New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Dr. Streit Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Rachel Ferrell

Dr. Streit Exam 3 Study Guide CHEM 1030 - 003

Marketplace > Auburn University > Chemistry > CHEM 1030 - 003 > Dr Streit Exam 3 Study Guide
Rachel Ferrell
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

covers chapter 7-10
Fundamentals Chemistry I
John D Gorden
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Fundamentals Chemistry I

Popular in Chemistry

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1030 - 003 at Auburn University taught by John D Gorden in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals Chemistry I in Chemistry at Auburn University.


Reviews for Dr. Streit Exam 3 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/18/16
Rachel  Ferrell   CHEM  1030     Exam  3  Study  Guide:  Ch  7-­‐10     Chapter  7:     Vocab:   • Valence  Shell  Electron  Pair  Repulsion  Model  (VSEPR)  Model   o Basic  idea  of  model→electrons  repel  each  other,  therefore  they  will  arrange  themselves  to   be  as  far  apart  as  possible  from  each  other   • Electron  Domains=  can  be  lone  pairs,  single,  double  or  triple  bonds   Shape   Number  of   Number  of  Lone   Bond  Angle   Hybridization   Electron   Pairs   Domains   Octahedron   6   0   90   Sp d3 2   Square  Pyramidal   6   1   90   Sp d3 2   3 2 Square  Planar   6   2   90   Sp d   3 Trigonal   5   0   120,90   Sp d   Bipyramidal   See-­‐Saw   5   1   120,90   Sp d   3 T-­‐Shape   5   2   120,  90   Sp d   Linear   5   3   120,90   Sp d   Tetrahedral   4   0   109.5   Sp   Trigonal   4   1   109.5   Sp   Pyramidal   3 Bent   4   2   109.5   Sp   Trigonal  Planar   3   0   120   Sp 2   2   Bent   3   1   120   Sp Linear   2   0   180   sp     • Electron  Domain  Geometries=  will  either  be  linear,  trigonal  planar,  tetrahedral,  trigonal   bipyramidal,  or  octahedron  (lone  pairs  are  not  taken  into  account)   • Molecular  Geometry=  takes  into  account  lone  pairs   • Bond  Angles=  lone  pairs  and  double/triple  bonds  make  bond  angle  slightly  smaller   • Dispersion=  all  molecules  have  this  intermolecular  force   • Diople-­‐Dipole=  attractions  between  polar  molecules  (NOF)   • Hydrogen  Bonding=  type  of  dipole;  has  a  H  bonded  to  N,O,  or  F   • Ion-­‐Dipole  Interaction=  attraction  between  polar  ions   o Bigger  positive  charge=stronger  interaction  (attracted  to  the  partially  negative  side  of  the   polar  molecule)   • Valence  Bond  Theory=  =atoms  share  electrons  when  atomic  orbitals  overlap   • Hybridization=  =  mixing  of  atomic  orbitals  can  account  for  observed  bond  angles  in  molecules   that  could  not  be  described  by  a  direct  overlap  of  atomic  orbitals   o Basically  valence  bond  theory  doesn’t  work  for  all  molecules  so  they  make  new  orbitals  by   combining  them   o Depending  on  electron  domain→what  hybridization  is   • Sigma  Bond-­‐=  forms  when  sp  hybrid  orbitals  on  C  atom  overlap   o free  rotation  around  bond  axis   • Pi  Bond=  forms  when  unhybridized  p  orbitals   overlap     o no  free  rotation   o Single  Bond:  1  sigma   o Double  bond:  1  sigma,  1  pi   o Triple  bond:  1  sigma,  2  pi   •         Example  Problems:     o 1.)  CH   4 § look  at  lewis  structure   § 4  electon  domains→  4  hybrid  orbitals  needed   § ground  state:  2s 2p   1 3 § excited  state:  2s 2p   § therefore→  4  sp  orbitals  needed   o 2.)  