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POL348 Notes and Final Study guide

by: Jolie Spiegelman

POL348 Notes and Final Study guide 348

Marketplace > University of Miami > Political Science > 348 > POL348 Notes and Final Study guide
Jolie Spiegelman
GPA 3.9
U.S. Relations With the Middle East
Professor McGuinn

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Notes and Study guide for POL348 U.S. Relations With The Middle East with Dr. McGuinn. Full class notes included.
U.S. Relations With the Middle East
Professor McGuinn
Study Guide
political science, middle east
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Date Created: 02/16/15
US Relations with the Middle East 08252014 Of ce Hours 10501200 MW generally Thursdays as well Think of two issues relating to the USMiddle East historically O Sykes Picot Was an understanding between British and French of cials to come to grips with the fate of the Fertile Crescent Ottoman Empire didn t survive WWI Sykes Picot Agreement was the nucleus of the modern middle east which ultimately created Jordan Syria Iraq Israel and other states 0 Is it the end of the Sykes Picot era 0 You can t positively affect one country in the region without affecting another Overview Humility approach the subjects both known and unknown with humility o Kaduri and Billgins articles 0 Course will cover the vantage points of the American leaders 0 patterns of continuity and difference 0 Middle east has been central to all US Administrations Vanities Wicked problems 0 1914 0 Britain ghting the Ottoman empire which is backed by Germany 0 Beginning of a long venture on the part of the UK which leads them ultimately to the mandates and physical control over Iraq quotWe ve got to get over there I think it s crazy to be sitting around Let s goquot Secretary of State Kerry July 20th 2014 0 We have an impulse to quotgoquot even though other countries would argue that no one asked the US to intervene Tendency for US to intervene 0 Reaction quotWhether through ineptitude malice or both Kerry s intervention was not a case of America s top diplomat coming to our region to help ensure through astute negotiation the protection of a key ally This was a betrayalquot David Horowitz Britain s moment in the Middle East 0 the US inherited many of the assumptions that the British held over the middle east Notion of going quotover therequot Liberal Internationalism It s America s job to be peacemakers 0 Kerry is a believer of this principle 0 Henry Kissinger was a believer of getting quotover therequot and started the pattern of shuttle diplomacy and involving the US in the Middle East 0 Kissinger viewed the Arab Israeli con ict as a mechanism to increase American power in the region because all the factions Israel Syria Egypt Jordan would all be economically and politically reliant on the US REALIST Perspective l a form of vanity that Kissinger wanted quotall roads to lead to Washingtonquot 0 The relationship was the best I the 1970s between Secretary of State and the National Security Advisor He held both positions Elie Kedourie Article quotClerk to Clerkquot Focus on diplomatic history Is an Iraqi Jew who left to study at the London School of Economics followed by Oxford 0 Wasn t originally interested in the Middle East but read Ronald Storrs book entitled Orientation about how the Middle East came to be 0 Article he read suggested that Sykes Picot and Balfour Declaration were contrary to many of the agreements made by the British to the Arab leaders l creates idea that Middle East was built on a lie Kedourie believes there needs to be a detailed description of history and that the perceived narrative Britain promising the land to Middle East leaders if they helped defeat the Turks and this promise was reneged may not be the whole story Dwells on the roll of contingency and detail in recounting history Arab nationalist discourse and much of the heartbreak of the Palestinian people is based on the idea that the Middle East was quotdouble crossedquot Sykes Picot Agreement 0 Two ways to argue 0 Britain double crossed the region whether it was because of the oil land resources ect 0 Was a way for British diplomats to come to terms with the fact that the Ottoman Empire was going to fall and the agreement was a way to ensure stability when the empire did ultimately fall 0 quotLabyrinth of interpretationsquot about the agreement 0 Lawrence the British diplomat promised Faysall the Hashemite King all of the land but was ultimately only given Jordan and Syria Billigin s Article 0 Alfred Thayer Mahan constructed the word quotMiddle Eastquot to describe the geopolitical context First president to promote internationalism was Teddy Roosevelt Ottoman Empire referred to as the quotsickman of Europequot because it was slowly dying as the minority populations were forming their own forms of nationalism US becomes involved in the area of the Middle East for commercial reasons such as the trade routes to avoid piracy o Billigin suggests that the de nitions of the Middle East have always served US interests 0 US wants to quotsecuritizequot the geography which is a speech act meaning that we de ne a region in terms of security No longer looking at the region in terms of complexity but looking at it through a lens of being scared calls this securitization New concept of greater middle east including North Africa 0 Was used to bring in people who were nonArab which decreased the classi cation of the region as quotArab issuesquot such as IsraelPalestine By making the de nition of the Middle East more complex and less focused on the Arab countries this was the administration being strategic in their speech Tendency is Western thinking about the Middle East is to view it in an isolatedcartoon form 0 Edward Said Oreintalism The west has turned the East into a career location Westerners have turned the east the orient into a fantasy vision and have objecti ed it Pilgrims of Progress 0 Mark twain is a traveler and quotteller of talesquot o Explains difficulties the US has had in dealing with parts of the world we are unfamiliar with o Twain suggests that there is something na39ive in how Americans approach the outside world 0 quotHistory is a plain on which the pilgrims of progress move forward foreign policy is seen not as uid interplay or kaleidoscopic forces and individuals a continuum of con icts and crises but as an activity designed to deter and avert occasional nuisances that might slow down the march as a series of rescue operations designed to bring the stranded traveler back into the plain trouble avoidance and crisis coping de ne the task it is a kind of quotsolutionismquot that dies hard quot Staney Hoffman we view issues as a crisis with a beginning middle and end Paradigm pattern of thinking 0 ISIS David Cameron Tory conservative Parliament in Britain gives speech on the threat of ISIS to the security of Britian quotWe don t have a strategy yetquot Obama 82814 0 Classic dilemma US inside of the quotWicked Problemquot 0 We aren t sure how to respond in Syria and Iraq Philosophical aspects of making big decisions 0 Obama quoted philosopher Reinhold Niebuhr on the Senate oor 0 quotI take away the compelling idea that there s serious evil in the world and hardship and pain And we should be humble and modest in our belief we can eliminate those things But we shouldn t use that as an excuse for cynicism and inactionquot Niebuhr Neibhur discusses irony We were a city on a hill and were creating our own nation but post WWII our interest became building other nanns 0 quotOur age is involved in irony because so many dreams of our nation have been so cruelly refuted by historyquot Neibhur The Irony of American History Naivety of both isolationism and in making the world in the image of the US l which is better When does this end 0 Martin White breaks down patterns of International Relations into 3 categories Realists focus on power pessimistic view of human nature actors may be irrational 0 Security dilemma is xed through balance of power 0 Two types Offensive Defensive Rationalists liberalism positive view of human nature states are capable of cooperation Security dilemma is xed through institutions and cooperation Two types ldealists Realists Revolutionists people are oppressed and must be released from this 0 Security dilemma is dealt with through revolution 0 Two types Evolutionists Revolutionists Hedley Bull anarchical environment in the world 0 lack of order lack of a central governing body 0 Argues that in an anarchical environment there exists a security dilemma 0 one countries attempt to make itself safe increases others attempts to become safer creating a volatile environment lsolationism vs internationalism Kissinger s quotRenewalquot comes out of a realist position analyzing what he believes the American viewpoint of the world to be quotWilsonianism rejects peace through balance of power in favor of peace through moral consensusquot quotIt sees foreign policy as a struggle between good and evil in each phase of which it is America s mission to help defeat the evil foes challenging the peaceful orderquot 0 Wilsonianism believes that the norm should be peaceful order quotHaving prevailed in the con ict the United States can then devote itself to a fostering the underlying harmony internationalists believe this or b cultivate its own virtues isolationist focus on domestic policy until c the next discrete crisis arises perceived not as a disturbance of the equilibrium but as a deviation from the moral orderquot 0 l realists view con ict as a disturbance of the equilibrium 0 l Wilsonians view con ict as a deviation from moral order the way things ought to be quotSuch a foreign policy tends to a be segmented into a series of episode and b not perceived as a continuum requiring constant attention and adjustment c a quest for absolutes rather than as the shaping of reality by means of adjustmentquot 0 3 motifs that make up the pattern of US paradigms Tarlton s Styles 1 Deterministic pessimistic and realistic o 2 Utopian optimistic and moralistic ex William Jennings Bryan 3 Pragmatic sociological and almost scienti c foreign policy is problem solving 0 Ways of looking at paradigm Neibhur international relations theories and isolationisminternationalism Partisans No talking about any administration and their paradigm with the Middle East without party politics Foreign policy may serve as a quotpartisan weaponquot DemocratRepublican leadership shapes how the US interacts with other countnes Superpower America emerges postWWII quotAmericans were obligated almost overnight to tackle perhaps the most arduous problem in history how to have the heroic pride of a guiltless conscience be applauded and loved by everybody and at the same time preserve the order of a world hegemony and do the occasionally nasty thing necessary to enforce the lawquot Luigi Barzini o FDR died and Harry Truman takes over Democratic party during this time Partisanship important because there was a hopeful worldview that would bring Republicans and Democrats together out of their bickeringisolationism because of the need for the US to play a large role in the Cold War and parties could come together in their 39anticommunism l Idea from The Vital Center by Arthur Schlesinger Holy Lands 0 The Palestine Question two peoples one geography The land previously dominated by Britain now populated by two peoples 0 There are quottwo holy landsquot one with the holes in the land oil and the actual holy lands in Palestine 0 Oil and Palestine Question 0 0 American policy in Pakistan 0 Support civilian factions or military 0 US decided to support military because they thought this was produce business and they could sell their weapons Tension in the American system between who America should be supporting l military who can keep order out of the fear that Islamic parties will takeover 0 Threads of thinking within the American Jewish Community 19305 0 American Jewish community was in the grip of a debate in itself over how to deal with Israel but this period was the high tide of American Liberalism lGood deal of optimism about the development of the state of Israel 0 Differing views within the Jewish Community Zionists Enthusiastic about the creation of the creation of Israel Assimilationists Nervous about the creation of Israel because they were averted to the idea of nationalism had been bad in Europe for the Jews and also because they didn t want to draw attention to themselves NewNeo Conservatives Group of writers artists intellectuals who were of the left and were interested in Marxism revolution 0 would become less radical later on beginning in the 19405 19505 retained an element of idealism with the goal of democratizing and using American power for a purpose Shift occurred because of the fall of Stalin l Stalin s genocide made it hard to support Marxism 67 war changed the face of Israel o It becomes a military superpower rather than being seen as the remnants from Europe Becomes seen as a major world power 0 During this time 19405605 Israel received high support from Democrats and Republicans traditionally supported enterprise and development to support of the Arabs o BUT this begins to change after 67 0 Democrats remained proIsraeli but there began to emerge within the left liberal wing that began to move away from the proIsraeli orientation 0 In the Republican party there began to shift from anti to pro lsrael because of strategic reasons as a strong power Christian Zionism also in uenced this which helped to create a uniform view of being proIsraeli Christian Zionism n Zionism had its roots in Eastern Europe a Theological assumption by some protestants that the predicate to the return of Christ will only occur when all the Diaspora Jews return to Israel 196019705 0 Rise of Yasser Arafat and rise of Israeli Right Begin would provide a forum to question Israel 0 American Jewish community has a vivid debate 0 One side thought that people only liked lsrael when they were weak and vulnerable The Truman consensus of the 19405 is being strained Policy of the US towards the Middle East 0 1882 two important events 0 The time of the rst aliyah or migration of the rst Zionists into Ottoman controlled Palestine 3000035000 people coming to the land to be pioneers for the recreation of the Jewish homeland Beginning of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey Why are these two events such important parts of American policy Critiques 0 Israel 0 Running critique of US Israel relations 0 Edward Said represents articulate dissent of American policy towards Israel 0 Oil Companies 0 Ida Tarbell writes scathing articles condoning oil companies 0 Both have emotional electricity because of exploitation double standard in promoting democracy and is full of passion Exalted Sentiments Edward Meade Earle s article 0 The US should be supporting Ottomanfreedom seeking minorities but America is supposed to be the shining city on the hill 0 America as the liberator 0 Strong theological connection that Americans have had to the holy land America as the new holy land or new Zion by settlers unmistakable connections to Zion in early days of the US Congregational clerics molded much of the public sentiments and support for candidates and votes 0 Heavily theological nature in early America which resulted in 0 Ambient religious connection to the holy land Many Americans with bible stories ingrained in their minds people thought about Israel a lot many of the places referred to in Israel were not abstract but rather vivid from their bible studies 0 Christian Zionism o sympathetic attitude to the return of the Jewish people because they have been expelled previously in their diaspora This was embedded in American policy 0 William Blackstone s quotJesus is Comingquot Romantic Zionism Showing us an Israel that is unpopulated creating an image of this area as though it is waiting for repopulation Objecti cation of the holy land 0 Jewish community didn t want to be seen as having double alliances and therefore weren t enthusiastic l some of the most intense voices would come outside of the Jewish community all together 0 Archaeological connection with the US to this part of the world Clerics and archeologists increased an interest in Palestine who wanted to apply modern scienti c techniques to prove the bible s claims Biblical archaeology Clerics would go to ottoman controlled Palestine because they want to prove the stories of the bible University of Chicago was crucial in this study Missionaries 0 From the founding of the American government until Woodrow Wilson the connection to Israel was private concerns missionaries archeologists and businessmen 0 But only after WWl does the US government take a position 0 Mostly protestant missionaries went to the mideast and found the American university of Beirut and other institutes Arabic language was important so bible was translated into Arabic which required the codi