Final Review P.2 Gen psych
Final Review P.2 Gen psych PSY2012
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Isabella Morles on Monday April 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Professor Kimberly Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Ch. 11 Review 11.12Identify principles and factors that guide attraction and relationship formation. (pg. 447) 11.13Describe the major types of love and the elements of love and hate.(pg. 447) CH. 11 1. People with high self-esteem see themselves as more intelligent, attractive, and likable than others, even though they do not score any higher on objective assessments of these attributes. This thinking stems from Positive Illusions. 2. Who proposed the theory that events provoking, heighted emotional response, such as fear, simultaneously trigger both emotional and physical responses, such as feeling fear and running away? Cannon and Bard 3. When we believe that both our good and bad moods will last longer than they actually do, we are displaying a durability bias. 4. The theory that hunger is a result in a drop in glucose, driving us to restore it to the right level is call the glucostatic theory. 5. Robert Sternberg reversed his triangular theory of love to develop a triangular theory of hate, consisting of negation of intimacy, passion, and commitment. According to Sternberg, hate is fueled by Propaganda. 6. Although the degree of proximity that people are comfortable with varies from culture to culture, Edward Hall defined social distance (used in conversation with strangers and casual acquaintances) as being in the range of 4-12 feet. 7. Which theory proposes that the emotions we feel come from interpretations of our bodily reactions to particular stimuli? James- Lange Theory of Emotion 8. Which theory posits that people have just a few emotions that combine in many complex ways? Discrete emotions theory 9. Which of the following findings about money and happiness appears to be confirmed by research done by Boyce, Brown, and Moore? Having more money than people we know makes us happier. 10. Nonverbal leakage is defined as unconscious spillover of emotions into nonverbal behavior. 11. Using a computer to progressively combine faces of students, Langlois and Roggman discovered that, in general, people prefer faces that are … average. 12. The principle of similarity says that having things in common with other people predicts attraction. 13. Which of the following is NOT a type of question used by modern polygraph administrators using the CQT to measure suspects’ physiological responses? Deceptive questions 14. According to Fredrickson’s broaden and build theory, feeling happy puts us in the right frame of mind to think more openly and to see the “big picture”. 15. Contrary to the popular saying that familiarity breeds contempt, which theory proposes that familiarity instead breeds comfort? Mere exposure effect 16. According to discrete emotions theory, certain emotions automatically generate particular facial expressions. When you wrinkle you nose, contract your mouth, partially close your eyes, and turn your head a bit to the side, you are showing what emotion? Disgust 17. Some gestures are the same across cultures and others have different meanings. Like the hand wave for Americans means “hello” and in some European countries it means “go away”. 18. In the 2 factor theory of emotion, Schachter and Singer posit that when something happens that causes an emotional reaction, we first experience undifferentiated arousal (or alertness) and then, so quickly that we do not notice it we… find a reason for the arousal and label it with an emotion. 19. Which showed a 5 fold increase over just 4 years in Fiji after American and British TV shows were introduced here? Eating disorders in teenage girls 20. The king of which country recently decided to improve his nation’s gross national happiness rather than their gross national product? Bhutan 21. In one experiment on the phenomenon of proximity as a cause of attraction, women posing as students were rated as more attractive when they had attended a class more often even though none of them interacted with other students in the class. Theories of Emotion: What Causes our Feelings? •According to discrete emotions theory, people experience a small number (perhaps seven) of distinct biologically influenced emotions. According to cognitive theories, including the James-Lange theory, emotions result from our interpretation of stimuli or our bodily reactions to them. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, emotion-provoking events lead to both emotions and bodily reactions. Schachter and Singer's two-factor theory proposes that emotions are the explanations we attach to our general state of arousal following an emotion-provoking event. •Many emotional experiences are generated automatically and operate unconsciously, as illustrated by research on the mere exposure effect and the facial feedback hypothesis. Nonverbal Expression of Emotion: The Eyes, Bodies, and Cultures Have It •Much of emotional expression is nonverbal; gestures highlight speech (illustrators), involve touching our bodies (manipulators), or convey specific meanings (emblems). Nonverbal expressions are often more valid indicators of emotions than are words. •The polygraph test measures physiological responses to questions designed to expose falsehoods. The Controlled Question Test (CQT) contains questions relevant and irrelevant