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by: Forrest Lackey

Notes_4_last_test__respect_etc____Copy.pdf History of Popular Music in Am - MUHL-3670-001

Forrest Lackey
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These are the combined notes on both in class lectures and reading material that will be drawn from for the test. The test will have a short answers section, which is drawn mainly from in class lec...
HIstory of Popular Music in America
Gregory Reish
Study Guide
Southern, Gothic, Hip-hop, Nicki-Minaj, Michael-Jackson
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Popular in HIstory of Popular Music in America

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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Forrest Lackey on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History of Popular Music in Am - MUHL-3670-001 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Gregory Reish in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see HIstory of Popular Music in America in Music at Middle Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 04/18/16
Forrest Lackey Popular Music inAmerican History Notes for Test 3 Notes for Third Test: Short answer and Essay Questions Study Soup Respect: (Notes on Reading, good for Essay Question) -Otis Redding wrote and recorded ‘Respect’in 1965. -Queen of Soul (Aretha Franklin) stakes a claim of ownership by re-authoring the song in her famous 1967 recording. -Both versions of ‘Respect’illustrate how gender as a socially constructed concept does cultural work through performance and is integral to the meanings audiences ascribe to the recordings -Franklin revises the song’s melodic content, including its scale-degree structure, pitch collection and rhythmic properties; presents a powerful and elastic vocal delivery; and adds new musical material and lyrics, which impact the song’s form and meanings. -Franklin uses blue notes more emphatically than Redding, her blue notes are generally lowered further than Redding’s and, in fact, the entire melodic structure is different -The overall key–as played by the rhythm section–of Franklin’s version is C major, yet the lead vocal melody draws upon the C minor pentatonic collection because of Franklin’s extensive emphasis on lowered scale degree 3 (E-flat) and lowered scale degree 7 (B-flat) as blue notes. -Franklin’s revision of melodic structure, serves as a ‘motivated’rewriting, a parody or ‘close reading’ intended to comment upon the original source -Franklin’s emphasis on lowered 3 to be a musical outdoing or one-upping as it functions as a heightened blue note and marker of primacy in the melodic structure, in contrast to Redding’s more unassuming pentatonic structure -Perhaps the most compelling aspect of Franklin and Redding’s respective recordings concerns how the voice is used, especially with regard to vocal quality and phrasing vocal delivery relates to constructions of authenticity in popular music -Franklin uses what I call ‘syllabic elasticity’–the contrast between syllables receiving relatively longer duration (agogic accent) and louder attack (dynamic accent) and fewer accentuated syllables– more extensively than Redding -the female characters are clearly in control of their sexuality in ways that exploit neither their partners nor themselves -Franklin’s lyrics–an integral part of her gender-authoring–consciously challenge Redding, participate in a motivated rewriting of his song, and facilitate these marked changes in the subject position of the song’s protagonist and the resulting dialogue that ensues between her version and Redding’s Notes on Class (Good for short answer Question). -Sacred and secular: Gospel with blues/R&B. -This was esp among Black community. This close relationship made black sacred and secular music more official. -Ray Charles (1930-2004) credited 4 “bleeding the way” for this in 50s. - “I've got a woman” Dec 1954 was secular, sexual, yet religious in style. Forrest Lackey Popular Music inAmerican History Notes for Test 3 - It sounded like “It must be Jesus” by The Southern Tones (May 1954) (Ray sped it up, changed keys, etc) -People were upset over a religious song getting secularized and sexualized. SOUL -Aretha Franklin (born 1942. Did cover of Respect-1967). Still a kid at Charle's rise. -Started singing light jazz, seen as a velvety R&B version of Patsy Cline. -Snapped up by theAtlantic Rec. Based in NY, a Soul and R&B