Bio 2 Exam IV STUDY GUIDE
Bio 2 Exam IV STUDY GUIDE BIOL1082
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emmanuel Notetaker on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL1082 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Beyette in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 194 views. For similar materials see Biology II: Evolution, Physiology, and Ecology in Biology at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Biology 1082 Exam IV STUDY GUIDE Population ecologists are primarily interested in A) studying interactions among populations of organisms that inhabit the same area. B) understanding how biotic and abiotic factors influence the density, distribution, size, and age structure of populations. C) how humans affect the size of wild populations of organisms. D) how populations evolve as natural selection acts on heritable variations among individuals and changes in gene frequency. E) the overall vitality of a population of organisms. During the spring, you are studying the mice that live in a field near your home. The population density is high, but you realize that you rarely observe any reproductive female mice. This most likely indicates A) that there is selective predation on female mice. B) that female mice die before reproducing. C) that this habitat is a good place for mice to reproduce. D) that you are observing immigrant mice. E) that the breeding season is over. Uniform spacing patterns in plants such as the creosote bush are most often associated with A) chance. B) patterns of high humidity. C) the random distribution of seeds. D) competitive interaction between individuals of the same population. E) the concentration of nutrients within the population's range. Which of the following groups would be most likely to exhibit uniform dispersion? A) red squirrels, who actively defend territories B) cattails, which grow primarily at edges of lakes and streams C) dwarf mistletoes, which parasitize particular species of forest tree D) moths, in a city at night E) lake trout, which seek out cold, deep water high in dissolved oxygen To construct a reproductive table for a sexual species, one needs to A) assess sperm viability for the males in the population. B) keep track of all of the offspring of a cohort. C) keep track of the females in a cohort. D) keep track of all of the offspring of the females in a cohort. E) analyze the ratio of deaths to births in a cohort. Which of the following examples would most accurately measure the density of the population being studied? A) counting the number of prairie dog burrows per hectare B) counting the number of times a 1 kilometer transect is intersected by tracks of red squirrels after a snowfall C) counting the number of coyote droppings per hectare D) multiplying the number of moss plants counted in 10 quadrats of 1m² each by 100 to determine the density per kilometer². E) counting the number of zebras from airplane census observations. Long-term studies of Belding's ground squirrels show that immigrants move nearly 2 km from where they are born and become 1%-8% of the males and 0.7%-6% of the females in other populations. On an evolutionary scale, why is this significant? A) These immigrants make up for the deaths of individuals, keeping the other populations' size stable. B) Young reproductive males tend to stay in their home population and are not driven out by other territorial males. C) These immigrants provide a source of genetic diversity for the other populations. D) Those individuals that emigrate to these new populations are looking for less crowded conditions with more resources. E) Gradually, the populations of ground squirrels will move from a clumped to a uniform population pattern of dispersion. Which of the following sets of measurements is the most useful when studying populations? A) density, dispersion, and demographics of a population B) gene frequency over time and the ratio of reproductive to nonreproductive individuals C) annual precipitation averages and mean annual temperatures D) minimum and maximum amounts of precipitation and annual temperature extremes E) ratio of predators and the number of immigrants and emigrants Which of the following scenarios would provide the most legitimate data on population density? A) Count the number of nests of a particular species of songbird and multiply this by a factor that extrapolates these data to actual animals. B) Count the number of pine trees in several randomly selected 10 m x 10 m plots and extrapolate this number to the fraction of the study area these plots represent. C) Use the mark-and-recapture method to estimate the size of the population. D) Calculate the difference between all of the immigrants and emigrants to see if the population is growing or shrinking. E) Add the number of births and subtract the individuals that die to see if the population's density is increasing or decreasing. Which of the following is the best example of uniform distribution? A) bees collecting pollen in a wildflower meadow B) snails in an intertidal zone at low tide C) territorial songbirds in a mature forest during mating season D) mushrooms growing on the floor of an old growth forest E) a cultivated cornfield in the Midwest 1Which of the following choices would most likely promote random distribution? A) territorial species B) species that secrete chemicals to attract or inhibit other individuals C) flocking and schooling behaviors D) spacing during the breeding season E) homogeneous chemical and physical factors in the environment 15) Which of the following best defines a cohort? A) a group of individuals that inhabits a small isolated region within the range for the species B) all of the individuals that are annually added to a population by birth and immigration C) the reproductive males and females within the population D) a group of the individuals from the same age group, from birth until they are all dead E) the number of individuals that annually die or emigrate out of a population 17) Which of the following is the most important assumption for the capture-recapture method to estimate the size of wildlife populations? A) All females in the population have the same litter size. B) More individuals emigrate from, as opposed to immigrate into, a population. C) Over 50% of the marked individuals need to be trapped during the recapture phase. D) There is a 50:50 ratio of males to females in the population before and after trapping and