cation of the Arabic language and the baseline of modern standard Arabic 0 This stimulated the idea partially of Arabic Nationalism as there was now a common language started by the clerics Politics 0 Typical rightleftconservativeliberal divides do not explain opinions towards the Middle East 0 Arab lsraeli con ict is unique because it doesn t obey party lines USMiddle East politics at the bureaucratic politics level agencies within US government is generally supported at the level of Congress 0 Israel has always had a closer connection to the grassroots of American society within the House of Representatives and Senate 0 This is because the affinity that Americans feel towards the holy land in the JudeoChristian tradition Congress is quothomebasequot for Israel whereas the Whitehouse can go hotcold 0 There is a limit to how far the White houseState Department is willing to push lsrael due to the historical relationship with Israel 0 There are tolerable limits 0 Pentagon generally takes a more sympathetic view towards the Arab position 0 This is because of geostrategic issues 0 Can t afford to alienate these countries in the Middle East 0 Why was the peace process invented Because it balances our position in the middle east 0 quotPlaying the gamequot managing these balances Only US can ask Israel to do things it doesn t want to do Pentagon not interested In the peace process but the know that it is an issue that Arab leaders cant ignore they must have a position on the Palestinian issue Prospects Second Holy Land Oil in Saudi Arabia 0 There is something romantic about the idea of settling new lands 0 The Oil Men 1882 story of the Standard Oil Company 0 More oil have been broken than have been made 0 Drake s Well is the beginning of America s engagement in the oil business 0 Began drilling in Pennsylvania and represented the oil business enthusiasm o The US before WWll was the center of the oil world 0 Connections between US and Middle East Multidimensionalconnections Cities such as Cairo IL Bethlehem PA and New Cannan CA have biblical names 0 The Near East is brought into consciousness on a new level 0 Region during the 19th century loses its autonomy as European powers are beginning to move in after the weakening of the Ottoman Empire 0 Introduction of the Mandates in 1923 Mandate was a word that came out of the League of Nations arguing that the British and French would preside over the region until they became self governing countries 0 Syria Iraq and Lebanon all created l creation of the current Middle East 0 Lebanon still part of Syria at the point 0 Zionist movement Socialist cultural and political Zionism existed all with the common theme ofJewish Nationalism o Theodore Herle leader of Zionist movement from Austria and attracts a large following from across Europe 0 Palestine goes from Ottoman control to European control and ultimately Zionist control which emerges as the Balfour Declaration is released in 1917 0 Rise of Hitler also elevates the issue of Palestine from being a smaller issue to becoming a regional and ultimately global issue as people sought refuge As the British government developed in the 1920s and 19305 they wanted to quotwalk back Balfourquot as they saw the Arab world was becoming increasingly complicated They were stuck in the middle of two ghting factions in the 19305 until ultimately Britain pulled out in the Spring of 1948 Contestation 0 American Jewish community divided between assimilationists and Zionists Assimilationist camp was more heavily represented by the German Jewish community that had come to the US in the 1840518605 Came mid19th century and quotmade itquot o Zionist camp generally represented by the immigrants from the pale of settlement Eastern Jewish State after knowing real terror and poverty following pogroms and the Holocaust More receptive to the idea that there should be a Jewish state o The idea about Palestine for some is quotNext year in Jerusalemquot but for others New York was the new Zion Some of the Eastern more recent population split and came to the US while others who went straight to Palestine 0 Both the assimilationists and Zionists both were under the same dilemma and worry that antiSemitic behavior could become something dangerous 0 Jewish community becomes commitment to liberal democracies and the commitment to minorities Believers in democracy as many are in religion 0 Liberal ideas almost socialist were viewed in the American Jewish community as crucial as they viewed the Right as maintaining a sense of antiSemitism Neoconservatives o Partisan review held articles by famous writers and intellectual liberals and was a bastion for ideas 0 The New Republic also represented liberal views but more mainstream Hannah Arendt pushes neoconservatives into promoting democratic ideas Saul Bellow I advancement of liberalism Foundations Talking about the lnterwar period l WWIWWII Current events 0 Two different impulses we don t want anymore 911 incidents but we also don t want to go back into Iraq 0 The ability to name the threat ISIS and the intimacy of the terrorism in the form of the beheadings has brought this to the attention of people 0 Saudi Arabia vs ISIS Saudi Arabia is opposed to Assad and wants to fund the rebels and are supporting Sunni lslamists yet ISIS is getting to large and extreme so having to reconsider funding Empire How is is that the US government got into this part of the world 0 Structural Point 0 WWI organizational structure of the world multipolar and dominated by multiple different powers Britain was an imperial power exercising dominance over India but its dominance was challenged by Russia 0 quotThe Great Gamequot the rivalry between Russia in the South and Great Britain in the North over friends in uence and power in the border regions of India and Pakistan 0 The Eastern Question what to do with the decaying Ottoman Empire was the other question of the time o quotIn the middle of the nineteenth century US interests in Palestine was primarily limited to consular relation with various religious sects who dwelt in the old Jewish settlement ofJerusalemquot l was humanitarian outreach only by the US 0 The US government begins to ascend rise of the US outside of its boundaries in late 19th century and early 20th century 0 Also a time when US strategic thinking is beginning to turn away from legal and moral and humanitarian issues and turning towards geopolitical thinking Landmass of Eurasia being thought of as center of the world Roosevelt becomes president after McKinley s assassination o beings quotGreat White Fleetquot which is the beginning of the US naval reach into the paci c America de ning itself as a naval power 0 Area most effected is the Philippines after being involved through naval battles against the Spanish navy US spends 2530 years in counterinsurgency operations in the Southern part of the Philippines because Muslims occupy the south and Christians occupy the North of the Philippines 0 Occupation story Idealist Perspective Protest lead by William Jennings Brian against the Philippines operation because US should not be participating in imperialism beginning of articulate antiwar movement 0 Realist Assertion ultimately the Philippines is deemed to be in the American national interest Naval and air force bases can be located here 0 Power cycle and the expansion of American power from the Roosevelt period to the administration of William Howard Taft Taft went onto be a supreme court justice and is part of a dynastic lineage in US history as quotMidwest royaltyquot WWI Middle East entering its terminal crisis as a result of WWI Focus now shifts to London after WWI because British Empire becomes dominant player Britain is dominant in the world as we enter into this period Robert Lansing is secretary of State throughout Wilson Administration and Edward M House Colonel House was advisor to Wilson 0 Role of unof cial advisor friendcon dant has played a large role in foreign policy 0 This role can be very subversive by this form of governing because the actual secretaries and officials may be undermined by the unofficial advisors C ses Ottoman empire was crashing and within turkey ethnic cleansing began as Turkish nationalism began to emerge o NonMuslim and nonTurkish citizens were now at risk as the nationalist argued that the Armenians were traitors and were not loyal to the Ottoman empire Henry Morgenthau German Jewish immigrant who quotmade itquot US ambassador to the Ottoman Empire 0 Humanitarian engagement for the Christian refugees from the ottoman empire Herbert Hoover ran massive relief program to bring foodaid from US into Belgium and France BUT in 1929 began to be seen very differently Wilson administration was preoccupied with ghting of war and occupation of middle east Tangle Britain invested in two wars 0 Middle East ghting in the Ottoman Empire 0 In the Trenches in Europe 1917 Americans are fully invested in war in Europe meantime Middle East is going under a structural revolution and is being pushed farther north Hashemite People believed once ottomans are defeated they would inherit large piece of land of the Arabian peninsula o Hashemites are important family with traces back to Muhammad made up of Prince Faisal king of Syria and then Iraq and Prince Abdullah Jordan Saud family comes to dominate the Hijad now Saudi Arabia and Hashemites are pushed out 0 German supporting Ottomans during this period of time 0 Inside Game 0 Turkish in Iraq are ghting against Britain but the British ultimately conquer Iraq Ottomans out Britain and Hashemites in 0 Outside Game 0 Position taken by Woodrow Wilson was liberalism and national self determination US is involved in the creation of middle east by creating mandates and not colonizing O Intervention o Implicit in the beginning 0 Was the fate of objectingprotests against intervention inevitable to the US intervening in the Middle East 0 America the capitalist predator state 0 quotThe Near East Division was establish in 1909 under Secretary Philander Knoxquot 1900 state department assigned job of looking after this region Referring to the quotNear Eastquot rather than Middle East and used this term as a symbol of the extent that the US state department was following the British model 0 Recap Ottomans defeated by British Hashemites in power 0 Prince Faysal the Hashemite named king of Syria Mandate of Syria and Lebanon created Men 0 France wanted Faysal to leave Syria when France exercised control of their mandate 0 British offers Iraq to Faysal as a reconciliation for letting France regain power of Syria in a Hurry Baldwin conservative Tory in the British parliament Ramsay MacDonald 0 First prime minister of the Labor party Trying to escape the implications of the Balfour declaration Near Eastern policy devoted to deepening relations with Arab countries and Balfour therefore became a burden to Britain because of Arab comments and complexity of protecting the area Panarabism a way for Britain to get out quotof the cornerquot of the Balfour Declaration by turning the issue into an Arab one instead of a British one 0 Arab leaders have conferences to sort out Palestine and the issue becomes a regional issue as it is now the business of Iraq Jordan Syria and others as well Palestine issue becomes part of Arab politics and Arab politics becomes a quotbidding warquot over who is a stronger supporter of Palestine Jewish community in Palestine BenGurion originally was the Palestinian leader because there was no Israel at the time representing the left Labor pa y cooperative with British 0 His rival was Jabotinsky representing the right and spiritual leader for Menachem Begin Wanted war against British because thought they were against Jewish statehood Saad Zaghlul 0 Egyptian nationalist who wanted to push British out of their land 0 Wearing Fez representing high classelites that is representative of Ottoman empire Anthony Eden 0 British foreign minister who eventually became PM in the 19505 0 Britain is panArabizing and bringing leaders from all over into negotiations about Israel states becoming independent among other things Warren Harding 0 Return to normalcy after WWII was his mantra but not remembered for greatness previously senator from ohio 0 Calvin Coolidge takes over after Harding dies as President quotLong before September 1939 external phenomena toward which the Department of State customarily took a negative view included political and social revolution radical nationalism armed aggression entangling alliances Old World power politics despotism commercial discrimination and imperialistic spheres of in uencequot 0 State department took a negative view towards Middle East and focused on stability but not intervention 0 Charles Evans Hughes was Secretary of State who was more concerned with Central American and Europe Mood of 19205 Kellogg pact treaty outlawing war 0 Britain had control of middle east not US so no desire for intervention Herbert Hoover is involved in middle east because of his connection to Oil 0 Stock market crashes in 1930s while he is on the president and ran for reelection and is defeated by Franklin Roosevelt Henry L Stimson Secretary of War under Taft secretary of State for Hoover Secretary of War now again under Roosevelt Had large in uence on the life of George H W Bush and he thought of Stimson as a roll model because of focus on the national interest over party politics 0 The Class of 1941 quotWe are in danger of war today not because Europeans attempted to interfere in our international affairs but because Americans attempted to interfere in the internal affairs of Europequot Charles Lindbergh Attitude of isolation and that America should stay home instead of intervening Charles Lindberg Pilot and rst person to y to Europe 0 International hero at the time 0 19305 expressed admiration for Adolf Hitler and became the head of the America First Committee Committee promotes that America needs to stay out of war and promoted isolationism PearlHarbor quotOnly by 1941 did a nonisolationist approach emerge in the Departmentquot Baram December 7th Pearl harbor is attacked and isolationism is replaced with intervention It took this even to jolt the US out of this period of isolation quotThe class of 1941 is that segment of the political class born approximately between 1914 and 1934quot Roche 39Class of 41 is the junior of cers who are part of the rst great internationalist moment in American history quotThe Greatest Generationquot born duringafter WWI and all of this generation was mobilized Had very profound political implications in terms of foreign policy because understood international perspective 0 quotWe were traumatized out of our traditional isolationism WWI had been a spasm that led to reinforced American isolationism we had been 39tricked by the British duped at Versailles robbed by a bunch of welshers and manipulated according to Fortune magazine and the Nye Committee by 39merchants of death I know the litany by heartquot Roche 0 Wilson years were a kindergarten for the New Deal and the war effort many of Roosevelt and Truman s advisors and of cials had received their training during Wilson s presidency These of cials were there at the very beginning learning about intervention quotThe Department s second approach which favored safe miminal involvement was a carryover of the Department s traditional isolationism and fear of commitmentsquot 0 Israel favors activist US foreign policy role in the middle east but not active by State Department by the rightNetanyahu because it means peace process quotAs well as his turn of the century upperclass antiSemitic snobbism and anxiety about capitalistic Jews there was a 1930s vintage populism agrarian sentimentalismquot Baram 0 Old state department was quotboys clubquot with no Jews Catholics women African Americans 0 State department as a quotclubquot and one of the implications was ambient antiSemitism and the idea that they weren t comfortable with Jewish people in the 19405 0 Value proposition that was present during this period This is important because the US Paper national security archives state department archives primary sources 0 Current events 0 Tacit relationship with Syrian Assad government as the US striking ISIS not attacking the US even though US was in Syrian air space quotSyrian silencequot because we have a common enemy Assad is an Allowite similar to Shia and lSlS is Sunni Iran and Syria have a close relationship and their quotchildquot is Hezbollah lsraeli perspective is scared that US will ally with Syrian regime and by default Iran The RooseveltTruman Years II o quotIn the years before Pearl Harbor the US had reacted to European Jewish crisis with concern but refused to permit any sizable immigration of refugeesquot David Wyman US was nonresponsive to the Holocaust as it was happening why 0 quotAlthough Congress and the Roosevelt administration has shaped this policy it grew out of 3 important aspects of American society