powerhouse. (Atlantic expanded in the 60s). -Stax Records: Memphis, TN. -King Records: made famous by James Brown (“God-father of Soul & Funk”). Cincinnati Ohio: “King City”. -Ahmet Ertegun: Turkish President-Signed in Ray. -Jerry Wexler: Right hand man. Coined R&B, most importantA&R man of Era. -Tom Dowd- Engineer before Producer. Worked with every major SoulArtist. -STAX-Had “Pops Staples” (The Staple Singers). Main femal lead was Mavis Staples. They did “Wade in the Water” from Freedom Sings (1965) at Stax Records (Memphis). -They took part in Folk movement and the Freedom and Protest movement. - “Singing about Social Justice is a gospel song” when asked why they were with Bob Dylan type protest movement. -Another example of religious mixing with social justice in music: The Eagle Stirrith Her Nest (Rev C.L. Franklin made her title a Biblical Reference). (pg 14): (Notes on reading, good for Essay Question) “ the southern dream of freedom: with its clear roots in gospel music, soul combines the gospel truth and its longing for freedom with everyday danceable experiences -Aretha was heralded as the embodiment of racial authenticity -Moore describes third person authenticity as the result of a performer successfully representing or emulating the work of someone else. -Franklin follows in both gospel and soul traditions, she exemplifies third person authenticity -Franklin's artistry grew out of several musical traditions: gospel, blues and R&B second person authenticity occurs when a performer validates the experiences and truths for the individual members of his or her audience -on a larger level her recording is informed by earlier gospel and blues traditions of making the personal political, something that resonated with feminist movements at the time the recording was released -Respect reveals that the song adopts an identity that is not only about sexuality, but also about Forrest Lackey Popular Music inAmerican History Notes for Test 3 empowerment and ultimately freedom. 2 ideas of feminist ideals in 1967: -1st, Franklin's Respect emphasizes female sexual empowerment, which relates to the idea of advocating for sexuality as a source of pleasure for women, as some radical feminists at the time were known to do -Second, radical feminists were firmly opposed to male hegemony -Franklin's Respect became an anthem for multiple social liberation movements and an anthem of the dispossessed’ -Franklin’s statement is particularly significant given the history of sexual abuse and rape that countless black women endured at the hands of white men during slavery in the United States -In Franklin’s ‘Respect’we have seen one powerful example of how the process of re-authoring a song can have important consequences for the personal, cultural and political work it performs. -“Stay Out the Way of the SouthernThing”: The Drive-By Truckers’Southern Gothic SoundscapeTravis D. StimelingA systematic analysis of the band’s studio albums reveals that the Drive-By Truckers have extracted a small but versatile collection of musical topoi drawn primarily from 1970s southern and hard rock. -they employ specific compositional and performance practices that deform and distort the sounds of their rock predecessor -literary counterparts-the music of Lynyrd Skynyrd, theAllman Brothers Band-problematize the state of working-class whiteness in the contemporaryAmerican South. -The characters that inhabit the cosmos created by the Athens, Georgia-based rock-group the Drive-By Truckers represent the dark underbelly of the Second New South, the people that the Sun Belt expansion of the 1970s forgot. -“Southern Gothic throughout,” evoking the grotesque imagery of: broken and dying bodies, insanity, and even paranormal occurrences. -Drive-By Truckers’first two albums: 1998’s Gangstabilly and 1999’s Pizza Deliverance gothic is neither a genre nor an expressive mode -American gothic is a discursive practice, often adopted by disenfranchised populations, that challenges the notion of theAmerican dream by focusing on the people who have failed to adapt to cultural progress and who have been left behind as a result. -commonly evoked in southern gothic literature: “a decaying ‘aristocracy’” and “a rebellious, primitive, ‘earthy’peasantry” -The characters who speak through many of the Drive-By Truckers’songs see themselves, therefore, as the unwitting victims of the globalized economy and, as evidenced by songs such as Hood’s “The Sands of