recapture. E) Marked individuals have the same probability of being recaptured as unmarked individuals during the recapture phase. A population of ground squirrels has an annual per capita birth rate of 0.06 and an annual per capita death rate of 0.02. Calculate an estimate of the number of individuals added to (or lost from) a population of 1,000 individuals in one year. A) 120 individuals added B) 40 individuals added C) 20 individuals added D) 400 individuals added E) 20 individuals lost Which of the following statements is consistent with the principle of competitive exclusion? A) Bird species generally do not compete for nesting sites. B) The random distribution of one competing species will have a positive impact on the population growth of the other competing species. C) Two species with the same fundamental niche will exclude other competing species. D) Even a slight reproductive advantage will eventually lead to the elimination of the less well adapted of two competing species. E) Natural selection tends to increase competition between related species. Which of the following best describes resource partitioning? A) competitive exclusion that results in the success of the superior species B) slight variations in niche that allow similar species to coexist C) two species that can coevolve to share identical niches D) differential resource utilization that results in a decrease in community species diversity E) a climax community that is reached when no new niches are available As you study two closely related predatory insect species, the two-spot and the three-spot avenger beetles, you notice that each species seeks prey at dawn in areas without the other species. However, where their ranges overlap, the two-spot avenger beetle hunts at night and the three-spot hunts in the morning. When you bring them into the laboratory and isolate the two different species, you discover that the offspring of both species are found to be nocturnal. You have discovered an example of A) mutualism. B) character displacement. C) Batesian mimicry. D) facultative commensalism. E) resource partitioning. Resource partitioning would be most likely to occur between A) sympatric populations of a predator and its prey. B) sympatric populations of species with similar ecological niches. C) sympatric populations of a flowering plant and its specialized insect pollinator. D) allopatric populations of the same animal species. E) allopatric populations of species with similar ecological niches. Which of the following is an example of cryptic coloration? A) bands on a coral snake B) brown or gray color of tree bark C) markings of a viceroy butterfly's wings D) colors of an insect-pollinated flower's petals E) a "walking stick" insect that resembles a twig Which of the following is an example of Müllerian mimicry? A) two species of unpalatable butterfly that have the same color pattern B) a day-flying hawkmoth that looks like a wasp C) a chameleon that changes its color to look like a dead leaf D) two species of rattlesnakes that both rattle their tails E) two species of moths with wing spots that look like owl's eyes 12) Which of the following would be most significant in understanding the structure of an ecological community? A) determining how many species are present overall B) determining which particular species are present C) determining the kinds of interactions that occur among organisms of different species D) determining the relative abundance of species E) determining how many species are present overall, which particular species are present, the kinds of interactions that occur among organisms of different species, and the relative abundance of species How do the Taylor Glacier bacteria produce their energy? A) photosynthesis B) heterotrophism C) chemoautotrophism D) thermophobism E) chemosynthesis Which statement most accurately describes how matter and energy are used in ecosystems? A) Matter is cycled through ecosystems; energy is not. B) Energy is cycled through ecosystems; matter is not. C) Energy can be converted into matter; matter cannot be converted into energy. D) Matter can be converted into energy; energy cannot be converted into matter. E) Matter is used in ecosystems; energy is not. To recycle nutrients, an ecosystem must have, at a minimum, A) producers. B) producers and decomposers. C) producers, primary consumers, and decomposers. D) producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and decomposers. E) producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, top carnivores, and decomposers. What percentage of solar radiation striking a plant is converted into chemical energy? A) 1% B) 10% C) 25% D) 50% E) 100% Which of the following provides the best evidence of a biodiversity crisis? A) the incursion of a non-native species B) increasing pollution levels C) decrease in regional productivity D) high rate of extinction E) climate change Which of the following is the most direct threat to biodiversity? A) increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide B) the depletion of the ozone layer C) overexploitation of selected species D) habitat destruction E) zoned reserves The greatest cause of the biodiversity crisis, the one which includes all of the others, is A) pollution. B) global warming. C) habitat destruction. D) introduced species. E) human overpopulation. Which of the following organisms has an endoskeleton? A. Echinoderms, such as sea urchins B. Insects, such as grasshoppers C. Annelids, such as earthworms D. Arthropods, such as spiders An individual sarcomere unit consists of A. A stack of myosin B. A stack of actin C. Overlapping actin and myosin D. Overlapping actin and membrane Which of the following proteins is not associated with muscle contraction? A. Tropomyosin B. Fibrinogen C. Actin D. Myosin E. Troponin Individual populations in a metapopulation are linked by A. Dispersion B. Density C. Dispersal D. Sources and sinks If a population's birth rate is density ___, the birth rate will usually ___ as the population increase. A. Independent, increase B. Independent, decrease C. Dependent, increase D. Dependent, decrease If removal of a species from a community has a greater effect on structure and functioning of the community than predicted from species' abundance, then that species is most likely a(n) A. Predator B. Keystone Species C. Early succession species D. Species involved in indirect interactions
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