in the 19305 unemployment nativistic restrictionism and anti Semitismquot David Wyman 0 Should the US have bombed the death camps Should there have been more public comment 0 Not much talk about the Holocaust until the 19605 and there is in the American system a great deal of American rhetoric but it s very difficult to mobilize on the basis of a humanitarian issue 0 Trouble Spots o 1944 0 Strain in Republican party Thomas E Dewey ran in 1944 election and was a proponent of the creation of a Jewish state in Israel 0 Harry Truman wins election quotIn the spring of 1946 American strategists began to draft a series of strategic studies codenamed Pincher on various potential 39trouble spots around the worldquot 0 1945 I Roosevelt Stalin and Churchill working together Yalta Conference occurs with these three presidents and goal is ghting against Hitler but points of con ict include Cold War American internationalist ideas around the Roosevelt and following Truman administration include 0 National sovereignty for all subjected people 0 open economic doors free markets individual freedoms all secured collectively under the UN Iran Hotspot during WWII Britain controlled southern parts of Iran and Russia controlled northern parts and served as a highway 0 US sends materials through Iran into Russia during war efforts 0 Iran was occupied by Britain and Soviet Union during this time and Reza Shah Pahavi was the President of Iran at this point 0 Post WWII Britain pulls out of Iran and Stalin wants to maintain control of Northern Iran 0 becomes Cold War controversy later on 0 quotAn effort to establish freedom among the less favored nations so many of which are under the shadow of imperialism will also inevitable run counter to the policy of sustaining Britain as a rst class world powerquot Major General Patrick Hurley Special Middle East envoy 0 US claiming moral high ground but the US is using the language of self determination to push Britain out of the region as the US remains a rising power 0 quotThe Americans are becoming impossible at all points and are lecturing us now on Persia about which they know nothing I urge that we should put our foot down now it will only be more difficult and dangerous laterquot Sir Alexander Cadogan British Foreign Officer referring to the US trying to tell Britain what to do regarding Iran I 1956 o Shift in the Era of great power Britain France to superpowerhegemony in the Middle East Suez crisis was the end of colonization in Middle East by Britain Decades long tension begins now between UK and US 0 Change in Global Leadership Potsdam Conference of 1945 l Churchill is out because his party loses and Clement Atley Labor party becomes PM Leaders Atley Truman and Stalin o quotThe disintegrating effect of many dissatis ed citizens weakens the governments of some of the countries of the Near and Middle Eastquot Region will need massive economic assistance War ravaged and broken Europe as well as an impoverished Middle East so US continues rise as global hegemons US pledges itself to containment of Soviet Communism in the Truman doctrine No roll back by defeating Soviet Russia but also not ignoring issue of Communism Military plan was Deterrence and the economic plan was the Marshall Plan Without warning the British embassy in Washington had noti ed the State Department that Great Britain was almost immediately terminating aid to Greece and Turkey both of which were facing what were perceived to be Soviet Pressuresquot Robert Frazier Soviet Russia becomes the enemy and the quotfrenemyquot becomes Britain as Churchill comes back into British politics 0 Power grab US has interests in the Middle East and needs to push Britain out to gain control 19451956 is shift from old powers to new bipolar power in the Middle East by US and USSR Presidency of Harry Truman Defense secretaries James Forrestal 19471949 rst secretary of defense used to be secretary of War until WWII Lifelong democrat who made fortune on Wallstreet and was secretary of the Navy SuicideMurder mystery of conspiracy theories about him as he died in 1949 n Emerging controversy over state of Israel during this state of time so extreme conspiracy theory believes Forrestal was against state of Israel so Zionist agents had him killed 0 Louis Johnson 19491950 0 George Catlett Marshall 19501951 0 Robert Lovett 19511953 Debate between Truman and others in the administration about recognizing the State of Israel Forrestal and Marshall against recognizing Israel whereas his advisors David Niles and Clark Clifford saying yes to recognizing Israel 0 Rationale for not recognizing Israel was cold war lens quotWestern intelligence anticipated that in the event of a new global war the Soviets would launch their major offensive against Western Europe The Red Army was expected to achieve its goals in this campaign swiftly within one monthquot We would alienate our Middle Eastern allies and push them towards Communism and Soviet Russia Recognizing Israel would compromise our ability to deal with Russia Scare of the Soviets launching an offensive in the Middle East 1949 0 Policy is that we adopt embargo of armaments of Middle East and Israel Arms control policy was supposed to prevent weapons from getting to either side of the con ict 0 quotThe suggestion for an arms embargo on Palestine was rst raised by Loy Henerson head of the Office of Near Eastern and African affairs in the Department of State on November 10 1947quot Shomo Slonim US response to recognizing Israel is to not supply Israel with weapons Major US commitment to Israel didn t occur until the 19705 because the US was afraid of appearing anti Arab 0 Chaim Weizman l complaining the Jewish state will be defenseless without the US quotThe only matter which causes us anxiety is our people s de ciency in the equipment necessary for their defense The Arabs obviously suffer no such lackquot December 1947 n Israel ends up getting weapons from Eastern Europe Debate between progressive and conservative wing of Democratic Party Eleanor Roosevelt supporting Israel and George Marshall sticking to refusal to support lsrael through weapons Logic of cold war explains this as Marshall was afraid of quottipping the scalesquot and bringing weapons to Middle East 11122014 Theme arab Israeli con ict and how it has been impacted by administrations US uncomfortable with Israel being independent continuities and changes 0 identify some transitional presidential administrations steering currents of world shifted Clinton end of cold war 0 Truman end of WWIIbeginning of cold war Clinton Years ll 0 Soviet union fell apart and new countries such as Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Uzbekistan became newly independent 0 Russia s decay allowed European and American powers to move into these countries quickly 0 US moved in quickly with banks oil companies ect in order to assure its place in these countries and in Asia 0 Military involvement military to military relations 0 US military worked with directly with newly independent militaries 0 Clinton administration articulated creating prodemocracy and proWest culture in eastern Europe 0 dual containments 0 containing Iraq and Iran at same time in Persian Gulf o Containing Russia and Iran during Clinton s period 0 US military bases in this new region in order to create buffer zone 0 by 19905 Iran was encircled l Persian gulf had become American stronghold Iraq had no y zone and US moving into these new European territory 0 quotAmerica the hyper powerquot at a high point 0 security in Persian gulf means control of Caspian sea connected to Russia quotcone of oilquot Saddam kept in box Iran under close watch and military bases near Russia under dual containment strategy Azerbaijan Turkish and Armenians don t like each other Cruz missile attacks Wye River Memorandum Develop capacity Palestinian police forces strategic infrastruce intelligence for both Palestinians and Israelis Saddam Husein and Yasser Arafat working together PostOslo period Arafat returns to Gaza but kicked out by Hamas 10 years later Shimon Peres Rabin and Arafat received nobel peace prizes for 1993 Oslo wicked problem no constraints if you engage one part of the problem you create more problems Iranian reform movement Presidents Truman issues containment IsraeliPalestinian con ict Eisenhower containment FINAL EXAM REVIEW Determinants names break up by section name Theme Continuity and changes in ection point of change quotPresident Barack Obama has asked his national security team for another review of the US policy toward Syria after realizing that ISIS may not be defeated without a political transition in Syria and the removal of President Bashar alAssadquot Obama seeks new Syria strategy review to deal with ISIS alAssad Obama maintained a Iraq rst strategy including opening up to Iran and military attacks in Iraq BUT now shifting to Syria rst 0 Working with Shiite based strategy Iran Syria Hezbollah 0 But looking at Syria rst is now a Sunni Strategy allying with Saudi Arabia Jordan ect and going to replace Syrian alloite so quasiShia government with Sunni power quotThe review is a tacit admission that the initial strategy of trying to confront ISIS rst in Iraq and then take the group s ghters on in Syria without also focusing on the removal of Assad was a miscalculationquot o Shiite Arc Iran Majority Shiite Iraq Shiite dominated gov Syria Alloite gov and Hezbollah natural ally because they all hate ISIS quotThe President has asked us to look again at how this ts together The longrunning Syria problem is now compounded by the reality that to genuinely defeat SL we need not only a defeat in Iraq but a defeat in Syriaquot quotAssad has been the biggest magnet for extremism in Syria and the President has made clear that Assad has lost all legitimacy to governquot o stuck in operational level of analysis need to have a tactical strategy Review James Forrestal secretary of defense of Truman administration 194019605 what was different 0 Mockery of Promise Irony always involves a discrepancy between the literal meaning of a statement and its actual meaning Jack Gray Irony a practical de nition quotContradictions contrasts and discrepancies exist in wonyquot o In attempting to de ne the problem the US is led into reality that was not intended case of Vietnam war 0 Philosophy of Clinton years dual containment IranIraq Russia Con uence George W Bush Years 0 goes against generalization of republicans as realists traditional and conservative while policy was conservative had marked strains of liberalism in its foreign policy liberal in sense that it argued that there is a universal standard of morality and goodproper government as well as liberal in the sense that it should spread democracy even in place where it s not felt I focus on progressive transformation 0 Bush believed parliamentary is better than presidential for Iraq but dif cult to implement Curious ironic administration unless looking from Critical Marxist view controlled by businessmen and capitalists so ultimately about pure power and oil assets o counterargument is that could have just replaced Saddam Hussein with dictator who gave them oil but instead promoted democracy which is the most dif cult task 0 Monika Lewinski scandal Al Gore had to carry this burden from the Clinton scandal into election of 2000 o 2000 election Gore runs with Joe Lieberman vs Bush and Cheney 0 Lieberman was very much a Hawk on foreign policy 0 President Bush wins controversy that goes to supreme court 0 Dick Cheney VP 0 Donald Rumsfeld secretary of defense previously chief of staff and defense secretary for Ford 0 Colon Powell 1st term secretary of state previously emerged in Reagan administration as national security advisor o Condoleeza Rice 2nCI term secretary of state previously was a professor and was mentored by George Schultz Reagan s secretary of state was principal foreign policy advisor during the campaign was opposed to nation building and democracy operations largely because of partisanship Clinton did it so have to separate oneself Administration included neoconservatives someone who believes that the purpose of US power is to expand the space of democracy 0 not simply protecting US interests but about spreading US gospel of democracy 0 idealistic l expansion of democracy through force 0 Elliot Abrams was involved in IranContra scandal because worked central American policy and was vili ed for his actions Bush brought him back into national security council but was never con rmed to position 0 Neoconservative tribes Midge Decter and Normn Podhoretz a Mom and stepdad of Elliot Abrams n intellectuals whose orignins are of the left as liberal democrats editor of Commentary magazine Gertrude Himmelfarb and Irving Kristol n Editor of Public Interests magazine a Magazines focused on Jewish historical issues a Public Jewish thinking l democracy is good for Jews authoritarianism is bad 0 worries of right wing extremism 0 Some believe that Iraq war was Jewish conspiracy to turn Iraq into annex of Israel 0 Neoconservatives came to their view about democracy naturally made sense to them and was logical train of thinking always believe that a proactive liberation strategy as opposed to reactive containment strategy is the way the US should be 0 Traditional realist vs neoconservative during Bush administration neoconservative world view assimilated itself within the American conservative movement conservative movement in the 19905 became massive industry with Fox news radio franchises which had a fair percentage of American Jewish community and Christian Zionists 0 Group of policy makers in Bush administration emerged that re ected neoconservative worldview Paul Wolfowitz 2 in defense department was idealistic about democracy in the Arab World Richard Perle Senator Henry Scoop Jackson democratic senator from Washington State part of cold war democrat circle with Truman I voted with Republicans on defense budgets and supported state of Israel a Perle and Wolfowitz both worked for him all democrats l IRONY 0 Bush administration began as strong Republicans but had former democrats in his administration that in uenced him on foreign policy Name 34 secretary of states 0 Kissinger o Dulles 0 George Schultz Reagan 0 George Baker George H W bush 0 William Rogers Nixon was given middle east by Kissinger during VietnamChina to make him go away 0 NEED TO MAKE LIST OF ADMINSTRATIONS world view KEY PERSONELL major events that took place and how administration is similar or different to administration before and after 0 Bernard Lewis conservative Middleeast expert thought US could democratize Iraq 0 Iraq is a name only held together through the force of Saddam Hussein s regime 0 Degree of unity that existed in Iraq Kurds Sunnis Shia Shiites remained loyal to Iraq even though they could have supported Shia Iran critics say no other choice 0 Emigr s people who have immigrated have strong views about home country Ahmed Chalabi wrote Iraq Liberation Act 0 knew the migr story very well and was leader of Iraqi migr community during the Saddam Hussein period 0 lived life of a political exile was always in the shadow 0 Anti Saddam elements Kurds in the north Shiites in the south and migr s Grand Ayatollah Ali alHusayni alSistani l leader of Iraqi Shiites o Shiites have no role in Saddam s political system so instead many took advice and direction from aSistani o alSistani had ability to prevent US from crossing through their land but Shiites didn t oppose US at all revealing that al Sistani neither endorsed nor condemned this action 0 US thought they had Shiites in their pocket until they ran into Muqtada aSadr o Shiites led by Muqtada alSadr that US had to ght 0 US also ghting Sunnis under Saddam s control quotour interest is to get there very quickly decapitate the regime and open the place up demonstrating that we re there to liberate not occupyquot Purposive Action quotthe consequence of purposive action are limited to those element in the resulting situation which are exclusively the outcome of the actionquot Merton o ignorance of the true conditions 0 error in inference o primacy of immediate interests 0 the ideological imperative o the selfful lling prophecy quotdeep desire the spread liberty around the world as a way to help secure the US in the long runquot George W Bush 0 re ects a basic truth of a preference for pluralism instead of dictatorship requires a lot of investment and engagement Criticism from academics during worst years of Iraq war Emerges because of quotthis peculiarly American faith in what has been called 39global social engineering or the belief in the capacity of US power to effect major social and political change abroadquot 0 A missionary spirit and muscle existed Bush doctrine establishing the principle of preemptive war and that deterrence was no longer viable go to the source at the source of the conspiracy meaning signi cant intervention 0 hard preemption military activity invasion muscle