Iwo Jima” (2004) and “The Home Front” (2010), the military-industrial complex -Southernrock was part of an emergingAmerican fetishization of the South, and, in the context of the Forrest Lackey Popular Music inAmerican History Notes for Test 3 1970s, it promised “new beginnings” -Charlie Daniels, Lynyrd Skynyrd, and theAllman Brothers were turning southern culture into a pop- culture phenomenon, -Drawing freely upon country, rock and roll, and soul, the sounds of southern rock captured the new cultural and economic vitality of the South -their hopes had been dashed by the end of the 1980s as the social and economic policies of the Reagan administration worked to further marginalize the southern working class -were popular among southern whites during the 1970s, crossing musical boundaries between southern rock, punk, and soul. -Chief-among these groups is Lynyrd Skynyrd -Lynyrd Skynyrd achieved great popularity by effectively expressing the pent-up anger of young southern working-class men who were tired of feeling “as though people in other parts of the country were projecting the sins of an entire nation’s history on the South alone” -October 1977 plane crash that killed lead singer Ronnie Van Zant, guitarist Steve Gaines, and backup singer Cassie Gaines. -Southern rock is a guitar-based style that frequently includes one rhythm guitar, two lead guitars, and electric bass guitar. Stimeling Drive By Truckers: (Notes on Reading) -DBT was inAthens Georgia, 2001. (Also, REM from there). -It was in the Indie Rock Scene. Patterson Hood was front man/founder, primary singer, and songwriter for many of their sings, like “Let there be Rock.” -From a studio covering and inspired by Southern Rock, Black Soul, and British music. -The group got along compared to where they came from. -Jason Isbel was fromAlabama and joined in mid 2000s (joined DBT in 2005). Famous ex Member. -2 DBTAlbums: Southern Rock Opera (2001), Decoration Day (2003). -Southern Gothic:Artistic mood. Mythological South mixed with mired in history. Obsession with past, bleakness, lifelessness, spooky moss, old cars/buildings (abandoned, rusty, contrast semi nice but decrepit mansion or church). Occasionally supernatural. Being in the South gives a complex view of urgency and power. SOUTHERN ROCK -1970s Georgia: Southern Rock was everywhere. -Famous Examples: Lynyrd Skynyrd and theAllman Brothers. First showed up in late 60s by Capricorn Records ( Macon, GA). -Most important southern rock symbol before it was swallowed up byAtlantic Records, then FAME Recording Studio (Muscle Shoals,AL). -Hard electric rock sound from electric guitar (Les Paul Electric Guitar favored). -Elements of Electric Blues can be found in Southern Rock. -Lyrics centered around: Free man, tough, fun loving, rebellious, womanizing. THE CHARLIE DANIELS BAND -has a place in Music Hall of Fame in Nashville. -Plays for Vets. - “The South's Gonna Do itAgain.” -Part of Southern Gothic/Rock is critiquing what they love (the South,America, Southern Rock). Forrest Lackey Popular Music inAmerican History Notes for Test 3 -Patterson Hood: “The South's Heritage is more than a flag.” -Captures South's storytelling tradition & tall tail Mythology, apply 2 rock. -White Southerners-Full of contradictions and inner conflict. It's complicated. -Be proud of where you came from while condemning bad stuff in History. Michael Jackson's Legacy: (Notes on Reading) -many people around the world logged online Friday afternoon to get updates about the pop superstar’s status that the Internet itself nearly buckled. -Indiana-born Jackson had his first #1 hit in 1969 at eleven years old -not an exaggeration to say that he was the most advanced popular singer of his age in the history of recorded music -more Diana than Gladys, more Dionne thanAretha -By the early 70s Jackson had incorporated into his repertoire West Coast popping and locking Michael Jackson’s talents as a songwriter and producer wouldn’t come to light until he left Motown in 1975. -Jackson truly reached creative nirvana on 1979’s Off the Wall, his fifth studio album, by collaborating with musical journeyman Quincy Jones…...develop the musical DNAthat would define each of his successive albums. -With Off the Wall, Jackson finally found a way to capture the visceral thrill of his live concerts on record -Drawing on the monumental success of the 1979 Saturday Night Fever soundtrack, 1982’s Thriller redefined the pop album as a