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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Isabella Morles on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Professor Kimberly Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 188 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Final Review Gen Psych Ch. 12,15,16 CH. 12 1. Which type of active coping is problem-focused and generally more effective as a coping strategy? Behavioral Control 2. Researchers who study stress as a transaction note that we make a primary appraisal to determine whether an even is harmful, then a secondary appraisal to decide if we can cope with it. 3. Children are surprisingly resilient to trauma. Interviews with 1,420 elementary and middle school age children who had been abused showed that although 2/3 of the group had been exposed to a potentially traumatic event, fewer than half a percent met criteria for PTSD. 4. The popular idea that catharsis, expressing extreme emotions about painful feelings, is always beneficial has been challenged by research showing that although it may make us feel better in the short term, it can actually make things worse in the long term. 5. The chapter states, “unfortunately, when we engage in unhealthy behaviors that reduce stress in the short run, we place ourselves at risk for health and stress related problems in the long run”. Which of the following is an unhealthy behavior that some people use to reduce stress and is the leading cause of disease and death in the U.S? Smoking 6. Hassles Scale – helps rule out the possibility of underlying psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety that were affecting people’s difficulties with relaxing and insomnia. This helps remove words relating to psychological symptoms from the test instrument. 7. Which of the following was found to be caused by Helicobacter pylori rather than by stress, as was thought for decades? Ulcers 8. Which of the following is presented in the chapter as a reason that as many as 80% of people don’t follow their physician’s recommendations to exercise, quit smoking, improve their diet, or take prescribed medicines? Misestimating risk 9. Which of the following are NOT a type of white blood cell that our immune system uses to help fight off infection? Erythrocytes 10. Corticosteroid – stress hormone that activates the body, prepares a person to respond to stressful circumstances 11. Fight or flight is set into action by hypothalamus- pituitary-adrenal axis. 12. Type of control that uses proactive coping to anticipate stressful situations and takes steps to prevent or minimize difficulties before they arise? Informational 13. Also called behavioral medicine, which of the following refers to a field that integrates the behavioral sciences with the practice of medicine? Health Psychology 14. Products and practices that are used alongside conventional medicine are known as complementary medicine. 15. Focus of stress by identifying different types of events, especially those most people would find dangerous or unpredictable – stressors as stimuli 16. Of the different Type A personality traits, identified as a risk factor in coronary heart disease, which trait have researchers found to be most predictive of developing CHD? Hostility 17. Ruminating- unhealthy mental habit of repeatedly going over something negative that happened 18. Psychoneuroimmunology – the study of the relationship between the immune system and the central nervous system 19. When we encounter a potential threatening event, we decide whether it is harmful before determine how to cope with it. The initial decision comes from the primary appraisal. 20. Crisis debriefing – popular and well-meant treatment that consists of a single session of 3-4 hours following a traumatic event, can increase risk of PTSD and get in way of coping strategies. 21. When we are able to think differently about the negative emotions that come up during a stressful incident, we are exerting cognitive control. 22. In a study that demonstrated the nocebo effect, showing that beliefs can create reality, both boys had received a hypnotic suggestion and those who had not developed skin rashes after being told they had been touched by poison ivy, even though they had actually been touched by a harmless plant. 23. Because practicing psychologists usually only see people who react to stressful situations emotionally, they can come to underestimate how resilient most people actually are. This is called the clinician’s illusion. 24. In a study of the effect of stress on colds, researchers found that even when they controlled for sleep quality and other health related behaviors, a relationship remained between these two subjects. 25. Coping strategy that people put a positive spin on a situation they can’t change – emotion focused coping 26. In a 7-year study of 16-24 year olds, the young people in the study who were overweight were less wealthy, less likely to be married, and had lower academic success than the other people in the study. Because intelligence and financial status had been controlled for at the beginning of the study, the results support the claim that overweight people suffer from prejudice and discrimination 27. A type of control that uses proactive coping to anticipate stressful situations and takes steps to prevent or minimize difficulties before they arise. Informational 28. Interview based – a type of research method that provides a more in depth picture of life stress than self- reported measures do. 29. Researchers found that students had fewer flashbacks of a disturbing 12 min film after playing what game for 10 min? Tetris 30. Aspect of the human body that can be negatively affected by stress but strengthened by positive emotions and social support. Immune system 31. Before the 1940s, the term stress was rarely used outside of the engineering profession. Ch. 15 1. A psychological problem reflecting serious distortions in reality, such as those found in schizophrenia, is called a psychotic symptom. 