force 0 soft preemption reaching inside of systems and alter ecosystem changing the political dynamics and culture AfPak quotAmerican hegemony is the only reliable defense against a breakdown of peace and international orderquot Wiliam Kristol and Robert Kagan o neoconservative baseline America s job is to keep the world together 0 criticism of this view comes from the left and realists as well quotthe neoconservatives believed that values could be translated directly into operating programsquot Kissinger l neoliberals have good ideas but aren t practical America is driven by structural factors whether it s capitalism pro lsrael orientation favoring proAmerican regimes ect US policy remains the same whether Republicans or Dems are in power 0 concern that Afghanistan and Pakistan forgotten about with focus on Iraq 0 US sent special forces into Afghansitan who were ghting against Taliban 0 US following Pakistan and lead of Saudi Arabia because thought they had best chance of stabilizing Afghanistan 0 US forces worked with northern alliance to push out the Taliban but didn t provide force to prevent Osama from escaping o Banazir Blhutto two times PM of Pakistan who was living in exile but Bush administration wants her to go back home Needs to gain legitimacy in Pakistan in order to defeat Pakistan in both Afghanistan and Pakistan Banazir Bhutto returns home but al Qaeda had tried to set off a car bomb but missed Bhutto although killed many others 0 attack blamed on General Musharaf Assassinated by a suicide bombing and elections are scheduled for a few months later 0 by next august General Musharraf Next president is Zadari and BushObama administration is able to work with him 0 Zadari is a businessman and is a Shiite a minority in Pakistan 0 as a minority has a common desire to keep the Taliban a Sunni organization under control End of Bush Years Ariel Sharon Strategic shift occurs under David Petreaus quotSurgequot which changed balance of forces in Iraq 0 Dissolving government in Israel reelection in March 0 Obama won t be able to work with Israel on peace during this time Peace process administrations Carter Camp David Accords o Israeli PM was Menachim Begin conservative 0 Clinton Deal with Jordanians and PLO 0 PM was Rabin 0 on Israeli side peace process is easier with conservative PM because less criticism from the right Obama Administration II Obama continuity with Bush 0 Drone strikes 0 Personnel Obama change from Bush 0 Lack of military force on the ground Administrations very sensitive to domestic opinion 0 Nixon doctrine in part informed by American public opinion US was warweary after Vietnam so didn t want to send in their own troops o strategy about devolving power and trying to rely on local forces to protect US interests rather than our troops 0 Main example was Vietnamization 0 twin pillar strategy David Petreaus Surge Strategy 0 population surge warfare insurgents are accidental insurgents only behaving this way because they have no other choice 0 Provide them with security in order to encourage people to choose not to go into extremism Goal was to empower local leaders get rid of al Qaeda and make the Taliban less extreme US engagement of Pakistan military to military interaction continuity between Bush and Obama administrations gap in perception between local actor Pakistan and global actors US 0 Pakistan believing US is naive doesn t understand full situation Pakistan has been a complicated partner for the US in many ways policy convergence 0 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan both allied to push the Soviets out Zadari national Reconciliation Order 0 Mr 10 takes ten percent of peoples money 0 was in power as president and constantly corrupt General Musharaf gave national reconciliation order to the Bhuttos orZadan Pakistani military or supreme court could have cancelled reconciliation ordinance and made their president a criminal Pakistans problem with the Bin Laden raid Bhuttos are out Zadari and the Muslim league led by Nawa Sharif now Prime Minister Pakistans parliamentary system being reinstated so president becoming less important 50 questions put in parenthesis author or bullet points thematic in general who is henry Kissinger and other names 0 worked with X administration position had this impact 0 important in negotiations with Israelis and Palestinians following the 1973 war Pro le of the US in the Middle East eras where they have played large and smaller role wicked problems lrony Tension between realist view in US driven by national interest and liberal humanitarian concern in addition to interests Vanities vanity of outside power presuming to know 0 Britain in WWI dividing region 0 US in Middle east thinking we know what is best Determinants of policy Continuities describe some themes of continuity describe areas of change in US policy 0 Bush different than ClintonObama Paradigms l approachestheory realism assumptions about power interests liberalism focus on cooperation institutions generally within foreign policy from Roosevelt on US has been following liberalism with a little bit of realism between the two Critical theory US approach is hegemonic and driven by our hegemonic system and intervention is due to need for oil resources and desire for USlsraeli hegemony l peace process is a way to convince arab world to accept this hegemon Policy towards middle east is not determined by party support and critiques on both side Policy and policy making process primary role of the executive l the leader support for Israel comes out of legislative branch is found in con ict with executive branch for example executive protects middle eastern countries for congress because broader US society doesn t always support these countries Politics of US policy interest groups AIPAC JSTREET oil industry relationship between politics and policy neoconservatives ppl whose careers began on left and migrated to the right politics of arab lsraeli con ict l very unstable 0 democratic supporter of Israel 50605 and then crisis in Dem party and republicans become very close to isreal in the 705 due to Christian Zionism and neoconservatives ability of presidents to conduct departures or bold acts of foreign policy Comparecontrast administrations gap between US wanting to conduct middle east policy and local realities on the other Foundanns ottoman empire british empire Persian empire in 19th century 0 US not a big player during this time Scyhes picot agreement balfour transition from empires to modern middle east 0 story of local empires falling European empires setting up the modern empires l as 19th century gives way to 20th century rise of America 0 Rise of America in the region through explorations biblical and markets Merchants missionaries archaeologists biblical archaeology 0 rst American president of US 20th century is Mcckinly then Roosevelt then Taft 3 republicans in a row begins power rise and becoming a global power then Wilson Barbary pirates beginning of involvement in region 0 Wilson administration 0 two time president presides over US during WWI Ambassador Morganthau promoting humanitarianism because of Armenian genocide in 19151916 0 Not until Wilson administration as a government public engagement as opposed to previous private intervention biblical archaeology internationalist democrat Harding after Wilson then Coolidge and Hoover 3 more republicans Hoover was involved in business activities and forged oil contracts and republicans were isolationists except for him 0 1882 l beginning of standard oil in US and immigration to Israel Roosevelt wars are great driver of US involvement 0 WWII US middle east policy driven by war didn t want Germany to have role in middle east 0 operation torch in North Africa led by Dwight Eisenhower 0 was president 4 terms died in 4th term and Harry Truman takes over tension between internationalists and isolationists republicans and progressive and centrist dems 0 when WWII ended debate rises about Cold War Centrists want Soviets as an enemy and progressives want to stay out of con ict with Soviets o Truman 0 wins in 1948 sets trajectory of democratic party that it was going to play cold war game because was a centrist dem Palestine issue 0 EddyJacobson highly in uenced him 0 recognition of Israel Truman doctrine containment beginnings of cold war VERY DIVIDED ended as a very unpopular president 0 power switches back to republicans from Truman to Eisenhower 0 Eisenhower 0 two term republican president 0 Nixon VP 0 How was his attitude about Israel different than Truman o cooler relationship with Einsenhower o Eisenhower administration affirmed Truman s cold war policy 0 Sec of State was John Foster Dulles had a little more aggressive role in middle east with the soviet union in view 0 was engaged in the middle east from a cold war perspective Suez crisis war o Eisenhower doctrine complicated Iranian coup strong secretary of state Nixon bush Eisenhower Truman doctrines official Reagan Clinton Obama unofficial Kennedy 0 short administration but a lot happened outreach to Nasser hawk missle deal with Israel in 1962 middle east attitude was cold war arena of struggle against soviets gt global perspective 0 Johnson 0 1967 l Yom Kippur war Israel s perspective Nasser was aggressive and closed waterways and UN peacekeeprs removed 0 Israel asking forJohnson s support but didn t want to get involved in war in the Middle East or antagonize soviets ultimately Israel is successful in war beginning of fundamental shift in USEgyptian relations as Sadat takes over from Nasser 0 Egypt moves away from Soviets and closer to US 0 67 war is where peace process begins when Israel took these lands exchange of land for peace 0 changes landscape of region 0 Late 19605705 policy issue is Vietnam 0 has big impact on parties 0 dems will go through another civil war because liberal democrats had been too hawkish and gotten US into cold war o Nixon Ford Dems had supported Israel now becoming divided about Israel because of the 1967 war 0 Israel had military success no longer the underdog so many progressives start asking about Palestinians lsrael no longer struggling but rather is a regional superpower 0 Republican party under Nixon moves closely towards Israel for strategic regions US pursuing policies of alliances will work with whatever government provides stability Kissinger involved in 73 war and peace process 0 results in accords o heaviy involved in relationship with Iran and Saudi Arabia Ford is VP Nixon doctrine Guam doctrine Administration destroyed by WatergateAmerican domestic politics ford takes over and Kissinger moves to this administration too 0 Jimmy Carter GA governor Democrat humanitarian issueshuman rights pursued softer policy with soviets and more sympathetic towards lsrael explain step by step vs comprehensive o Kissinger loved step by step one country making peace with Israel at a time o carter favored comprehensive bring everyone together in Geneva Camp David Accords 0 just sadat and Israel Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 Iranian revolution and rescue attempt one term president defeated in 1980 by Reagan Carter doctrine US would use force in Persian gulf to defend its interests Regan friendly towards israel republican hardliner 1982 Lebanon war Reagan upset with Israel Begin and led to Israel forcing them out of Beirut 0 Israel enters into period of instability from 805905 Reagan doctrine US will use force to support anticommunist parties around the world Afghan war Lebanon war attacks on Libya IranContra How is he different than Carter VP is George H W Bush 0 George HW Bush Takes over after Regan one term president big issue is saddam hussain late 805 early 905 Saddam invades Kuwait bush administration commences a massive military operation desert storm James Baker Wars in Persian gulf followed by arablsraeli peace accords Madrid conference peace with Jordan Israel and Egypt 0 Clinton watershed era handshake between Arafat and Rabin 0 deal between PLO and Israelis in 1993 Attempts to push peace process further but Clinton unsuccessful dual containment of Iran and Iraq cruz missile attacks attempts to reach out to Iran at end of administration 0 Bush Years similar to Reagan adminstration Cheney rumsefeld l centrist republicans increased role of neoconservatives 911 sets trajectory of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan 0 occupation and rebuilding containment of terror 0 Obama Years reset administration wanted to reset trajectory of country speech in Cairo rebalance USArab relations Operations against terrorist groups not general war does the middle east matter to the US 0 changing because US is energy independent and actually exporting it o emerging as a rival to the middle east Roosevelt Truman Years Roosevelt won presidential election of 1932 0 Hoover Hoover running for reelection after 1928 vs Roosevelt and Roosevelt defeats Hoover in the biggest blowout in American history Roosevelt is in office for long period of time 12 years so has 3 vice presidents included John Nance Garner 19331941 Henry A Wallace 19411945 and Harry Truman 1945 Roosevelt represents progressive Republicans Truman brought in as VP as a more conservative voice and Wallace had been more liberal so party wanted to appeal to large group of people Ambasador Dawwes signed tripartite convention between US Great Britain and Kingdom of Iraq in anticipation of oil relations in 1930 0 Secretaries of State 0 Cordell Hull 19331944 0 Edward Steittinius Jr 1944 0 Secretaries of Defense 0 Henry L Stimson lifelong Republican working in different administrations Roosevelt s cabinet members Samuel Irving Rosenan and Harry Hopkins who was Roosevelt s go to guy Foreign policy WWII PanArab movement 0 Britain brings Arab states into the Palestine con ict 0 Arab bloc of mobilization and Arab nationalism emerging across the reglon 0 Us trying to gain control of oil industry in Saudi Arabia by pushing out Britain and other European rivals O Sees strategic value of oil in the context of WWII General Dwight Eisenhower leading war efforts but generation had little military experience US involvement begins in North Africa Roosevelt and Operation Torch I special envoy syndrome for North Africa Question of if Roosevelt knew about Holocaust argued both ways I The Abandonment of the Jews by David Wyman Truman takes over after FDR dies 0 World politics shifts from multipolar system to bipolar as British power erodes after WWII 0 Two holy lands one with holes in the land oil and the holy lands in Palestine I US pushed out loyalties to France and Britain and US took role of pushing democracy in the Middle East I Domestic popularity very up and down I Foreign Policy Containment O Truman wanted to shift from WWII isolationism so gained support from Republicans in order to promote policy of containment 0 new parties emerge and run against Truman in 1948 election I Progressive party led by Wallace which doesn t accept the cold war and split democratic party as they saw Truman as too Hawkish I Dixicrats party led by Strom Thrumond which was the more conservative part of Democratic party I Truman wins 1948 election by slim margin I Republican party Split between isolationists bob taft Robert Mccormck with insular views of the world and internationalists Thomas Dewey I Truman administration gives Israel strong support dems are more supportive with republicans traditionally supporting enterprisedevelopment in the region in support of the Arabs 0 Thought of Palestine issue from humanitarian perspective after the destruction of European Jewry I had personal interest in Palestine policy since 1945 I Israel declared on May 14 1948 under Truman and recognized Israel just 11 minutes after declaration of independence I Sec of State Dean Acheson I divided administration chaotic I Truman in dilemma and relationship warming between Truman and Chaim Weizzman developed 0 ROLE OF SPECIAL PLEADING I Truman in uenced by Eddie Jacobson 0 personal conviction makes Truman s decisions about Palestine easier but can t ignore complaints that American government was too involved in supporting Israel I Partisanship important because there was a hopeful worldview that would bring Republicans and Democrats together out of their bickeringisolationism because of the need for the US to play a large role in the Cold War and parties could come together in their 39anticommunism l Idea from The Vital Center by Arthur Schlesinger O Eisenhower 1956 election I Reputation of being politically neutral was officially a Republican but some believed he was a democrat I Soldier turned statesman 0 Secretary of state John Foster Dulles followed by Herter 19591961 0 Foreign policy I continues Truman s containment military deterrence and clandestine operations 0 US attempts to create regional alliances through CENTRO the central treaty organization which included Pakistan Iran and Turkey 0 Surrounded by wise men bipartisan figures who gave counsel to Eisenhower 