blockbustermega-spectacle -I’d call him a spectacularist, He was the thriller he sang about; he wanted to leave you constantly enthralled by every aspect of the artistic experience. -Jackson always harbored film star ambitions but they would never materialize -Jackson transferred his celluloid ambitions into the music video arena completely revolutionizing the art form -With Thriller he turned video into mega-spectacle.At first, MTV refused to play Jackson’s videos, but as his popularity became undeniable the network ultimately had to swallow crow, as it were one of the unsung heroes in Jackson’s meteoric rise was Michael Peters, the late Dreamgirls choreographer, whose iconic moves in videos like “Beat It” and “Thriller” became a definitive part of Jackson’s iconography -In the mid 80s, as Thriller’s sales skyrocketed and Grammys piled up, Jackson emerged as the most famous person on earth, -Thriller exploded the concept of pop stardom, what was possible in the construction and maintenance of global celebrity. It also exploded the concept of racial crossover -At the time of his death, Jackson had spent nearly 42 years making records; that’s a staggering sum considering he was only 50 years old. -If Michael Jackson redefined pop music as mega-spectacle, he also redefined the surreal weirdness of celebrity culture. -Jackson spent his life in abject fear of being perceived as normal and ordinary. by turns humble and megalomaniacal. Forrest Lackey Popular Music inAmerican History Notes for Test 3 -Because of the way Jackson destabilized our understanding of race, gender, and sexuality as fixed categories, he became the figure that many of us academics cut our teeth on as cultural critics. -One aspect that is often overlooked inAmerican television coverage of his death but frequently mentioned in other countries where Jackson’s stardom never dropped off the radar is his long legacy of humanitarian and charitable work -Michael Jackson held steadfast to a vision of one love-planetary humanism, Jackson really did inspire people to believe that they could change the world Michael Jackson and 1980s Mainstream Pop: (Class notes). -MIDI-Musical Instrument Digital Interface. -Allow digital studio equipment to speak to each other, even if different manufacturer -sends commands, not actual audio. -FM Synthesis: Frequency Modulation. -Sampling- load all little recordings in box. Bunch of little digital recordings led to…. SYNTH POP nd -Lots of Brits involved, called 2 British invasion (wasn't as big as first one in 60s). -Example Eurythmics “Sweet Dreams” (1983) -Peter Gabriel “Sledgehammer” (1986) GLOBAL POP -famous example: Paul Simon, Graceland 1986 (70s became solo, left Garfunkle). -Experimented with Jazz & Funk before Pop. Combined Singing and Song writing with SouthAfrican style- ex: Ladysmith Black Mambazo. -Rolling Stone (July 2, 1987) Paul Simon with Ladysmith Black Mambazo. -Part of sanction againstApartheid. Wanted to play for SouthAfricans. - “Diamonds on the Soles of her Shoes” redone by him later. Sounds tropical. - “You can call me Al.” -Music cited by critics and defenders alike for political statement, even though the song wasn't political. -Songs accused of cultural appropriation (co modifying and combining bits and pieces of other cultures). MICHAEL JACKSON -Why popular? Profound and Brilliant. Unique. Depth of Raw Talent. -Didn't go it alonge, but was such a powerful artist, dancer, and singer. He was amazing to the world. An enigma of sorts, he was conflict and controversy meets raw talent. -The Jackson 5 “The Love You Save” 1970. -Thriller 1982-revolutionized Pop Music Videos. “Everything Changed.” -Best selling Album inAmerican Pop Culture History (Produced by Quincy Jones, who was an experienced producer, composer, band leader, musician, into jazz, a mentor to MJ. One of the most Grammy decorated individuals). Tied withAlison Crous (26 Grammie). 