PCl   5 § look  at  lewis  structure     § 5  electron  domains→  5  hybrid  orbitals  needed   § ground  state:  3s 3p   1 3 1 § excited  state:  3s 3p 3d   § therefore→  5  sp d  hybrid  orbitals     Chapter  8:     Vocab:   • Combination  reaction=  2  or  more  reactants  combine  to  form  a  product   o ex.  NH 3+  HCl→NH Cl 4  • Decomposition=  2  or  more  products  form  a  reactant   o ex.  CaCO →CaO3  +  CO   2 • Combustion=  substance  burns  in  presence  of  O ;  c2ntains  C  and  H  and  produces  CO 2 and  H2O   o Ex.    x HyO z  + 2 O →  C2  +2  H O   • Limiting  Reactant=  reactant  used  up  first  in  a  reaction   • Excess  reactant=  left  over  after  reactant  is  gone   • Theoretical  Yield=  amount  of  product  that  forms  when  all  limiting  reactant  reacts  to  form   desired  products   • Actual  Yield=  Amount  that  forms  from  actual  reaction   ▯▯▯▯▯▯  ▯▯▯▯▯ • Percent  Yield=    x  100   ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯  ▯▯▯▯▯ Things  to  know/  Calculations:   • Combustion  Analysis:   • Limiting  Reactant  problems   o To  find  Limiting  reactant:   § 1.)Convert  masses  to  moles.   § 2.)  Divide  by  the  coefficient  to  the  molecule  in  the  equation   § 3.)  Whichever  number  is  smaller→limiting  reactant   o After  finding  limiting  reactant:   § 1.)  Take  moles  of  limiting  reactant  and  multiply  by  stoichiometric  ratio  between   limiting  reactant  and  the  molecule  you  are  converting  to   § 2.)  Convert  from  moles  to  grams       Chapter  9:     Vocab:   • electrolyte=  dissolves  in  water  to  yield  a  solution  that  conducts  electricity   • nonelectrolyte=  dissolves  in  water  bu  does  not  conduct  electricity  (doesn’t  dissociate  into  ions)   • dissociation=  process  by  which  ionic  compound  breaks  into  ions  when  it  dissolves   • ionization=process  by  which  molecular  compound  forms  ions  when  it  dissolves   • Strong  Electrolytes=  dissociates  completely  when  dissolved  in  water  (none  of  original  is  left  in   products   o Strong  acids→produces  H+  (all  acids  are  electrolytes)   § HCl   § HBr   § HI   § HClO   3 § HClO 4  § HNO 3 § H 2O 4  *Need  to  memorize  these   o Strong  Base→produces  OH-­‐   § LiOH   § NaOH   § KOH   § RbOH   § CsOH   § Ca(OH) 2 § Ba(OH)  2 • Weak  Electrolytes=  does  not  dissociate  completely;  some  of  original  is  left  as  a  product   • Precipitation  Reaction=  an  insoluble  solid  is  formed  that  separates  from  the  solution   o Involves  ionic  compounds   o 2  reactants  are  (aq)  and  1  of  products  is  a  (s)   • Solubility  Rules   o   • Molecular  equation=  compounds  are  written  in  the  equation  like  normal   • Ionic  Equation=  compounds  are  separated  into  ions  so  it  is  easier  to  see  which  ions  are  part  of   the  reaction   o Spectator  ions=  when  ionic  equation  is  written,  these  are  on  both  sides;  therefore  are  not   part  of  the  reaction   o ex.  Molecular  equation:  Na SO (aq2  4  Ba(OH) (aq)  → 2  2NaOH(aq)  +  BaSO (s)   4 o              Ionic  equation4  2Na +  SO  +  Ba  +  2OH  →  2Na 4+  2OH  +  BaSO   +   -­‐ o Na and  OH  are  spectator  ions   • Redox  Reaction=  electrons  are  transferred  from  one  reactant  to  the  other   o LEO  goes  GER   o Oxidation=  loses  electrons  (becomes  more  positive)   o Reduction=  gains  electrons  (becomes  more  negative)   o Oxidizing  agent=  whatever  is  being  reduced   o Reducing  Agent=  whatever  is  being  oxidized   o Tip:  figure  out  what  is  being  oxidized/reduced  first,  and  then  the  opposites  are  the  agents   • Oxidation  Number=  charge  an  atom  would  have  if  electrons  transferred  completely   o How  to  find  oxidation  numbers:   § Always  start  with  known  oxidation  numbers:   • Oxygen→always  -­‐2   • Hydrogen→almost  always  +1   • Halogens(Group  7A)→  almost  always  -­‐1   • Group  1A→almost  always  +1   • Group  2A→  almost  always  +2   § Then  fill  in  remaining  charges  to  that  it  creates  a  neutral  molecule   § Don’t  forget  to  multiply  charges  by  subscripts  to  get  overall  charge       Concepts  to  Know:   • How  to  write  Precipitation  Rxn:   o 1.)  