0 United nations emerging as a distinct force 0 Trend of administration crises I Lands of Turmoil 0 Egypt I Egypt had sophisticated political system and was center of Arab world voice of the Arab world I Gamal Abdul Nasser focuses on PanArabism unifying the Arab countries that had previously been divided by imperialists I Suez Crisis 0 Nasser wants to nationalize the Suez Canal immediately effecting the British and signifying end of British in uence 0 Israel Britain and France all come together to regain control of the canal because Britain wanted the Canal France wanted to weaken Nasser and Israel wanted to stop Egyptian support of Palestinians acting out of Gaza I Nasser survives assault by 3 powers and ultimately ends UK dominance in the Middle East I US supports Nasser and ultimately doesn t want con ict in the region 0 Iraq I Britain reinvades Iraq in 1945 and sets up Hashemite monarchy and western in uence remains as US steps in I Iraq heavily relied on the US during this time and still had significant authoritarianism and corruption I Eisenhower supporting proWestern candidates I Iraq and Syria become associated with Communist Soviets and sign treaties of Friendship and Cooperation large concern for US 0 Iran 1956 I Iran crucial to US because of oil during this time but also because of its geographic position as a buffer to the Soviet Union I US worried about Iran due to nationalization of oil fields with outside companies extracting and making money off Iran I Communist party running in Iran election represents the tension between the working class and elite in Iran 0 Eisenhower administration tired by end of 1950s but more united administration in comparison to Truman 0 Eisenhower pursued cold war strategies and was tougher on Israel I didn t rely on the proIsrael vote domestically Kennedy Democrat wins 1960 election First administration to significantly embrace Israel Those who surrounded him were largely academics Policy advisors Rostow George Bull Issues on the table 0 Vietnam and expanded special forces there 0 Relationship between the Soviets and Egypt Nasser 0 Inter arab rivalry between Egypt and Saudi Arabia I con ict as Egypt wants to take over north Yemen Administration approaches middle east with a global view of region preoccupied with Vietnam and Cuba Assassinated in November 1963 Johnson sworn in United Johnson Takes over in 1963 after assassination but was well qualified Wins 1964 election by large amount Vietnam is main foreign policy concern USEgyptian relations had deteriorated as Executive branch focuses on Vietnam and middle east left to state department concern Johnson wanted to avoid war and urged restraint from Israelis in 1967 6 day war divided administration I some opposed force others pushed the diplomatic option while some pushed the multilateral option of forming coalitions people are doves on Vietnam but hawks on Israel very supportive of strong supportive military power in Israel Had prejudices of Jewish people National security advisors Kissinger 19691975 and Brent Scowcroft 7577 Secretary of state William Rogers 0 secretary state was minor position compared to Kissinger Rise of concern for Palestinian issue 0 Black September hij ackings in 1970 O Palestinians allied with the Soviets and Syria NixonGuam doctrine Assumes US had been overextended so devolving transferring responsibility away from the US Unified administration although drama between Kissinger nad nixon Twin pillar policy I support Saudia Arabia an Iran by providing weapons 0 supporting them to keep control of the radical elements in region including Iraq 1973 Yom Kippur war war I US and Israel misread threats by Sadat 0 Egypt and Syria attack surprised Israel 0 Nixon administration caught at footed 0 Nixon administration friendly to Israel because of strategic reasons 0 gave US cover on Vietnam and Nixon liked the tough nature of the Israelis 0 VP Spiro Agnew resigns makes US look unstable and weak 0 Kissinger increases relationship with Soviets and often covers for Nixon 0 had unprecedented power because Nixon had lost significant power and respect 0 Oil embargo for any country supporting Israel I emergence of oil crisis 0 Shuttle diplomacy by Kissinger 0 step by step facilitated bilateral negotiations between Israel and SyriaEgyptJordan on individual basis not all at once 0 different than Carter s comprehensive diplomacy 0 Nixon administration falls because of domestic issues of Watergate Ford 0 President in 1974 focus was rebalancing American system 0 Kissinger fought against American left and new neoconservatives O tried to promote detente 0 low point in USIsrael relations I said if Rabin wasn t more forthcoming US would have to reassess relationship 0 Israel focused on domestic policy during this period not peace process which frustrated Ford Carter 0 One term president 0 Carter Doctirne If there are threats to the Persian gulf from the Sovietsothers the US would use military to force to protect its interests 0 very divided administration not a single authoritative voice within administration Administrative circle 0 Cyrus Vance secretary of state and was a dove particularly on Vietnam 0 Brezizinski National Security Advisor hardliner and hawk l critical of Israel wanted to include Palestinians 0 Andrew Young ambassador to UN l supportive of Palestinians made Israel nervous 0 Foreign Policy 0 focus on human rights 0 Mirror image of NixonKissinger foreign policy 0 believed Iran was too dictatorial 0 Peace process 0 Promoted comprehensive negotiation wanted to move away from Kissinger s step by step 0 Israel prefers step by step because can be bullied if pitted against all arab states during negotiation l Egypt also against comprehensive approach and Sadat avoids Carter s comprehensive peace scheme by going straight to Israel 0 Camp David accords in 1978 O Cater gets his peace accord but through step by step 0 Egypt gets Sinai back and Israel gains recognition I beginning of modern ArabIsrael peace process 0 Energy crisis 0 IsraelU S had warm relations with Iran in 1950s and 1960s but starting to change because Iran had been westoxificated and Iran decided it need to be reborn animosity towards Israel and US grow 0 Arc of Crisis 0 Hostage crisis and revolution in Iran in 1979 l debate within Carter administration between hawk and dove O Upheaval from middle east through Ethiopia 0 Soviet Union enters Afghanistan 0 PakistanIndia con ict begins Reagan 0 Foregin policy issue USPakistani relationship 0 west Pakistan becomes Bangladesh East Pakistan lost to India 0 PakistanUS military relations are strong 0 Large arms deal but Republicans led by Larry Pressler pass the pressler amendment said that this trade was illegal I Pakistan believed US was double crossing them cant be trusted 0 Friendly towards Israel at beginning of administration some claim Christian zionist 0 Key players 0 Secrtary of State Al Haig followed by George P Schulz O Ambassador to UN Jeane Kirkpatrick 0 Secretary of Defense Cap Weinberger 0 Special envoy to middle east Rumsfeld 0 Revolution in Iran 0 worry about Iran invading southernmost Iraq and controlling Shia 0 1982 Lebanon War 0 administration divided over middle east I Kirkpatrick and Reagan supportive of Israel Weinberger sympathetic to Arabs O Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982 to stop PLO first elective war for Israel 0 US gets involved in Lebanon by sending marines in order to remove Israelis 0 Peace in Galillee I Reagan wants to conduct negotiations but never was able to 0 Saddam takes over Iraq and FranceIraq develop strong relationship based on oil and weapons 0 USIraq tacit relationship because didn t want Iraq to lose to Iran and change regional balance O Reagan s interest was to keep Straight of Hormuz open 0 Sunni Iraq worry is that the southern part of country is dominated by Shia population and they need to have loyalty to Iraq instead of Shia Iran 0 US and Iraq were allied against the Iranians but IranContra affair is exception 0 US sold military equipment to Iran and took proceed and gave them to the Contras rebels in Nicaragua opposed to the Sandinista government I Sell missiles to Iran and use money to fund war in Latin America 0 Libya and Quadaffi 0 involved in state sponsored terrorism so Reagan wants to take military action against Qaddafi 39 US bombs Libya 0 Reagan doctrine Unofficial but gave support to anticommunist reistance measures all over the world George H W Bush 0 Elected in 1988 0 Key players 0 James Baker Secretary of state I preoccupied with cold war not proIsrael 0 Brent Scowcroft 0 Dick Cheney secretary of defense 0 Colin Powel Chief of staff formerly national security advisor for Reagan Years of transition Bush wrongly convinced that are 88 IraqIran war Saddam wouldn t wage another war 0 But troop mobilization on the IraqKuwait border 0 Kuwait war gives way to Shiitie intifada uprising of Kurds and rise in povery in Iraq leads to instability 0 Iraq building coalition I Arab cooperation council between Yemen Jordan and Iraq 0 Jordan wouldn t help the US because economically tied to Ira and also didn t want to upset balance of Palestinian issue because of US support 0 Antiwar movement domestically 0 US returns to Arab Israeli con ict 0 Madrid conference 1991 O Israel and PLO beginning to negotiate O tension between James Baker secretary of State and Bush so Israel appeals to congress 0 leads to Oslo accords 0 Pivoting out of the Middle East Clinton 0 Fall of Soviet union so newly independent countries 0 military to military relations develop between US and new countries 0 US moves into countries quickly to assert its place with banks and oil companies Clinton hoped to create prodemocracy and proWest culture in eastern Europe Dual containment O Containing Iraq and Iran in Persian Gulf O Containing Russia and Iran Keeps Iran under close watch with new military bases and no y zone Wye River Memorandum I developing Palestinian capacities and infrastructure George W Bush Republican and policies were conservative but liberalism in his foreign policy Argued standard of morality and good government and promoted democracy in Iraq didn t just protect US interests Key Players Dick Cheney VP Donald Rumsfeld secretary of defense Colon powell secretary of state 1st term Condoleeza Rice secretary of state 2rld term Administration had neoconservatives those who believe purpose of US power is to expand democracy idealistic I Elliot Abrams neoconservative on national security council I Pull between neoconservative and conservatives OOOOO Bush Doctrine establishing the principle of preemptive war and claims deterrence is no longer a viable option and should be replaced with force 0 Criticism comes from left and realists AfPak 0 US works with Afghanistan and Pakistan to force out the Taliban 0 US followed lead of Pakistan and Saudi Arabia 0 Military to military relations with Pakistan under both Bush and Obama David Petreaus Surge strategy 0 Believes that Iraqis are accidental insurgents only behaving this way because no other choice 0 Strategy is to provide security and stability to keep them from extremisim Obama Stable policy and administration Obama doctrine O Hesitation towards boots on the ground 0 Desire to rebalance foreign policy to a focus on counterterrorism O Repentanceatonement I acknowledgment that US hasn t always behaved well desire to reset relationships with Arab world Continuity with Bush policy in terms of drone strikes and personnel 0 significantly impacted by critique of BUsh Reset administration wanted to reset trajectory of country 0 lack of military force on the ground 0 Operations against terrorist groups not a general war 0 Key Players 0 Valerie Jarret David Axelrod David Pfeiffer 0 Susan Rice foreign policy advisor 0 Samantha powers ambassador to UN proponent of humanitarian intervention I all friends who helped get Obama to the Whitehouse 0 Hillary Clinton secretary of state 1 O O O I Was given this position to unify the democratic party didn t want to have a rivalry within party Senator John Kerry Secretary of State 2 I Focus on ArabIsraeli peace and getting out of Iraq I Both Kerry and Clinton knew Middle East and foreign policy very well as party of DC inner circle Leon Panetta and Robert Gates Secretaries of Defense James J ones National Security Advisor 1 I Strong military leader but didn t last long Tom Donnelon National Security Advisor 2 I Highly trusted by Obama Janet Napolitano Secretary of Homeland Security became increasingly important because of war on terror Ben Rhodes foreign policy advisor and speech writer 0 Special envoyadvisor syndrome 0 Appointed George Mitchell as special envoy to ArabIsraeli con ict after he had been successful in negotiating in Northern Ireland 0 Appointed Richard Holbrook special envoy for AFPAK I Focus on AfghanPakistan con ict TERMSCONCEPT TO KNOW 0 Pros of Special Envoys I Envoy is able to build relationships and gain trust with region or country I Trouble shooter approach tailored to specific issues 0 Cons of Special Envoys I Envoy only answers to Secretary of State so lines of organization blurred I Envoys take authority away from the institutions whose job this is I Ambassadors state department DOD 0 Formation of New bureaucracies 0 When a new problem emerges institutional fixes are generally thrown at it 0 Examples agencies for homeland security and terrorism post 911 I Shifting support for Israel 0 Liberal wing of dem party supported Israel in 1940s through 1960s but now shift to Republican party largely because of Christian Zionism O 1967 changed face of Israel and more liberal wing within Democratic party emerged which moved away from proIsrael orientation 0 Christian Zionism 0 Roots in Eastern Europe 0 Theological assumption by some protestant that the predicate to the return of Christ will only occur when all the Diapsora Jews return to Israel 0 In uenced Republican party shift to becoming proIsrael O Sympathetic attitude to the return of the Jewish people because they have been expelled previously embedded in American policy 0 William Blackstone I Jesus is Coming I Sykes Picot 0 Created the modern middle east between the British and French after WI and the fall of the Ottoman Empire 0 Billigin Article I Ottoman empire is sickman of Europe and was slowly dying as nationalism emerged in the region 0 Two ways to argue I Britain double crossed the region and made agreement to gain resources I Agreement was a way for Britain to come to terms with the fact that Ottoman empire was going to fall so a way to ensure stability 0 Liberal Internationalism O Notion that its America s job to be peacekeepers 0 Kerry Kissinger all believers in this 0 Henry Kissinger O Began pattern of shuttle diplomacy 0 Viewed ArabIsraeli con ict as a mechanism to Increase power in the region 0 Wanted all roads to lead to Washington I vanity I Orientalism 0 Edward Said s concept that the West has turned the East into a career and into a fantasy vision 0 Middle east is the orient we have objectified it 0 IR Theories by Martin White 0 Realists I Focus on power actors may be irrational pessimistic view of human nature I Security dilemma is fixed through balance of power I Offensive vs Defensive Realism O RationalistsLiberals I positive view of human nature state are capable of cooperation I Security dilemma is fixed through institutions and cooperation I Idealists vs Realist Liberals O Revolutionists I people are oppressed and must be released from this I Security dilemma is fixed through a revolution I Evolutionists vs Revolutionists O Anarchy as defined by Hedley bull 0 lack of order and a central governing body 0 Security dilemma one countries attempt to make itself safe creates another countries attempt to become after creative a volatile environment 0 Always security dilemma in anarchical environment I Isolationism vs Internationalism Wilsonianism rejects peace through balance of power in favor of peace through moral consensus o quotIt sees foreign policy as a struggle between good and evil in each phase of which it is America s mission to help defeat the evil foes challenging the peaceful order 0 Wilsonianism believes that the norm should be peaceful order 0 Internationalists believe after a con ict the US should foster the underlying harmony until the next discrete crisis arises O Isolationists believe the US should cultivate its own virtues until the next discrete crises arises 0 Foreign policy may serve as a partisan weapon 0 American Jewish Community 1930s 0 1930s high tide of American liberalism but debate within Jewish community I Zionists Enthusiastic about the creation of the creation of Israel 0 Assimilationists Nervous about the creation of Israel because they were averted to the idea of nationalism had been bad in Europe for the Jews and also because they didn t want to draw attention to themselves 0 NewNeo Conservatives Group of writers artists intellectuals who were of the left and were interested in Marxism revolution