to the crime and control questions that reflect presumed lies. Greater physiological reactivity in response to relevant questions supposedly suggests deception. Nevertheless, the CQT detects general arousal rather than guilt and results in numerous false positives. False negatives can result when individuals employ countermeasures (such as biting their tongue or curling their toes). The Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT) relies on the premise that criminals harbor concealed knowledge about the crime. The GKT has a low false- positive rate but a fairly high false-negative rate. Happiness and Self-Esteem: Science Confronts Pop Psychology •Myths: the prime determinant of happiness is what happens to us, money makes us happy, happiness declines in old age, and people on the West Coast are happiest. Realities: happiness is associated with being married, having a college education, and being religious; voting Republican; exercising; being thankful; and immersing ourselves in what we're doing ("flow"). We tend to overestimate the long-term impact of events on our happiness. Myth: low self-esteem is the root of all unhappiness. Reality: self- esteem is only modestly associated with mental health but is associated with greater initiative, persistence, and positive illusions--the tendency to perceive ourselves more favorably than others do. •Positive psychology emphasizes strengths, love, and happiness. Nevertheless, some critics have argued that positive psychology's "look on the bright side of life" approach may have its downsides, in part because excessive happiness may sometimes be maladaptive. Motivation: Our Wants and Needs •Motivation refers to the drives--especially our wants and needs-- that propel us in specific directions. Drive reduction theory states that drives (such as hunger and thirst) pull us to act in certain ways. The Yerkes-Dodson law posits an inverted U-shaped relation between arousal and mood/performance. Approach and avoidance often drive conflict. According to incentive theories, positive goals are motivators. These motivators include primary (biological) and secondary (psychological desires/achievement, self- actualization) needs. •The lateral hypothalamus has been called a "feeding center" and the ventromedial hypothalamus a "satiety center," although these descriptions oversimplify scientific reality. Hunger is also associated with hormones (ghrelin), low glucose levels, neurotransmitters (leptin, serotonin), a genetically programmed set point for body fat and muscle mass, specific genes (melanocortin-4 receptor gene, leptin gene), and sensitivity to food cues and expectations. •Bulimia nervosa is marked by recurrent binge eating, followed by attempts to minimize weight gain. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by a refusal to eat, resulting in body weight less than 85 percent of that expected for age and height. •Masters and Johnson described four stages of the sexual response cycle: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Frequency of sexual activity decreases with age, but sexual satisfaction doesn't. Expression of sexual desire is shaped by social norms and culture. •Common myths include the notions that gay individuals (a) typically adopt a masculine or feminine role, (b) are especially likely to sexually abuse children and adolescents, and (c) are usually inadequate parents. Potential influences on sexual orientation are an inherited tendency toward childhood gender nonconformity, sex hormones, prenatal influences, and brain differences. Attraction, Love, and Hate: The Greatest Mysteries of Them All •Factors guiding attraction and relationship formation are proximity (physical closeness), similarity (like attracts like), reciprocity (give what we get), physical attractiveness (more important to men than to women), evolutionary influences, social roles, and preference for "average" faces. •The major love types are passionate and companionate. According to Sternberg's model of love, the major love elements are intimacy, passion, and commitment. The major hate elements are negation of intimacy, passion, and commitment. Ch. 13 1. In the dual process model of persuasion the peripheral route leads us to focus on surface aspects of the argument and make snap judgements. 2. Which of the following is NOT one of the ways cults promote groupthink. Encouraging questioning the group’s assumptions 3. Although early studies in conformity showed that women were more likely to conform than men were, later studies showed there was no difference. What does the chapter suggest was the reason for this? Experimenters in the early studies were male. 4. When a belief includes an emotional component it becomes an attitude. 5. The ultimate attribution error is the mistake of explaining the negative behavior of entire groups to their dispositions: “all people of race X are unsuccessful because they’re lazy”. 6. Fundamental attribution error, we tend to classify too much of people’s behavior to who they are and underestimate the impact of situational influences on others’ behavior, meaning that we attribute too little of their behavior to what’s going on around them. 7. Research shows that even within a geographical area, warmer temperatures results in higher crime rate. 8. The inoculation effect, used to help reverse cult indoctrination, means to first expose people to info consistent with cult beliefs then debunk it. 9. Which term refers to the tendency of group discussion to strengthen the dominant position help by members of the group? Group polarization 10. fMRI scans showed activity in the cingulate cortex, a region of the brain that is active during physical pain. 11. Adolescents who exhibit high levels of conscientiousness are especially likely to become deeply religious as adults. 