Intro to Social Psych Exam 3 Study Guide
Intro to Social Psych Exam 3 Study Guide PSYC 3430 - 03
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3430 - 03 at Tulane University taught by O'Brien, Laurie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see Intro To Social Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Review Sheet—Exam #3 Intro to Social Psych The exam will cover chapters 11-16 in the Myers book and the lecture material since the last exam. 1. What is ostracism? • Ostracism: acts that ignore or exclude others • Effects ◦ Negative mood ◦ Decreased cog capacity ◦ Increased aggression Long term ostracism • Albert woodfox, 69 yo • Spent 45 yrs in solitary confinement at angola • Released last month, in a plea deal (maintains that he is innocent) • When someone loses sanity: Increased anxiety, panic attacks, compulsive actions • Neg consequences are an evolved response to threat Short term ostracism • Cyber study ◦ Online with throwing ball • 1 - studying what aspects of brain light up and show activation when socially excluded ▪ O activates interior singular cortex and frontal • Same ones that light up with physical pain 2. What role does proximity play in attraction and why? The Role of Familiarity • Proximity ◦ There are about 7.4 billion ppl on earth • Whether you develop a relationship with another person is largely determined by how close you are to them - in physical distance ◦ Two things make prox interesting • It's obvious, tend to overlook • When do recognize, we underestimate its power Proximity - funcitonal distance • Festinger (1950) • Married couples randomly assigned houses in unit ◦ Name who closest friends were • Physical proximity was single biggest predictor • 2/3 of friends were in same building • 1/3 were same floor Proximity - "becoming friends by chance" • Back • Seat assigning with intro ◦ No physical relation • Not likely ◦ Same row • More ◦ Neighboring seats • Greatest 3. How does similarity affect attraction? • Evidence that beauty is objective ◦ Infant evidence • Spend more time looking at attractive adults ◦ Similarity across cultures • Avg is hot • Facial symmetry ▪ Indicator of genetic healthy ▪ Deviations from sym, means more pathogens while in womb ◦ Biologically adaptive 4. What is the physical attractiveness stereotype? • Evolutionary basis in mate pref ◦ Men tend to value phys hotness more than women do ◦ Hourglass women and v shaped men ◦ "immature" features in women; "mature" features in men ◦ Facial sym 5. What is the triangular theory of love? Sternberg's triangular theory of love • Intimacy, passion, commitment ◦ Closeness, warmth, understanding, communication, support ◦ Romance, phys attraction, sexual longing ◦ Sense of responsibility intention to stay in rel. 6. What is ingratiation? when an individual attempts to become more attractive or likeable to their target 7. How does attachment theory relate to adult relationships? Infant Attachment • Attachment theory (bowlby) ◦ Attachment behavioral system • Promotes security by maintaining proximity to nurturing caregiver • Provides psychological sensed of "felt security" Bowlby's attachment theory • Four components of attachment ◦ Proximity seeking ◦ Separation protest ◦ Safe haven (comfort) ◦ Secure base (exploration) • Personality development ◦ Warmth and responsiveness of caregiver • "working models" of self and other Individual differences in attachment styles • Mary ainsworth and the "strange situation" • Three styles of attachment: ◦ Secure: explores, seeks mom on reunion, easily comforted ◦ Avoidant: explores, avoids mom on reunion, seems angry ◦ Anxious/ambivalent: cries a lot, clingy, limited exploration, angry when mom returns, difficult to soothe Attachment in adulthood • Bowlboy: attachment processes occur from the "cradle to the grave" • Hazan and shaver (87): romantic love is an attachment 8. How does mood affect helping? Egoistic-altruism hypothesis • People are motivated to help others in order to relieve their own neg feelings(ex personal distress) • Egoistic helping occurs when ◦ In a bad mood and ◦ Helping will result in mood improvement • Developmental perspective on egoistic helping ◦ 6-8 yr old kids ◦ 15-18 yr old • 4x more likely to donate in sad event than in neutral condition ◦ Think about sad or neutral event and were offered to make a donation • If other available ways to improve mood, we'll take them • Unlikely to help if we think the act of helping won't alleviate Bad moods and helping • When neg moods increase helping ◦ If we experience guilt ◦ If we focus on others • When neg moods decrease helping ◦ If we become self focused ◦ Depression 9. What is social exchange theory? Why do ppl help in situations like this? • Social exchange theory argues that we help so we can be helped • Emotional reasons ◦ Helping feels good or alleviates feeling bad (guilt, distress) • Social reasons ◦ Helping makes us look good ◦ When we belive tat someone is experiencing a hardship that isnt their fault we help more • Cognitive reasons ◦ Costs vs rewards ◦ Act in most cost effective way ◦ Ppl seek to maximize reward and minimize cost Is helping selfish? • Egoistic helping ◦ Desire to increase own welfare • Altruistic helping ◦ Desire to increase other's welfare ◦ Intention matters 10.What is the empathy-altruism hypothesis? The Great Debate • Are humans ever truly altruistic? ◦ Evolutionary perspective = NO ◦ Help for reproductive success • Empathy-altruism hypothesis ◦ Empathic concern = yes ◦ Perception that someone needs help ◦ - no - personal distress - egoistic - reduction of own distress ◦ - Yes (adopting other's perspective) - empathic concern (emotional response) - altruistic (type of motive) - reduction of other's distress (satisfaction of motive) ◦ Testing it • Method ▪ Participant paired with confederate ▪ P assigned to be observer, con assigned to a task ▪ Over TV monitor, participant witnesses con receive painful shocks ▪ P given "objective" or "empathy" manipulation earlier ▪ Would p trade places? • Prosocial behavior is they would trade; altruistic behavior? • How similar p thought they were with con • Half told info had similar • 85% who helped when difficult • 90% who helped when easy • Other half told info didn't share similarities • 65% who helped when difficult to escape • 18% who helped when easy to escape • This is against altruistic response • How easy it was to escape situation • Said they could leave after 2 out of 10 trials • Said they had to stay to watch all 10 11.How does evolutionary theory explain helping? the goal for human kind is to survive, we want to help those around us to keep our genes in continuum. 12.How does Latane and Darley’s decision tree explain helping behavior? According to this model, a bystander goes through a five step decision tree before help is provided. Helping responses can, however, be inhibited at any stage of the process and no help is provided: The bystander needs to notice that an event is taking place, but may fail to do so and not provide help. The bystander needs to identify the event as some form of emergency. The situation may be ambiguous, preventing from help being given. The bystander needs to take responsibility for helping, but might avoid taking responsibility by assuming that some body else will (diffusion of responsibility). The bystander needs to decide on the appropriate helping response, but may not believe themselves to be competent to do so. The bystander needs to implement that response, but this may be against their interest to do so, specially in dangerous situations. notices the event and recognizes that help is required, but fails to act because they assume that somebody else will take responsibility 13.What is the bystander effect? • When there are not other people around • Bystander effect: The tendency of people to be less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders 14.What is conflict? • Conflict ◦ Incompatible goals ◦ Actual or perceived ◦ Two or more ppl 15.What is a social dilemma? Social dilemma - a conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual, will, if chosen by most ppl have harmful effects on everyone 16.What is equity? Equity My Outcomes = Your Outcomes My inputs Your Input 17.What is the distinction between procedural and distributive justice? Procedural justice How decisions are made Distributive justice Resource allocation 18.What are mirror image perceptions? • Mirror image perceptions: reciprocal views of another often help by parties in conflict ◦ "we're moral and peace loving, you're evil and aggressive" 19.What is false polarization and how does it apply to the abortion debate? • False polarization - the perception that each side in a conflict has more extreme views than they actually do ◦ Robinson 1995 • People's perceptions in abortion debate • Prolife and pro choice students asked to read stories about women who had abortions • They made 3 ratings ▪ How much sympathy do you feel for woman • Pro choice were above 6 pro life were around 4 ▪ How much sympathy would the "typical pro choice" student feel • Thought pro life were less and pro choice were more ▪ Same thing but "typical pro life" • Same predictions 20.What is the distinction between bargaining, mediation, and arbitration? • Bargaining - seeking an agreement to a conflict through direct negotiation bt parties ◦ Trust important • Serotonin and oxytocin play roles • Mediation - an attempt by a neutral third part to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offer suggestions ◦ Couple goes to marriage counselor ◦ Turning win-lose into win-win ◦ Unraveling misperceptions When mediation fails • Arbitration: resolution of a conflict by a neutral third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement ◦ Arbitrator may choose compromise ◦ Final offer arbitration - arbitrator chooses one of the two finals offers 21.How can illusory correlation and hindsight bias affect clinicians’ judgments? Illusory correlations Hindsight Bias Overconfidence “On being sane in insane places” Rosenhan (1973) 8 people presented themselves at 12 psychiatric hospitals Complained of “hearing voices” Otherwise gave life history Avg. hospitalization = 19 days 22.What is depressive realism? Depressive realism—the tendency of mildly depressed people to make accurate rather than self-serving judgments, attributions, and predictions. 23.What are positive illusions? Positive illusions—holding self-perceptions that are falsely positive and somewhat exaggerated with respect to one’s actual abilities. Depressed people have fewer positive illusions. 24.How do depressed people tend to explain failure? What is a depressed explanatory style? Explanatory style—One’s habitual way of explaining life events. Depressed people explain failure as: Stable Global Internal Depressed people explain success as: Unstable Local External 25.What is stress? What are common stressors? Stress: an unpleasant state of arousal in which people perceive the demands of an event as taxing their ability to satisfy those demands. Crises and catastrophes Suicide rates increase 14% after floods, 31% after hurricanes, 63% after earthquakes Major life events Stress can be due to negative and positive events. Daily hassles The most common source of stress. 