I retained elements of idealism became more radical in 1950s 0 Assimilationists vs Zionists I Assimilationist camp was heavily represented by GermanJewish community who had come to the US in 1800s and made it I Zionists generally represented immigrants from pale of settlemtn who knew povery and terror following pogroms and Holocaust 0 2 Holy Lands 1882 I Holy land of Israel and Holes of Oil 0 First aliyah in 1882 and migration of Zionists into Ottoman controlled Palestine I Edward Meade Earle compares America as Zion and shining city on a hill as a theological connection with holy land I Many of the places referred to in Israel were vivid to US from bible 0 Standard Oil Company of New Jersey founded I US 0 Both issues have emotional electricity 0 Connections to Middle East I private connections 0 Archaeological I Biblical archaeology to apply modern scientific techniques to prove the bibles claims I University of Chicago spearheaded this 0 Missionaries I Founded University of Beirut and other institutions I Bible translated into Arabic codified Arabic language I Helped to stimulate Arab nationalism because of common language that clerics promoted O Businessmen 0 Israel in Government 0 Pentagon I takes sympathetic view towards Arab position I Not interested in peace process but have to take a position because Arab leaders in region concerned about this I Focus on geostrategic issues and cant alienate our Arab partners in the Middle East 0 Congress I Israel has closer connection to grassroots of America so high support within House and Senate I Congress is homebase for Israel 0 Executive I Whitehouse hotcold on Israel depending on the issue I Tolerable limits to how far the White House is able to push Israel because of historical relationship 0 Zionist movement 0 social cultural and political Zionism existed all with the common theme of Jewish Nationalism O Theodore Herzl O Palestine shifts from Ottoman control to European control which allows British authority to release Balfour Declaration in 1917 declaring right of Jews to Palestine 0 Rise of Hitler elevates issue of Palestine from begin small issue to a global issue 0 Path to US involvement in Middle East 0 Multipolar world during WWI but Eastern Question remains of what to do with the decaying Ottoman Empire 0 Rise of US government in late 1800s early 1900s as US moves from humanitarian thinking towards geopolitical thinking 0 Britain is dominant actor in world as a result of WW1 and Wilson is president and promotes Wilsonianism I Robert lansing secretary of state and Edward House was unofficial advisor who played large role I Henry Morgantheau was ambassador to Ottoman Empire 0 Britain is involved in tow wars both fighting the Ottoman empire and in Europe 0 Ottomans are defeated by the British and Hashemites placed in power 0 0 PanArabism O A way for Britain to get out of the corner of the Balfour Declaratio by turning the issue into an Arab one instead of a British one I Arab leaders have confrences to sort out Palestinian issue and Palestine becomes a part of Arab politics 193040s I Harding I Coolidge I Hoover period of isolationism Roosevelt Truman Eisenhower Kennedy Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagan Bush Clinton Bush Obama Trajectories Presidential Administrations War WWII begins US involvement in Middle east quotFourth Iraq Warquot going on now 0 Military voices pushing for ground intervention 0 quotThere are signs that the White House is becoming more exible Obama aides said this week that the president might consider cases in which US advisers could embed with Iraqi forces or call in airstrikes although they shied away from describing such roles as combat missionsquot Craig Whitlock Voices of opposition o Sen Elizabeth Warren DMass on Thursday voted against 09222014 legislation authorizing President Obama to arm and train Syrian rebels taking a stand that could distinguish her from Hilary Clinton in 2016 Speaking for more quotdovish wingquot of democratic party quotI do not want America to be dragged into another ground war int eh Middle East and it is time for those nations int eh region that are most immediately affected byte rise of lSlS to step up and play a leading role in this fightquot warren Why should it always be the US The US is still the only country with these capabilities in terms of military capabilities technical aspects and it s been our habit since Wll to look to the US to take the lead on these actions Roosevelt Truman Years I Roosevelt s are privileged family and family had been in public service Roosevelt won presidential election of 1932 Mood for Magic 1928 election 0 Democratic ticket was Al Smith 0 Democrats were made up of Southern segregationists and Northern liberals had to cast a very large net 0 Very large tents but had irreconcilable differences between polar opposite opinions Hoover wins 1928 election as a Republican by large numbers quotWe were I a mood for magic Mr Hoover was inaugurated and the whole country was a vast expectant gallery its eyes focused on Washington We had summoned a great engineer to solver our problems for us now we sat back comfortably and con dently to watch problems being solvedquot Anne o Hare Mcormick o 1930 Ambassador Dawwes signed in London the tripartite convention between the US Great Britain and Kingdom of Iraq Hashemite monarchy at the time o This was in anticipation of oil relations 0 Yazzidids Iraqi Christians in 1931 were still considered as devil worshipers 1931 o quotThe oil deposits east of the Tigris in the Kirku region assure the Iraq Government nancial meansquot 0 Hoover administration is aware of the wealth of Iraq and beginning US oil explorations in the region 0 quotThe modern technical mind was for the rst time at the head of a government Relieved and grati ed we turned over to that mind all the complications and dif culties no other had been able to settlequot 0 represented the engineer an emblematic American type Was hardworking and seen as the hope of the counry as he was incredibly quali ed o Ironic that became engineer of quotHoovervillequot during stock market crash and economic downturn as Hoover was seen as unresponsive to the needs of Americans quotGreatest failure of any administrationquot 0 Election of 1933 0 Hoover reelection vs Roosevelt and Roosevelt defeats Hoover in the biggest blowout in American history 0 Hoover originally own in a landslide and lost in a landslide Roosevelt is in of ce for long period of time 12 years so has 3 vice presidents included John Nance Garner 19331941 Henry A Wallace 19411945 and Harry Truman 1945 o Roosevelt led undercurrent of Republican progressivism and Wallace is progressive and leads the left wing of the Democratic party with Eleanor Roosevelt o Truman brought in as VP as a more conservative voice and Wallace had been more liberal so party wanted to appeal to large group of people Secretaries of State Cordell Hull 19331944 0 Edward Steittinius Jr 1944 Secretaries of Defense Henry L Stimson Was in Taft administration who is a lifelong Republican working in a variety of administrations Presides over WWII quotKitchen Cabinetquot Cabinet members who aren t official people who really have in uence Samuel Irving Rosenman Harry Hopkins was Roosevelt s go to guy a Book about relationship between Hopkins and Roosevelt by Robert E Sherwood n quotMany New Dealers have bored Roosevelt with their solemn earnestness Hopkins never does He knows instinctively when to ask when to keep still when to press when to hold back when to approachquot Raymond Clapper 1938 Torch beginning of WWII o 1941 Pearl Harbor which starts US involvement in war 0 US goes into Middle East 0 Introduction of forces into North Africa in November 1942 in Operation Torch 0 Con ict with Britain because they are already in the region 0 In Middle East emergence of new factors in the region quotThe main cause of strife in the latest Arabian dispute ins the desert territory known as Nejran to the southeast of Asir and the northeast of Yemenquot tribal con icts The Pan Arab Movement one phase of which is continuing armed con ict between the Arabs and British in Palestine appears to be gaining momentumquot Britain had brought in Arab states to play a role in the Palestine con ict across the region there is now mobilization and an Arab bloc of Arab nationalism quotThe granting of an oil concession covering the whole of Saudi Arabia to an American company over the heads of the European power and Japan has served to emphasize an important factor in the present strained politics of the worldquot US trying to gain control in Saudi Arabia of oil industry and trying to push out European rivals notably Britain US is seeing strategic value of oil in the context of a potential war with Germany in WWII 1938 I The Americans and Asia contain the richest oil elds America is actually an exporter of energy How will we provide energy for the war US and Russia are the two dominant players in production of energy followed by Venezuela Iran India Romania Mexico and Iraq Major oil players General Dwight Eisenhower leading military efforts All government leaders had grown up in a peace time so military had little experience until now North Africa is where the US begins WWII The Axis momentum in the Middle East reached its height between the fall of France who controlled Syria and Lebanon in June 1940 and the Allied counter offensive in the Mediterranean theatre toward the end of1942 Roosevelt Administration and Operation Torch Special envoy syndrome quotIf you learn anyting in Africa of special interest send it to me Don t bother going through State Department channelsquot Efficient way of going outside normal chain of command Bipartisanship Abandonment British PM living in the White House during WWII Dangerous crossing the Atlantic and competition between Roosevelt and Churchill 1943 The Final Solution 0 O Holocaust was well under way Emerged a growing awareness of what was happening in Nazi Germany and awareness ofJewish community of Israel and the mobilization ofJewish leaders o quotIn the attempt to tone down the opposition to a Jewish state American Zionist leaders held a series of meeting with heads of oil rms and with government of cials who dealt with the oil issuequot Zohar Segev We need more Jewish settlement in Palestine Intense lobbying of Roosevelt administration to help aid in rescuing Jews from Europe and taking them to Israel 0 Eleanor Roosevelt was the face of activism and other pragmatists wanting to stay out of Israel and not quotrock the boatquot Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise growing reform tradition and becoming increasingly mobilizing in the 19405 Believed Jewish problemdilemma in the context of liberalism and were nervous about Nationalism but began to mobilize Did the Roosevelt administration know about the destruction of European Jewry and death camps and take position there was nothing to be done 0 quotA complete solution of the Jewish question in the German sphere of in uence in Europequot Directive from Hermann Goering to Reinhard Hayd ch Huge controversy in quotThe abandonment of the Jewsquot written by David Wyman o quotIn the years before Pearl Harbor the US had reacted to the European Jewish crisis concern but refused to permit any sizable immigration of refugeesquot 0 Although Congress and the Roosevelt administration has shaped this policy it grew out of three important aspects of American society in the 19305 unemployment nativistic restrictionism and antiSemitismquot Can be argued either way that Roosevelt knew and didn t know US in Iraq 0 quotover the past couple of years during the chaos of the Syrian civil war where essentially you have huge swaths of the country that are completely ungoverned they were able to reconstitute themselves and take advantage of that chaos And so this became ground zero for jihadists around the worldquot Barak Obama 0 Was framed as a civil war previously but now new focus on Syria being the epicenter of terrorism 0 Adjustment process when one paradigm gives way to another 0 I didn t see the collapse of the Iraqi security force in the north coming I didn t see that IT boils down to predicting the will to ght which is an imponderablequot James Clapper Unexpected and Washington caught by surprise with quotevidence hiding in plain sightquot shouldn t have been surprised If the goal is to destroy lSlL as the president says it is I don t believe the strategy he outlines will accomplish it At the end of the day I think it s going to take more than airstrikes to drive them out at some point somebody s boots have to be on the ground that s the point John Boehner More Truman The Eisenhower Years I 0 Con guration of world politics shift from multipolar to bipolar system 0 Erosion of British power after WWII o quotThe US having helped bring about the collapse of the British Empire has failed to replace Britain as a guarantor of world orderquot William Roger Louis Period in which the Truman and Eisenhower period focused on quickly pushing Britain out of the Middle East 0 quotTheir in uence has greatly expanded there since the end of the World War and they are now rmly established in Turkey and in Saudi Arabiaquot Sir Roger Makins US stepping in 0 Miles Copeland s thesis US supporting elections and democratization of Syria and Egypt in order to create a new class of leaders who would be supportive of the US The US could bring democratization and break up loyalties to France Britian and the US pushed democracies in 19505 and does so now 0 quotThey are gaining similar ascendancy in Persia and it now seems that Pakistan may to some extent be drawn into their orbit Are the Americans consciously trying to substitute their in uence for ours in the Middle East Sir Roger Makins Mountbatten s assignment was to pull out of India and accidentally announced a date of pulling out in order to force the Muslim and Hindu population to come to a solution under a deadline results in Pakistan and India as two separate countries 0 The current of the late 19405 and early 19505 is the departure of Europe from the Middle East and is creating quotvacuums that the US is having a hard time llingquot Becomes a problem Truman must deal with Truman had very up and down popularity Containment Some thought it was too much involvement while others thought it wasn t enough and we needed to eliminate all communism rather than just prevent it from spreading Truman wants to pull out of post WWII isolationism supported by Republicans in order to promote the policy of containment and stop the Soviet Union 0 Important intellectual moment is the assessment of Soviet threat 0 quotPresent at the Creationquot creation of the Cold War State 0 Republicans in 1947 l two wings of the party lsolationists Bob Taft is leader of Republican party Had insular view of the world 0 Robert McCormick running Chicago Tribune Strong powerful republican who was an isolationist o lnternationalists 0 Thomas E Dewey Republican nominee in 1948 0 3rd and 4th party emerges in 1948 election 0 Truman vs Dewey vs Wallace vs Thurmond Wallace creates Progressive party 0 Does not accept the Cold War Splits Democrat party Believed Truman was too hawkish for the liberal Dems o Strom Thrumond creates Dixiecrats party Conservative part of Democratic party Represented the South rebelling against Truman s integrationist policies 0 Truman prevails in 1948 election by slim margin and proceeds with Cold War and containment policies 0 Rati cation of the Cold War 0 Palestine Truman administration thought of Palestine issue from humanitarian perspective after the destruction of European jewry The US did NOT make Israel Israel already existed and the Americans chose to recognize the fact 0 US is on the sidelines mostly a result of local factions and Britain departing the region Israelis declared their state in May 14 1948 and attacks of War of Independence star on May 15th Dean Acheson US Secretary of State in 1946 0 quotBoth PM Attlee and Ernest Bevin in the heat of their annoyance with Mr Truman charged that his support of Jewish immigration into Palestine was inspired by domestic political opportunism quotFrom the time I took up my duties as Under Secretary in September 1945 it was clear that the President Truman himself was directing policy on Palestine President had a certain control over this policy in Israel and over the immediate immigration of displaced people following the Holocaust and living in displaced persons camps AngloAmerican Committee of Inquiry 1945 Committee formed and sends James G Macdonald and becomes the rst substantive approach to the issue of Palestine There has never been a Palestinian state but there has been populations there for generations The Jewish claim to this land has an oldancient pedigree but its reinvigoration was about 19th century Zionism Building a homeland l homeland was a place to develop national identity and no longer be at mercy of often hostile majorities Palestinian