1990s Pop -Dangerous released in 1991.Almost decade only 3Albums. -Jam-influenced by hip-hop. -New Jack Swing-Hip Hop + pop in 80s. Underground brought hip hop into mainstream to blend with pop. Hip Hop: (Notes on reading). Forrest Lackey Popular Music inAmerican History Notes for Test 3 -Hip hop is a cultural form that attempts to negotiate the experiences of marginalization, brutally truncated opportunity, and oppression within the cultural imperatives ofAfrican-American and Caribbean history, identity, and community. -It is the tension between the cultural fractures produced by postindustrial oppression and the binding ties of black cultural expressivity that sets the critical frame for the development of hip hop -The emergence of the postindustrial city radically altered black communal sensibilities in the late 1970s and 1980s -Intense poverty, economic, collapse, and the erosion of viable publicspace were part and parcel of the new urban terrain thatAfrican-Americans confronted. -hip-hop reflected the growing visibility of a young, urban, and often angry so-called “underclass.” -the genre represented a counter narrative to black middle-class mobility, a counter narrative to the emergence of a corporate-driven music industry, and the mass commodification of black expression -hip-hop may represent the last black popular form to be wholly derived from the experiences and texts of the black urban landscape -emergence of hip-hop in the postindustrial city was far removed from the daily realities of an expanding black middle class -William “Smokey” Robinson has been themost influential black singer/songwriter/producer of his generation. -By the mid-1980s, both an urban-based working class/underclass and suburban middle class exhibited symptoms of “postindustrial nostalgia.” -“postindustrial nostalgia.” Loosely defined as a nostalgia that has its basis in the postindustrial transformations of black urban life during the 1970s, -Robinson release his first “concept” recording with the 1975 classic AQuiet Storm.AQuiet Storm reflected the changing dynamics of popular music in the 1970s. -andross’s crossover success began with the release of his fifth recording, Give Me the Reason, in 1986. -the commercial successes of Vandross and Baker were overshadowed by the commercial appeal of another form of black music that developed largely in the shadows of black middle-class mobility and in the ruins of an eroding urban landscape. -black urban populations were affected by economic and social transformations both internal and external to the traditional Black Public Sphere. -Poverty within the postindustrial city featured spatial dimensions that also alteredAfrican-American efforts to build and maintain urban communities. -Like bebop, hip-hop appropriated popular texts, often re figuring them to serve hip-hop sensibilities. contextually questions and ultimately undermines the notion of corporate ownership of popular music -Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five’s “The Message” was a prime example of these sensibilities in the early stages of hip-hop. -the first hip-hop recording to be accorded such praise -appeal to mainstream critics was its unmitigated and “authentic” portrayal of contemporary black urban life. “ -The Message” was the first significant political recording produced in the post soul era, the old Negro had been transformed from southern migrant to urban ghetto dweller, and the black middle class was equally disdainful of both -Jesse Jackson’s first presidential campaign in 1984, Louis Farrakhan, would politicize black youth Forrest Lackey Popular Music inAmerican History Notes for Test 3 and thus politicize some aspects of hip-hop music in the early to mid-1980s. -Public Enemy was perhaps the most accomplished at projecting black rage as apolitical discourse -hip-hop got a necessary promotional boost with the debut of Yo MTVRaps on MTV in the fall of 1988. -more than 80 percent of all music recorded in the United States was controlled by six major corporate entities. Black popular forms accounted for approximately 25 percent of the total sales of recorded music -Stephen Haymes’s work-connection between contemporary hip-hop and mass consumer culture neo-Fordism, designed to both integrate the black populace into mainstream markets and increase consumption. -strategy of Fordism, which sought to fuel demand by integrating the industrial working class via higher wages, neo-Fordism aimed, through an expanded welfare state, to fuel demand and economic growth by also integrating poor and working-class blacks into theAmerican Dream. -As a post-migration narrative, “Tennessee” differs from traditional migration narratives in its suggestion that traditional black communal and familial values had been lost precisely because the most malicious aspects of theAmerican South are no longer present to galvanize the black community . HIP HOP (Class notes) -TheAfrican-America middle class: from 1949-1996, 12%-41% Midclass status for blacks. 