12. In a demonstration of the enlightenment effect, 43% of psych students who had learned about research on bystander nonintervention came to the aid of someone who appeared to be in distress, compared to 25% of students without this information. 13. Which term refers to the social norm of defending one’s reputation in the face of insults that can lead to high levels if violence in the parts of the world where it is practiced? Culture of honor 14. Robbers Cave was a study that imparted the valuable lesson to people interested in racial harmony that one way to reduce prejudice is to get different people to work together. What Is Social Psychology? •The need-to-belong theory proposes that humans have a biological need for interpersonal connections. According to social comparison theory, we're motivated to evaluate our beliefs, attitudes, and reactions by comparing them with the beliefs, attitudes, and reactions of others. Mass hysteria and urban legends reflect outbreaks of irrational behavior spread largely by social contagion. Social facilitation refers to the presence of others enhancing our performance in certain situations. •Attributions refer to our efforts to explain behavior. Some attributions are internal; others, external. The great lesson of social psychology is the fundamental attribution error--the tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositions on others' behavior. As a result of this error, we also tend to underestimate the impact of situations on others' behavior. Social Influence: Conformity and Obedience •Conformity refers to the tendency of people to change their behavior as a result of group pressure. Asch's conformity studies underscore the power of social pressure, although there are individual and cultural differences in conformity. Deindividuation refers to the tendency of people to engage in atypical behavior when stripped of their usual identities. The Stanford prison study is a powerful demonstration of the effects of deindividuation on behavior. •Groupthink is a preoccupation with group unanimity that impairs critical thinking. It can be "treated" by interventions that encourage dissent within the group. Group polarization refers to the tendency of group discussion to strengthen the dominant positions of individual group members. Cults are groups of individuals who exhibit extreme groupthink marked by intense and unquestioning devotion to a single individual. •Milgram's classic work on authority demonstrates the power of destructive obedience to authority and helps to clarify the situational factors that both foster and impede obedience. Helping and Harming Others: Prosocial Behavior and Aggression •Although common wisdom suggests that there's "safety in numbers," research suggests otherwise. Bystander nonintervention results from two major factors: pluralistic ignorance and diffusion of responsibility. The first affects whether we recognize ambiguous situations as emergencies, and the second affects how we respond once we've identified situations as emergencies. People are more likely to help when they're unable to escape from a situation, have adequate time to intervene, are in a good mood, and have been exposed to research on bystander intervention. •A variety of situational variables, including provocation, frustration, aggressive cues, media influences, arousal, and temperature, increase the likelihood of aggression. Men tend to be more physically aggressive compared with women, although girls are more relationally aggressive compared with boys. The southern "culture of honor" may help to explain why murder rates are higher in the southern United States than in other regions of the country. Attitudes and Persuasion: Changing Minds •Attitudes aren't typically good predictors of behavior, although attitudes predict behavior relatively well when they're highly accessible, firmly held, and stable over time. •According to cognitive dissonance theory, a discrepancy between two beliefs leads to an unpleasant state of tension that we're motivated to reduce. In some cases, we reduce this state by altering our attitudes. Two alternative views are self- perception theory, which proposes that we infer our attitudes from observing our behaviors, and impression management theory, which proposes that we don't really change our attitudes but report that we have so that we appear consistent. •According to dual process models of persuasion, there are two routes to persuasion: a central route that involves careful evaluation of arguments and a peripheral route that relies on superficial cues. Effective persuasion techniques include the foot-in-the-door technique, the door-in-the-face technique, and the low-ball technique. Many techniques designed to market pseudoscientific products largely make use of the peripheral route to persuasion. Prejudice and Discrimination •Prejudice is coming to a negative conclusion before we've evaluated all the evidence. Prejudice is accompanied by several other biases, including in-group bias and out-group homogeneity. Stereotypes are beliefs about a group's characteristics that we apply to most members of that