Christian and Arab communities also mobilized during the 19205 and 19305 and ArabJewish communities were growing from one another simultaneously 0 Conferences meetings plans in order to try to ease the tension 0 How to coexist after Britian leaves 0 1947 quotThe USBritish strategy session of 1947 known as the Pentagon Talks focused speci cally on the 39Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean that is the Arab world and also Greece Turkey and Iran However the Palestine issue was seen as a 39think apart and hence not debated quot Marshal Pentagon believed that question of Palestine should not be focus should focus on Cold War Truman in a dilemma 0 Relationship warming between Truman and Chaim Weizmann Truman since 1945 had taken a personal interest in Palestine policy sympathies were owed to Eddie Jacobson a man Truman knew from Missouri and had an old relationship with him Role of special pleading l hidden in uenceconspiracy theories so not highly publicized o quotIt was my attitude that America could not stand by while the victims of Hitler s racial madness were denied opportunities to buld new lives Neither however did I want to see a political structure imposed on the Near East that would result in Con ict My basic approach was that the longrange fate of Palestine was the kind of problem we had the UN for For the immediate future however some aid was needed for the Jews in Europe to nd a polace to live in decencyquot Harry Truman Personal conviction makes decision clear to Truman but is the president so can t ignore other views a Complains that quotthey wanted more than just easier immigration practicesthey wanted the American government to support their aim of a Jewish state in Palestinequot 0 quotTruman s recognition of Israel just eleven minutes after independence derived from reasons both practical and politicalquot Michael Cohen Doesn t mean military support Israel is winning its sovereignty on its own 0 Eisenhower 0 Ike a solider wins election and has reputation of being politically neutral 0 Many believe he was a democrat not a republican Had a global reputation after being a commander in Europe became quothousehold namequot solider turned statesman O o 3 levels to analyze Presidents Final Exam 0 Individual Who was this human being as a President 0 Group Who are the major advisors and people around them 0 Systemic Forces American political dynamics international system 0 Iran Shia ISIS Sunni Will US and Iran work together The Eisenhower Years II Assembles a team led by John Foster Dulles as secretary of state 0 was principal voice on foreign policy during Eisenhower administration Generalization Is the administration uni ed or divided 0 Truman Divided Obama Uni ed After Dulles Sec of State Herter takes position from 5961 0 Allen Dulles brother ofJohn Dulles runs CIA 0 CIA is in full bloom involved in lots of operations worldwide Eisenhower begins presidency with continuation of Truman s containment and continuation of military deterrence as well as clandestine operations 0 Republican Eisenhower wins 1956 election against Stevenson Democratic by large amounts Wise Men Bipartisan gures whose job it was to give good counsel to Presidents involved in private life and governmental life 0 George Kennan Dean Acheson Charles Bohlen Robert Lovett John McCloy Averell Harriman Prescott Sheldon Bush 0 Good administrators quotgentleman s clubquot Lands of Turmoil 19505 Eisenhower years full of crisis Suez Crisis and Iran Change in the emperor l Pahlavi House 0 Reza Shah Pahlavi was a military man and Emperor Goes through 3 wives o Modernized leaders now in Turkey and Iran in the 19205 and both want to westernize their countries and become modern 0 Both countries are sympathetic to US during 19205 and 19305 US enjoyed long and prosperous relations with Iran 0 Iran becomes petroKingdom because of their oil in beginning of 19005 0 Iran is important to US because of oil but also because of its geographic position Buffer to the soviet union Shah of Iran s Twin Sister Ashraf Pahlavi Rumors that she was the resolute and tougher sibling Couldn t be emperor because she was a woman but exercised strong in uence over the regime CENTRO central treaty organization Represented an attempt to create regional alliances lncluded Pakistan Iran and Turkey and each had a role to play assigned by the US 0 Iran was meant to be a parliamentary system with a PM but the system wants to be more centralized with a strong Presidency 0 Emperor plays role of President at this point 0 US doesn t mind this at the time 0 US is worried about Iran 0 Communist party running in election because having a communist party means that there is class con ict 0 worker class working oil elds vs elite o Nationalization of oil elds 0 Outside countries came in and extracted oil and kept the majority of the money 0 This caused con ict and there was fear that Iran could seize control of their oil assets and cause instability Structure or Iran Triangle between USBritain EmperorShah and PM of Iran Clerics Shah goes to US Mohamed Mossadiq takes over and Shah goes back to Iran and in power KennedyJohnson Year I 0 Leon Panetta seasoned veteran and bipartisan gure 0 Wrote a book called quotHow the White House Misplayed Iraqi Troop Talksquot critical of Obama 0 Substantive Level quotI privately and publicly advocated for a residual force that could provide training and security for Iraq s militaryquot Said he warned events could be risky quotOur biggest problem is our alliesquot Joe Biden 0 Argued that America s problem in Syria and Iraq is ultimately America s friends meaning that these countries have not been helping the con ict and maybe even supporting factions Lands of Turmoil Mohamed Mossadegh 0 oil nationalization o Shah of Iran spends time in US after deposing shah of Iran 0 August of 1953 0 Iraq experienced military coup Had proNazi government in power in 1941 0 Britain reinvades Iraq in 1945 and sets up the Iraqi Hashemite monarchy 0 Western appearance and ultimately the US in the 19505 Nuri asSaid 18881958 former PM 0 Iraq in 19505 systems developing and growing to become important player but still had authoritarianism and corruption heavily relied on US during this time and there was a good amount of US involvement 0 Iraqi Communist Party 0 Large and relatively powerful and based in oil cities Abdul Karim Qasim late SOsearly 605 was a Kurdish leader 0 Prosoviet At which point did Qasim turn 0 Is assassinated and Eisenhower therefore shifts out of Pro Western mindset which enables Syria Eisenhower was promoting elections in Syria to promote proWestern candidates 0 Bath Party 0 Michael A aq Salah alDin alBitar o Emergence of radical military regimes in Syria and Iraq 0 late 505605 both coutnries experiencing coups and counter coups which results in association with Soviets Treaties of Friendship and Cooperation signed and provides military and economic support and followed Soviet doctrines 1972 for Iraq for treaty early 1980 for SyriaSoviet treaty Egypt 0 Previously a monarchy now a republic under military officers Location nile river which meant that Sudan was dominated by Cairo which was ultimately dominated by Britain until mid19505 Early Egyptian leaders l had sophisticated political system Ahmed Urabi Pasha Saad Zaghlul Gamal Abdul Nasser Egypt becoming center of Arab world with headquarters of Arab League 0 centrality of Egypt because all communications from Egypt was seen as quotvoice of Arab worldquot Gamal Abdul Nasser s message focused on panArabism meaning unifying the Arab countries that have been divided by the imperialists o AntiZionism United Nations Hammarskjold secretary general of UN from 19531961 charismatic con dent believed that UN should be a third force in International Relations 0 Vision of UN was to turn it into activist agency which acts independenUy 19505 emergence of UN as a distinct force and even had a distinct force Nonalignment movement not aligned with east communist and west capitalist India China Ugoslovia Suez Crisis quotIn public speech at Alexandria tonight Nasser announced that Egypt would build a Dam from her own resourcesquot 1955 l Nasser wants to nationalize the Suez canal Nationalizing the Egyptian Suez Canal immediately effected the British 0 Anthony Eden becomes British PM during this time quotStrategically the nationalization of the Suez Canal was an attack on the security of Great Britain s position in the Eastern Mediterranean Africa and the regionquot 0 Signifies end game end of British in uence and triumph of US in the region 0 On October 24 1956 Israel works with Britain and France to create war plan to roll back Nasser s nationalization plan and allow Britain to regain control 0 Britain wanted the canal France wanted to weaken Nasser and the Israelis wanted to stop Nasser s efforts in supporting Palestinians acting out of Gaza three powers came together 0 Britain and France sent paratroopers into Canal zone and regain control of the canal quotThe plan was that Israel would attack the Egyptian army near the Suez Canal and that this attack would serve as the pretext fro an AngloFrench Military interventionquot Avi Shlaim European powers were able to reassert themselves in the Middle East quotlast ride for Britishquot 0 Eisenhower doesn t want con ict in Middle East 0 Eisenhower angry at British believing it was an infringement of protection of sovereignty o Eisenhower ultimately forced Eden and Britain to push Britain outofcanalzone Threat that the US would impose economic sanctions economic leverage made Britain withdraw Nasser ultimately survived assault and regained Canal zone and popularity rose because said he defeated quotBritain French and Israelisquot end of UK as a player in the middle east because was a humiliation for Eden as PM and Britain as a whole Eisenhower pushes Eden out but some argue he created environment of rivalries and elevated the reputation of Gamal Abdul Nasser D Eisenhower is defender of Nasser and Nasser begins to promote revolutions in the region New Frontier o Eisenhower administration getting quottired Kennedy democrat wins election in 1960 by surprise 0 quotThe class of 1941 is that segment of the political class between 1914 and 1934 We were traumatized out of our traditional isolationismquot Roche 0 First internationalist generation 0 Class of 1941 0 Class president was Jack Kennedy 0 Eisenhower was more united than Truman administration instead of chaoitic Eisenhower pursued Cold war strategies and was tougher on Israel didn t rely on proIsrael vote domestically 0 Kennedy administration is rst signi cant embrace of Israel 0 Kennedy years was new generation of intellectuals and policy experts to come to power Brought in academics and policy advisors into white house 0 Critical look of advisors in book called The Best and the Brightest by David Halberstam REVIEW 0 is syches picot coming undone 0 Eli Kaduri Orientalist critique Billigin Edward Said criticism of US middle Eastern studies 0 Mayhem comes up with name Middle East 0 Vanitites how do we know stuff Tendencies in US way of thinking 0 problem solving mentality Determinants of US policy paradigms o isolationist vs internationalist populist vs intellectual o importance of religion in regards to US world view 0 Christian Zionism INS paradigms o realism mayhem power liberalism and Marxismcritical theory 0 different points of view within the American system 0 Second year in office is most critical year for policy making and 3rd year begins to reelection or upcoming election 0 Peace process structure and power of Israel lobby 0 Administrations look to individuals advisorsadministration and the systemic steering currents wars 0 Truman divided administration Currents Cold War Middle East crnsn o Eisenhower more centri ed administration currents Truman doctrine Eisenhower doctrine aimed at Soviet union Looked at middle east from mobile perspective and looked thorugh a lens of quotwhat s good for us globallyquot Different levels of looking at Middle East regional perspective global perspective individual actors KennedyJohnson Years II 0 Vietnam 0 President s language was expansive expansion of special forces 0 Policy advisor s to Kennedy and Johnson 0 Eugene V Rostow and Walt Whitman Rostow Bobby Kennedy began as a hawk and was supportive of Israel 0 George Bull 0 Critical of Israel The Nasser Question Nasser had victory after Suez Thinking about NasserEgypt in a global lens and fearful of Soviet in uence 0 quotToday Nasser s nationalism ercely combats internal communism and his relations with the USSR grow increasingly coolquot Chester Bowles Foreign relations of the United States collection of documentation about policy making towards the Near East quotFaced with the foregoing realities we have concluded that while it is not now feasible to expect signi cant help from Nasser in solving major international problems much can be done to push the pendulum of USUAR relations more in our directionquot Prospects for Nasser remains formidable gure in the Arab world 0 Kennedy administration opens up military relationships with Israel 0 Issue on the table Nasser Israel and the Soviet Union 0 Relationship between Soviets and Nasser quotThe leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Nikita Khrushchev responded enthusiascally to Egyptian President Gama Abdel Nasser s request for military aid in the fall of 1962 enabling the rapid projection of Egyptian power onto the Arabian Peninsula during the arly phases of the Yemeni civil warquot Jess Faris o InterArab Con ict between Egypt Nasser and Saudi Arabia 0 rivalry Kennedy is reassuring Israel that they have their back and sells them weapons but at the same time State Department wants to calm Nasser down and away fro the Soviets 0 Administration turns attention towards Yemen Imam of Yemen l Yemen was a conservative state 0 Egypt has power but no money Saudis don t have many peoplepower but they have a lot of money Saudis have all the money and Egypt thinks this in unfair because they do all the ghting for the arab cause 0 Egypt wants to take control of the northern part of Yemen under Saudi control and take over their oil elds and make money 0 Egyptian military efforts ended in Yemen after Israel defeated Egypt in 1967 0 reveals divisions within the middle east Presidents office is to take a global view of the issues in the region 0 The NixonFord Years I 0 Iraq problem was de ned by Sadam Hussein for Bush Administration 0 removal of Sadam Hussein would cure the problem became actionable orders for the military 0 Obama s de nition of Iraq problem would be to remove American presence in the Middle East 0 Would stabilize and make region less volatile o Irony Kennedy was preoccupied with Cuba Vietnam and Middle East wasn t his main concern 0 November 1963 Kennedy assassinated and Lyndon B Johnson sworn in 0 Johnson was well quali ed for of ce 0 1964 Election Johnson Dem vs Goldwater Republican 0 South now shifting to vote for Republicans as Johnson Dem aggressively pushing civil rights 0 Goldwater signi es shift in Republican party to the Sunbelt Northerners who have moved to the South as well as all Southerners Johnson wins by large amounts 0 Pinnacle was victory ofJohnson but no one could imagine the pit that would come between 19641968 0 Vietnam is ultimate problem quotUSEgyptian relations had deteriorated steadily between 1964 and early 1967 over issues affecting third countries the EgyptYemen con ict in particular and over quarrels about aid By 1967 with Vietnam becoming a divisive domestic issue forJohnson problems of the middle East were left largely to the Department of Statequot Wiliam B Quandt Presidential discussion is least concerned with the region of Africa and Latin America 0 By May of 1967 it was starting to look like war for Israel 0 quotFrom the outset Johnson seemed to want to avoid war restrain the Israelis and gain allied support for any action that might be takenquot William B Quandt US doesn t want to give Israel green light because doesn t want to antagonize Arab allies or get into another war and so US is stalling for time o For many Israelis 1967 seemed like second Holocaust with Arab countries building up forces 0 Within Johnson administration different lines of debate 0 Multilateral option put together a coalition send message to Egypt not to think about starting con ict 0 Diplomatic option quotLet s talkquot 0 Opposition to force Reticence about undertaking such a complicated issue 0 Bobby Kennedy in Presidential race which ends in his assanitation 0 people are doves on Vietnam but hawks on Israel very supportive of strong supportive military power in Israel Israeli PM Levi Eshkol gives defense to Moshe Dayan and starts a preemptive war against Arab countries 0 quotJohnson never blamed Israel for starting the war although he did express his disappointment that it had not taken his advice diplomacyquot Israel nervous because scared of Arab powers and their sayings 0 quotWe shall not