2. Among people with bipolar disorder, how often does a major depressive episode precede or follow a manic episode rather than being separated by longer periods of time? More than half the time 3. Which term refers to a condition involving disruptions in consciousness, memory, identify, or perception? Dissociative disorder 4. Which of the following is NOT one of the components of Aaron Beck’s cognitive triad of depression? Negative views of other people 5. Evidence suggests that the advent of more liberal diagnostic criteria accounts for most, if not all, of the reported autism epidemic. 6. A condition marked by extreme instability in mood, identity and impulse control? Borderline Personality disorder 7. What percentage of us will meet the diagnostic criteria for one or more anxiety disorder (S) at some point in our lifetimes? 31% 8. A somatic symptom disorder is defined as a condition marked by excessive anxiety about physical symptom with a medical or purely psychological origin. 9. What new category was added to the DSM-5 to address concerns about over diagnosis of bipolar disorder in children who show persistent irritability and have frequent behavior outburst? Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder 10. Which term describes a situation in which a person forgets significant events in his or her life and runs away from stressful circumstances dissociative fugue 11. An intense fear of certain objects, places or situations that is greatly out of proportion to any actual threat these things may pose falls into the category of specific phobias. 12. Which term means the percentage of people within a population who have a specific mental disorder? Prevalence 13. Research suggests that in people with schizophrenia, fluid filled structures called ventricles which cushion and nourish the brain, are enlarged. 14. The tendency to feel that there is nothing we can do to improve our situation because events are beyond our control, which Overmier and Seligman found produced symptoms similar to human depression in their studies with dogs, is called learned helplessness 15. Brain fog is a condition from what region? West Africa 16. Feeling that the world around you is strange or illusory is called derealization. 17. People with mental disorders don’t adjust well to the demands of daily life, therefore, psychopathology researchers find it useful to use a failure analysis approach to mental disorders to help them better understand healthy functioning. 18. People with catatonic symptoms of schizophrenia may permit their limbs to be moved into any position and maintain this posture for lengthy periods of time. This is called Waxy Flexibility 19. According to the criteria outlined by Robins and Guze, a valid psychiatric diagnosis does all of the following except: predict diagnosed individuals’ response to treatment Ch. 16 1. The use of medications to treat psychological problems is called psychopharmacotherapy. 2. Mindfulness based cognitive behavior therapy results in reductions in the average rate of relapse in cases of depression around 50%. 3. Type of counselor with an MD degree and world in a private practice or hospital setting? Psychiatrist 4. Cognitive behavior therapy that focuses on changing both how we think and we act, encouraging clients to actively dispute their irrational beliefs and adopt more effective responses? REBT 5. Strategic family intervention – therapy that uses paradoxical requests to motivate uncooperative clients into better communications, problem solving and relating to one another 6. Common factors shared by many therapies include the following except challenging irrational beliefs. 7. What percentage of clients report improvement before attending their first counseling session? 40-66% 8. Extensive research shows that knowing the origins of our problems is not sufficient to relieve psychological distress. To improve, people need to practice new and more adaptive behaviors in everyday life, known as working through. 9. Therapeutic technique in which clients express themselves without any censorship from themselves or the counselor is called free association. 10. An intervention for a specific disorder that is supported by high quality scientific evidence would be considered an empirically supported treatment. 11. Some therapists have successful promoted interventions that are not supported by scientific research and rest on questionable premises. Which of the following reasons given for this effect refers to the fact that in many cases, people just get better on their own? Spontaneous remission 12. Which of the following is an antidepressant medication that works by inhibiting reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin? Amitriptyline 13. Which ethnic group is the LEAST likely to seek psychotherapy? Asian Americans 14. Viennese psychiatrist, Jacob Moreno, introduced the concept of group therapy. 15. Behavior therapist is a type of therapist that focuses on specific things people do that are challenging for them as well as the current variables that maintain problematic thoughts, feelings and actions. 16. There is a philosophical divide called the scientist practitioner gap between psychologists who see therapy as a more of an art than a science and those who believe all therapy should be based on well replicated scientific findings.
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