group. They can be either positive or negative. Discrimination is the act of treating out-group members differently from in-group members. •There's evidence for various explanations of prejudice, including scapegoating, belief in a just world, and conformity. One of the most effective means of combating prejudice is to make members of different groups work together toward achieving shared overarching goals. CH. 14 1. “you have a great deal of unused potential that you have not yet turned to your advantage” does that sound like you? Be careful of the P.T. Barnum Effect, the tendency people have to accept very general descriptions that could apply to anyone as being specific about them. 2. Radical behaviors believe that every person’s actions are the result of preexisting casual influences 3. Hans Eysenck, extraversion v introversion is produced by differences in the arousal threshold of the reticular activation system. 4. Conditions of worth- refers to the expectations we place on ourselves for appropriate or inappropriate behavior. 5. Scenario with the defense mechanism known as “projection” A married man with powerful unconscious sexual impulses toward females complains that other women are always “after him”. 6. Reciprocal determinism is the tendency for personality, thoughts, behaviors and environmental factors to influence each other. Personality: What Is It and How Can We Study It? •Twin and adoption studies suggest that many personality traits are heritable and point to a key role for no shared environment but not shared environment for adult personality. Psychoanalytic theory: The Controversial legacy of Sigmund Freud and His Followers •Freud's psychoanalytic theory rests on three core assumptions: psychic determinism, symbolic meaning, and unconscious motivation. According to Freud, personality results from the interactions among id, ego, and superego. The ego copes with threat by deploying defense mechanisms. Freud's five psychosexual stages are oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. •Psychoanalytic theory has been criticized for unfalsifiability, failed predictions, questionable conception of the unconscious, lack of evidence, and a flawed assumption of shared environmental influence. Neo-Freudians shared with Freud an emphasis on unconscious influences and the importance of early experience, but placed less emphasis on sexuality as a driving force in personality. Behavioral and Social Learning Theories of Personality •Radical behaviorists view personality as under the control of two major influences: genetic factors and contingencies in the environment. Radical behaviorists, like psychoanalysts, are determinists and believe in unconscious processing, but deny the existence of "the" unconscious. In contrast to radical behaviorists, social learning theorists accord a central role to thinking in the causes of personality and argue that observational learning and a sense of personal control play key roles in personality. •Critics have accused radical behaviorists of going too far in their exclusion of thinking as a cause of personality. The social learning theory claim that observational learning plays a crucial role in personality runs counter to findings that shared environmental influence on adult personality is minimal. Humanistic Models of Personality: The Third Force •Most humanistic psychologists argue that the core motive in personality is self-actualization. According to Carl Rogers, unhealthy behavior results from the imposition of conditions of worth, which block drives toward self-actualization. According to Abraham Maslow, self-actualized individuals are creative, spontaneous, accepting, and prone to peak experiences. •Critics have attacked humanistic models for being naive about human nature and for advancing theories that are difficult to falsify. Trait Models of Personality: Consistencies in Our Behavior •Trait theories use factor analysis to identify groups of personality features that tend to correlate with each other. These groupings often correspond to broader traits such as extraversion and agreeableness. One influential model of personality is the Big Five, which predicts many important aspects of real-world behavior, including job performance. Nevertheless, the Big Five may be limited as a model of personality structure because people may not have conscious access to all important features of personality. •In the late 1960s, Walter Mischel pointed out that personality traits rarely predict isolated behaviors with high levels of accuracy; later research vindicated his claim, but demonstrated that personality traits are often helpful in predicting long-term behavioral trends. Some models of personality structure, including the Big Five, are more descriptive than explanatory. Personality Assessment: Measuring and Mismeasuring the Psych •Structured personality tests consist of questions that people can answer in only one of a few fixed ways. Some, like the MMPI-2 and CPI, are developed empirically; others, like the NEO- PI-R, are developed rationally/theoretically. •Projective tests consist of ambiguous stimuli that the examinee must interpret. Many of these tests lack adequate levels of reliability, validity, and incremental validity. •Two common pitfalls in personality assessment are the P. T. Barnum effect and illusory correlation, which highlight the need for scientific methods as safeguards against human error.
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