Write/balance  equation;  predict  products   § cations  trade  anions   o 2.)Write  ionic  equation  by  separating  into  ions   o 3.)  Cancel  Spectator  ions   o 4.)  If  they  all  cancel→not  a  precipitation  reaction   • Assigning  Oxidation  Numbers:   o 1.)  SF →4=+4,  F=-­‐4   o 2.)  Fe O3→ 4  Fe=2.6,  -­‐2   o 3.)  KMnO →  4=  +1,  Mn=+7,  O=-­‐2   • Types  of  Redox  Reactions:   o Displacement=  ions  replace  each  other   § ex.  Zn  +  C2Cl →ZnCl 2  +  Cu   o Combination=elements  form  a  compound   § ex.  2  + 2 3H →  2N3   o Decomposition=  elements  of  compound  break  into  elements   § ex.  2NaH→  2Na  +  H2   o Combustion=  starts  with  Carbon  compound  plus  oxygen  and  releases  CO  and  water2   § Ex.  CH4  + 22O  → 2 CO  2  2H O           • Concentration/Molarity  Problems:   ????????????????????  ???????????????????????? o ???????????????????????????????? ???? =   ????  ????????????????????????????????     ▯▯▯ o ???? = ▯   o ???????????? = ????×????   o for  these  problems  just  plug  in;  make  sure  volume  is  in  L  and  if  they  give  you  grams  just   convert  to  moles.   • Dilution  Problems:   o Moles  of  solute  before  dilution=  moles  of  solute  after  dilution   o M 1X  L1  = 2  M 2  X  L     Chapter  10:     Vocab:   • System=  part  of  the  universe  that  is  of  specific  interest  (where  reaction  is  happening)   • Surroundings=  everything  else   • Thermochemistry=  study  of  heat  (transfer  of  thermal  energy)  in  a  reaction   o Heat  unit:  Joules   • Exothermic=  reaction  releases  heat/energy  to  surroundings   o When  q  or  ∆H  is  negative   • Endothermic=  reaction  absorbs  heat/energy  from  surroundings   o When  q  or  ∆H  is  positive   • Enthalpy=  ∆H  or  q  (heat  absorbed  or  released  in  a  reaction)   • Specific  Heat=  the  amount  of  heat  required  to  raise  the  temperature  of  1  g  of  substance  by  1   degree  C   • Hess’s  Law=  change  in  enthalpy  occurs  that  occurs  when  reactants  are  converted  to  products  in  a   reaction  is  the  same  no  matter  how  many  steps  taken  to  get  there     Equations  to  Know  and  Understand:   • ∆U system =−∆???? surroundings   o ∆U=  change  in  energy   • ∆U=  q  +  w   o q=  heat   o w=  work   o w  is  (+)  when  work  being  done  on  system   o w  is  (-­‐)  when  work  done  by  system   • w=  -­‐P∆V   o w=  work     o P=  external  opposing  pressure   o ∆V=  change  in  volume   • ∆H  =  H(products)-­‐  H(reactants)   • q=  ms∆T   o q=  heat   o m=  mass  (g)   o s=  specific  heat  (J/gxC)   o ∆T=  change  in  temp  (C)   o ***Make  equation  (-­‐)  if  solving  for  heat  of  surroundings  (normal  equation  solves  for  heat  of   system)           Types  of  Problems:   • Thermochemical  Equations  (Hess’s  Law)   o Steps:   o 1.)  You  can  multiply  both  sides  by  a  number,  but  then  must  multiply  ∆H  by  that  factor   o 2.)  To  reverse  products  and  reactants→change  sign  of  ∆H   o 3.)  Keep  manipulating  until  equations  are  the  same;  then  add  up  ∆Hs   • **look  at  problems  at  the  end  of  the  chapter,  that  is  the  best  way  to  understand  these  problems    


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.