26.What are the various ways people cope with stress? Problem-focused coping—cognitive and behavioral efforts to alter stressful situation Emotion-focused coping—Cognitive and behavioral efforts to reduce the distress produced by a stressful situation. 27.What does the research say about the impact of eyewitness testimony on court cases? How accurate is eyewitness testimony • Buckhout (1974) study of accuracy: ◦ An assault on a professor was staged ◦ 7 weeks later, 60% of witnesses identified the wrong person • Eyewitnesses are often more confident than correct they are extremely powerful though Discredited eyewitness and eyewitness had equal power 28.What is the “cognitive interview” and how does it reduce error in eyewitness accounts? The cognitive interview leads to better memory for events, with witnesses able to recall more relevant information compared with a traditional interview method. The cognitive interview involves a number of techniques: The interviewer tries to mentally reinstate the environmental and personal context of the crime for the witnesses, perhaps by asking them about their general activities and feelings on the day. This could include sights, sounds, feelings and emotions, the weather etc.. Witnesses are asked to report the incident from different perspective, describing what they think other witnesses (or even the criminals themselves) might have seen. Recounting the incident in a different narrative order. Geiselman & Fisher proposed that due to the recency effect, people tend to recall more recent events more clearly than others. Witnesses should be encouraged to work backwards from the end to the beginning. Witnesses are asked to report every detail, even if they think that detail is trivial. In this way, apparently unimportant detail might act as a trigger for key information about the event. It is believed that the change of narrative order and change of perceptive techniques aid recall because they reduce witness’ use of prior knowledge, expectations or schema. A psychology laboratory experiment conducted by Geiselman et al. (1985) compared the cognitive interview with a standard police interview and hypnosis. http://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive-interview.html 29.How do loaded questions affect eyewitness memory? it can most likely determine how they will respond because they may not remember a detail exactly but suggesting certain things will prompt them to claim they are certain. 30.What is the misinformation effect? • The misinformation effect - incorporating "misinformation" into one's memory of an even after receiving misleading info 31.What characteristics of the defendant affect juror judgments? • The defendant's characteristics ◦ Physical attractivness ◦ Similarity to jurors ◦ Race/ethnicity ◦ Ppl are more likely to recommend a black person for death penalty • Phenotypical characteristics - most likely • The judge's instructions ◦ Difficult for jurors to ignore inadmissible evidence 32.What is scientific jury selection? • Preemptory challenge - attorneys can say they don’t want a certain person on the jury • A method of selecting juries through surveys that yield correlations bt demographics and trial relevant attitudes • The case against the Harrisburg Seven (73) ◦ Strong evidence ◦ Trial in a conservative city ◦ A sociologist surveyed community • Demographic variables • Attitudes ◦ Trial ended in a hung jury 33.What does the research say about death-qualified jurors? • A jury selection procedure sued in capital cases that permits judges to exclude prospective jurors who say they would not vote for the death penalty • Death penalty supporters ◦ More concerned about crime ◦ Trustful of police ◦ More cynical of defense lawyers ◦ Less tolerant of procedures to protect the accused • Capital case- case where defendant is eligible for death penalty if found guilty; can exclude ppl on jury if they wouldn’t want to decide • Death qualified jurors more likely to vote guilty • Death qualification questions can impact juries • Mock juries ◦ Asking perspective jurors death qualification questions makes them more likely to vote quilty 34.What is crowding and how does it affect people? Crowding and perceived control • Get ppl to solve puzzles in different environments • It can effect our cog abilities, motivation and persistence • Tried to solve most puzzles when not crowded at all the subjective feeling of unpleasantness due to the presence of other people. 35.How can we get people to conserve resources such as water and energy? • Conserving water (dickerson 92) ◦ Manipulation • Questionnaire about own water use • Asked to sign poster advocating conservation • Hypocrisy condition: ▪ ? + poster ▪ Creates cognitive dissonance ◦ Ppl in hypocrisy saved most water 36.What is materialism? the valuing of money and possessions. 37.What does the research say about the relationship between wealth and well- being? Are richer countries happier than poorer countries? Yes, but not among countries with >$20K GDP 38.What is the adaptation level phenomenon? —the tendency to adapt to a given level of stimulation and thus to notice and react to changes from that level.; applies to temp 39.What is relative deprivation? when you believe you have less than what you’re meant to have after comparing with someone else Social comparison Upward comparison -> relative deprivation 40. How does social comparison affect well-being? Adjusting adaptations and comparisons People can adapt “downward” Downward social comparison increased subjective well-being Downward social comparison study (Crocker & Gallo, 1985) “I’m glad I’m not a…” “I wish I were a…” ◦ I wish - upward; not as happy ◦ Im glad i’m not - downward; happier
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