1975 Smokey Robinson:AQuiet Storm -Quiet Storm: Neo Soul (appealed to middle class, radio format, student station @ Howard University 1 to play had one foot in the past while moving into the future). Name for format come fromAlbum. POST INDUSTRIAL CITY (South Bronx) -moving poor blacks into neighborhood. Urban Decay. Birthplace of Hip Hop. nd -Moving of African Americans from South 2 North in 2 Migration (ww2) -flourishing of blacks in industrial. Poverty shuts down factories and sets up city for failure. -Funk: soul music and percussion rhythm.Also influencing or from South Bronx: funk, Jamaican, Caribbean, Hip Hop. THE LAST POETS 1970 -Harlem based. Street Poets-sang over percussion. Surprisingly well as album in R&B and other amazing success. -DJ Kool Herc (Clive Campbell, born 1955). -DJ Kool Herc “Merry-Go-Round”: Focusing in on sections people liked most going between best parts. -Example:Afrika Bombaataa (Kevin Donovan, born 1957). Planet Rock (1982). -Techno, experimental underground Synth Pop movement (led 2 Hip Hop). Grand Master Flash and the Furious Five (1982) -Techno influenced. Urban life. On guy working in studio, sampling. RUN D.M.C. “Walk This Way” (1986) -came out on Def Jam (Hip Hop label with overlap. Indie, then Columbia). -Early Rick Ruben Russel Simmons indie company that moved Hip Hop into mainstream. Brought Hip Hop & Hard Rock. Forrest Lackey Popular Music inAmerican History Notes for Test 3 -Based on 75 Aerosmith song. -Strange fit that worked. -Beastie Boys (White Hip Hop Rap group, NY. Punk Background). THE BEASTIE BOYS “License to Ill.” Def Jam (Columbia Distribution) Produced by Rick Rubin “The New Style.” -#1 album on charts, ironic by whites. -Pauls Boutique (1989): Capitol Records, Produced by Dust Bros. “Shake your rump.” PUBLIC ENEMY “Rebel Without a Pause” (1988) -Used sound quotes from (violent) black leaders, promoting uprising. Production by Bomb Squad. -Terminator X: DJ. Chuck D., Flavor Flav. Not Gangsta Rap, but near. Overtly political. Nicki Minaj: (Notes on reading). -That human side of Nicki didn’t get out much, at least on record. Over the course of three official mixtapes, two studio albums (plus one Re-Up), and countless features -Onika Maraj, the 11th-highest paid rapper inAmerica according to this year’s Forbes list, whose first and second platinum-selling albums were critically panned for appealing more to teenage girls than middle-aged guardians of Hip-Hop Culture. - One intro "All Things Go", she reflects on her cousin Nicholas Telemaque’s 2011 murder, for which she blames herself, and references what may have been an abortion 16 years ago -Minaj’s music has long centered around the performance of femininity. -For an artist repeatedly accused of pandering to the unrefined palates of teenyboppers, The Pinkprint’s production and feature roster is surprisingly sophisticated, if a bit scattershot -Minaj has always had an acute understanding of what’s "cool" in rap and beyond -The Pink print presents Minaj a human being. -Auto-Tune freak-out "Mona Lisa" might be Minaj’s most bizarre album cut to date -Minaj entered 2014 with an agenda. She toned down the technicolor costumes and wigs, making headlines when she debuted her natural hair at the premiere for The Other Woman, her first film role. -She railed against "non-mogul ass niggas" on the snarling misandry anthem "LookinAss", toting twin machine guns in the video; -she recruited Lil Herb, Chicago drill’s rookie of the year, for gritty loose "Chi-Raq", where she promised to "smack bitches, no Smack Cam, closed fists, no backhands." -Under scrutiny, the habit of neatly dividing Minaj’s music into "rap" or "pop" doesn’t hold up. Notes on Class -Nicki Minaj: Born 1982. Original Name: Onika Tanya Minaj. Place: Trinidad (near Venezuela of Caribbean chain). -Parents were Gospel Musicians. They moved to Queens, New York when Nicki was 5. -Note: Carribean part of her background already had ties to hip-hop. -Sexuality was always a big part of Nicki and Hip-Hop.At the beginning not so much, but from 1990 on it got more explicit. -More intense and explicit objectification of women started with gangsta rap. -Pink Friday (2010) was “superbass” and 2007-2008 was Nicki's “mixtapes”. Some say Nicki's best work was her mixtapes. This was her first fall on commercial release. -The Pinkprint (2014) had the “Anaconda” video, a remix of Sir Mix-A-Lot.


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