cues Lowcontext cultureculture in which people derive much information from the words or a message and less information from nonverbal and environmental cues Masculine cultureculture in which people tend to value traditional roles for men and women achievement assertiveness heroism and material wealth Feminine cultureculture in which people tend to value caring sensitivity and attention to quality of life Uncertaintycultures have more relaxed informal expectations for others Power centralized hierarchical bureaucracies are common and people expect some individuals to have more power than others Time long term orientation emphasis on the future and tend to value perseverance and thrift larger purpose Culture shockfeelings of stress and anxiety a person experiences when encountering a culture different from his or her own Ethnocentrismbelief that your cultural traditions and assumptions are superior to those of others Prejudicea judgment of opinion of someone formed before you know all of the facts or the background of that person Third culturecommon ground established when people from separate cultures create a third new more comprehensive and inclusive culture Communication accommodation theorytheory that all people adapt their behavior to others to some extent Chapter 5 Listeningprocess of selecting attending to creating meaning from remembering and responding to verbal and nonverbal messages Selectingprocess of choosing one sounds while sorting through various sounds competing for your attention Attendingprocess of focusing on a particular sound or message Understandingprocess of assigning meaning to sounds Rememberingprocess of recalling information Respondingprocess of confirming your understanding of a message Listening stylespreferred way of making sense out of spoken messages Relational listenersthose who prefer to focus on the emotions and feelings communicated verbally and nonverbally by others Analytical listenersthose who withhold judgment listen to all sides of an issue and wait until they hear the facts before reaching a conclusion Critical listenersthose who prefer to listen for the facts and evidence to support key ideas and an underlying logic they also listen for errors inconsistencies and discrepancies Taskoriented listenersthose who look at the overall structure of the message to see what action needs to be taken they also like eff1cient clear and briefer messages Listening barriers being selfabsorbed unchecked emotions criticizing the speaker differing speech rate and thought rate information overload external noise and listener apprehension Listener apprehensionthe fear of misunderstanding misinterpreting or being unable to adjust to the spoken messages of others Empathyemotional reaction that is similar to the reaction being experienced by another person empathizing is feeling what another person is feeling Social decenteringcognitive process in which we take into account another person s thoughts feelings values background and perspective Compassionate listeningnonjudgmental nondefensive empathic listening to confirm the worth of another person Active listeningthe process of being physically and mentally engaged in the listening process and letting the listener know that you are engaged Fact vs Inference Emotional intelligencethe ability to be aware of to understand and to manage one s own emotions and those of other people Critical listeninglistening to evaluate and assess the quality appropriateness value or importance of information Responding skills Improve empathetic responding skillsdon t interrupt paraphrase emotions and provide helpful support Confirming responsesstatement that causes another person to value himself or herself more Disconfirming responsesstatement that causes another person to value himself or herself less Chapter 6 Symbolword sounds or visual image that represents something else such as a thought Referentthing that a symbol represents Thoughtmental process of creating an image sound concept or experience triggered by a referent or symbol Denotative meaningrestrictive or literal meaning of a word Connotative meaningpersonal and subjective meaning of a word Symbolic interaction theorytheory that people make sense of the world based on their interpretation of words or symbols used by others Linguistic determinismtheory that describes how use of language determines or in uences thoughts and perceptions Linguistic relativitytheory that each language includes some unique features that are not found in other languages SapirWhorf Hypothesisbased on the principles of linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity the hypothesis that language shapes out thoughts and culture and out culture and thoughts affect the language we use to describe our world Worldviewindividual perceptions or perceptions by a culture or group of people about key beliefs and issues which in uence interaction with others Euphemisma mild or indirect word that is substituted for one that describes something vulgar profane unpleasant or embarrassing Bypassingconfusion caused by the fact that the same word can mean different things to different people Malapropismconfusion of one word or phrase for another that sounds similar to it Restricted codeset of words that have particular meaning to a person group or culture J argonanother name for restricted code specialized terms or abbreviations whose meanings are known only to members of a specific group Allnesstendency to use language to make unqualified often untrue generalizations Indexingavoiding generalizations by using statements that separate one situation person or example from another Static evaluationpronouncement that does not take the possibility of change into consideration Polarizationdescription and evaluation of what you observe in terms of extremes such as good or bad old or new beautiful or ugly Hate speechwords or phrases intended to offend or show disrespect for someone s race ethnicity cultural background or gender Words of support Assertiveable to pursue one s own best interests without denying a partner s rights Aggressive expressing one s interests while denying the rights of others by blaming judging and evaluating other people Apologyexplicit admission of an error along with a request for forgiveness How to assert yourself describe disclose identify effects wait and use active listening skills
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'