enter Palestine with its soil covered in sand we shall enter it with its soil saturated in Bloodquot Gamal Abdel Nasser Israel has tacit relationship with Jordan butJordan signs peace agreement with Egypt and tension increases 0 Peace between Israel and Egypt in 1979 0 Peace with Jordan and Israel under Clinton in 19805 0 Transition from Johnson to Nixon o Nixon was congressman was VP Nixon 0 Relationship with Jewish community 0 Had the prejudices ofJewish people of his generation and wasn t shy about this 0 Many Jews worked for him though 0 National Security advisors o Hentry Kissinger 19691975 0 Brent Scowcroft 19751977 0 Black September Hijackings in 1970 venture between European left groups and Palestinian groups Wanted to put issues of Palestine on the map in the diplomatic realm and there were 370 hostages Operation was in order to make people aware of Palestinian issue Planes Hijacked landed in dessert in Jordan and kept the people hostage in order to negotiate Palestinians getting their prisoners back from lsraeli jails demands were not met but crisis ended in relatively peaceful way 0 People became aware of Palestinian issue 0 was rst moment of international terrorism that the Nixon administration had to engage in Axis Palestinians Syria and Soviets Allied Israel Jordan King Hussein fearing Syria had tacit relationship and the US Issue threatened to become a superpower confrontation and so US escalated the threat brutally Nixon Doctrine Guam doctrine quotDomestically it supplied a coherent answer to the charges of overextension even those advocating a more farreaching retrenchment had to take seriously the sweep and implication of Nixon s declarationquot July 25 1969 Devolution devolving responsibility is at heart of Nixon doctrine Truman Doctrine Eisenhower doctrine in the past Persian Gulf Sheikdoms were worried about being taken over by Gulf countries Gulf states were getting wealthy from oil Twin pillar policy support Saudis and Iran 0 providing weapons to both countries 0 weapons transfer was popular because gave US way to pay for oil 19711991 twenty year period of strategic autonomy for Gulf OPEC forms Iranian revolution Sadam Hussein US relying on the Shah of Iran to keep control of many of the radical elements in the region including Iraq who is aligned with the Soviets Saddam Hussein is driving force in Iraq by 1975 AlJeerz agreement 0 Iran saw an opportunity to make agreement with Iraq in 1975 in order to maintain order 0 Agreement holds until 1980 October quotDiplomacy at the edge of war is an incongruous instrument All one s instinct make for haste while precision requires time consuming repetitionquot Henry Kissinger quotA crisis does not always appear to a policymaker as a series of dramatic events Usually it imposes itself as an exhausting agenda of pretty chores demanding both concentration and endurance One is forced to react to scraps of information in very limited spans ot timequot 0 October of 1973 0 Egyptian and Syrian attack on Israel quotAnwar Sadat boldly all but told what he was going to do and we didn t not believe him He overwhelmed us with information and let us draw the wrong conclusion October 6 was the culmination of a failure of political analysis of the part of its victimsquot US and Israel misread Anwar Sadat not serious partner Issue of credibility Egypt has cover from the Arabs and money from the Saudis so good mix to go against Israelis quotPolicymakers cannot hide behind their analysts if they miss the essence of an issue They can never know all the facts but they have a duty to ask all the right questions That was the real failure on the eve of the Mideast warquot didn t want to rock the boat or defy conventional wisdom Nixon administration caught 39 at footed quotThere is a low probability that Sadat will renew ghting to break the deadlock not because Sadat would not want to go to war but because he is conscious of the severe results of such a step in view of the balance of power in the area the relative weakness of Egypt and the current international systemquot Analyst s predictions 0 1973 Yom Kippur War surprised Israelis US frustrated with Israelis because they aren t open to neganUons 1973 is also beginning of energy crisis Israelis are sending messages that war is happening but remain convinced for a signi cant period of time that SyriansEgyptians wouldn t move forward and were bluffing O Israel s nuclear program Nixon and his advisors see Israel s development of nuclear capabilities to be inevitable What position does the US take Israel to this day doesn t acknowledge that they have nuclear weapons 0 Israel is not a signatory to nonproliferation treaty quotI d like to suggest a crazy idea What if me and an appropriate military official go to Washington for 24 hours Maybe he ll say he can offer nothing but sympathyquot Golda Meir Nixon administration was very friendly towards Israel out of strategic reasons 0 gave cover on Vietnam Nixon liked the Israelis they were tough 1973 war Yom Kippur War 0 quotNo matter what the outcome of the present military operations which is difficult to predictquot it is clear that unless Israel withdraws from the Arab lands it seized there will not be peace in the Middle East This is the essencequot Leonid Brezhnev Detante lowering of tensions between US and Russia during this time so were in constant communication with each other Resignation of vice president Spiro Agnew story came out that Agnew was taking bribes 0 Had little ultimate impact on the administration BUT the US was becoming internally destabilized from Egyptian Soviet Israeli point of view 0 not dealing with as strong of an administration in the US Conversations between Kissinger and Ambassador Anatol Dobrynin close relationship between Soviets and US two superpowers Kissinger has to cover for Nixon often to reduce tensions Faysall puts embargo on oil for any country that supports Israel emergence of oil crisis When the war ended Kissinger began shuttle diplomacy between Israel Syria and Egypt 0 called it step by step diplomacy o tried to facilitate negotiations on a bilateral relationship with Israel negotiating with Syria Egypt and Jordan on an individual basis 0 Carter administration didn t promote stepbystep diplomacy of Kissinger and Nixon administration and preferred quotall at oncequot comprehensive diplomacy that included the Palestinian question 0 Carter ended up with stepbystep at Camp David even though not preferred by him tension between step by step and comprehensive o The Fall of Nixon s administration 0 Involvement in Watergate 1974 Nixon administration was worriedparanoid with domestic competition in next election at time that Vietnam war was very intense Nixon reelection team bugged apartments spyed on them and broke into the democratic national headquarters in Watergate to gain info on Dems o Nixon tried to coverup and ends in his resignation Henry Kissinger had unprecedented power because Nixon had lost a lot of his power 0 Gerald Ford VP who becomes President cabinet members becoming Ford was humble dependable honest Assumes role of president in 1974 0 was important rebalancing gure in American system 0 Kissinger ghting against American Left and the new neoconservatives Neoconservatives were generally Democrats and promoted US taking harder line against Soviets Kissinger trying to promote D tente but has pressure from left and conservatives 0 Jimmy Carter 0 comes in with a lot of support public wants quotsomething newquot 0 was a one term president 0 Carter Administration 0 Divided administration l looked good on paper but not in reality Eisenhower uni ed Nixon uni ed drama but uni ed between Kissinger and Nixon Cyrus Vance Secretary of State dove especially on Vietnam Zbigniew Brezizinski National Security Advisor 0 Reputation of being hardliner hawk Hawkdove didn t matter to Israel because lsrael viewed both gures as hostile Breziznski was routinely critical of Israel and was a big believer of including the Palestinians and to comprehensive approach 0 Israel didn t know what to make of Carter Harold Brown Secretary of Defense Robert Strauss negotiator Andrew Young ambassador to the UN 0 was seen as supportive of the Palestinians so made lsraelis nervous Not a single authoritative foreign policy voice within Carter administration Carter s foreign policy focus on human rights Mirror image of Nixonkissinger and stood for human rights critical of soviet uniondictators if they don t honor human rights but others thought this policy was soft Believed Shah of Iran needed to open up their regime was too dictatorial PAPER email McGuinn paper topic theme research question thesis Carter Years II Hashef al Assad was president of Syria was a centralized country at this time 0 Carter was preoccupied with peace process divided between step by step ignore Palestinian issue or comprehensive o intellectual difference between the two 0 Camp David comprehensive o quotThe US has a strong interest in the security independence and wellbeing of Israel and the Arab states in the area and in the friendship of both Their security and future development will remain in jeopardy until a durable settlement is concludedquot Brookings 1975 Deciding that we should move away from step by step and towards comprehensive lsrael doesn t like comprehensive because could be bullied the Arab countries will gang up on them 0 Electric shock diplomacy Sadat in Egypt was almost as against the comprehensive agreement as Israel was 0 Great irony Sadat most powerful arab leader decides to avoid comprehensive peace scheme by US and going directly to Israel and speaking at Knesset Carter ultimately got his peace but was in a way that was in opposition to his idea of how to do it step by step ultimately happened even though he wanted comprehensive Camp David Accords September 17th 1978 Egyptians got Sinai back and Israel gets recognition as the Jewish state 0 land for peace deal 0 modern arab lsraeli peace process begins here 0 Energy crisis 0 conservation would be bad for Iran because it would reduce oil purchased by the US 0 Sense of a warmth between US and Iran 0 Nixon doctrine idea that in Vietnam context US has little ability to deal with the middle east 0 intimacy that existed within the Israelis and lranians during the 19505 and 1960s 0 Israel received much of its oil from Iran 0 Large Jewish community in Iran 0 good relations with Shah of Iran is important because gives them an eye on the US as well as Iraq because they are Iran s allies quotNachik Navot who headed the Mossad s branch in Tehran from 1969 to 1972 explains that the shah started Iran s nuclear program as a means of deterrence against Iraqquot Raphael Ahren quotWestoxificatedquot Israel and US had introduced toxins into Iran so needed to be reborn animosity towards US and Israel grew 0 Drama throughout the regime l protests in front of American embassy America held hostage 444 days 50 americans held in Embassy Iranian students followers of Homeni had stormed across gate of Embassy Rescue operation debate erupted in administration Hawk and dove causes con ict but compromise to rescue hostages Operation Eagle Claw mission failed and was a low point for Carter when he had to announce this 0 Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force 19801983 America s rst attempt to create a Persian gulf military force 0 Islamic revolution succeeds and hostages released on January 20th 1981 day of inauguration of Reagan 19805 unrest in Iran begins Arc of Crisis 0 arc from Afghanistan through middle east down through Ethiopia and Somalia upheaval in all of the arc o 1979 is the beginning of the reign of Muhammed Ziaul Haq in Pakistan 0 military ruler of Pakistan who institutes Islamic Law in Pakistan and begins a process of ramping up for the war in Afghanistan supporting the resistance to the Soviets that will provide framework for the creation of alQaeda unintended consequence irony The Reagan Years I Administrations before it dealt with IsraeliArab con ict differently Carterkissinger was comprehensive whereas NixonKissinger carried out stepbystep Carter and the arc of crisis 0 PakistanIndia con ict 0 Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979 hostage crisis Soviet Union enters Afghanistan Pakistan 0 1971 West Pakistan ultimately becomes Bangladesh 0 issue takes place in Reagan years that concerns the USPakistani relationship 0 US was very friendly with Pakistani military Pakistanis purchased F16 aircrafts from US was a major arms deal 0 group of moderate Republicans turned against Pakistan and created coalition that would renig on F16 plane deal because intelligence showed that there would be illegal arms transfer that could be nuclearized 0 Larry Pressler in office from 19791997 moderate republican who served in Senate and was focused on arms control in the 805 Pressler Amendment US would not sell the F165 to Pakistanis and became evidence of quotdouble crossingquot Pakistan a proof for the Pakistanis that Americans can t be trusted and the US has now found itself in a position where it has to prove itself to Pakistan 0 1971 Loss of East Pakistan to India Pakistan devastated had been defeated and forgotten about Miracle was soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and made Pakistan important to the US once again Triangular relationship between USA Saudis and Pakistan a Saudi Arabia has the money n elements of al Qaeda emerging Carter s state of union speech in 1980 0 Carter doctrine if there are threats to the Persian gulf from sovietsothers the US would use military force to protect its interests very different that the Nixon doctrine guam doctringe of 1971 which focused on devolution and pivoting out of con ict to rely on locals a pull out of country ghting and leave it to the locals ie Vietnam Carter pursued a quotrose garden reelection strategyquot meaning didn t bother campaigning because he was 39busy being president and created impression he was trapped in White House u even had Ted Kennedy as Primary challenger in democratic party his own party B Carter won primary during last years of Carter Administration the committee for present danger made up of conservative democrats who argued that carter was pursuing dangerous foreign policy a Strange bedfellows lconservative democrats nding their way to their republican candidate Ronald Reagan who was in the democratic party Presidents Roosevelt Truman Eisenhower JFK Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagan Bush senior Clinton Bush Jr Obama 0 two term presidents Truman not elected Eisenhower Nixon resignation Trend was not to have 2 term presidents opposite of how it is now Divisions 0 Carter administration Divided HawkBrazinski DoveSyvantz but were united on issue of Israel and interested in the comprehensive approach 0 Nixon administration United 0 Kissinger ran foreign policy 0 Johnson administration united Johnson friendly towards Israel 0 Kennedy United o Eisenhower united cool not welcoming towards Israel Truman Divided but united on Israel Reagan friendly towards Israel in the beginning 0 Ronald Reagan governor twice in California 0 1976 nominee for Republican primary but lost to Ford 0 1980 Republican primary Reagan chooses Bush Sr Reagans key players 0 Secretary of State Al Haig Ambassador to UN Jeane Krikpatrick Sec of State 2 George P Schulz Secretary of Defense Cap Weinberger Reagan s issues 1 Revolution in Iran 0 worry in the early 805 was that Iran may break through border with Iran and Iraq 0 Iran would cut off the southern part of Iraq Southern Iraq and and Iran were both Shia Iraqui Shiites fought for Iran during those years 2 Peace for Galilee Reagan was a supporter of Israel maybe even a Christian Zionist Adminstration was divided over middle east 0 Kirkpatrick and Reagan were supportive Weinberger sympathetic with Arabs Alliances o PLO allied with Syria who was allied with Soviet Union 0 Israel allied with US lsraelis invaded Lebanon in 1982 to clear out the PLO from southern Lebanon and facilitate the removal of the PLO from the state of Lebanon 0 put together a new state that was more friendly towards lsrael NYTIMES quotThe scene of battle changes but the nature of the Israeli Arab con ict does not SO long as it is denied secure boundaries Israel will pursue a chimeric security in an ever wider are of territoryquot 0 First elective war for Israel previously had only fought out of defense which caused support of Israel to waver People in US were against Begin and some on the left were against the elective war Reagan comes under strain because there is division in American opinion but Reagan likes the idea of PLO being removed Unanticipated consequences Palestinian refugee camps attacked because Palestinians had no one to protect them Christians lost their leader who was murdered 0 marine corps left in Beirut after lsraelis get out encouraged to get out because public relations were awful with Israel occupying Beirut Reagan sends marine barracks into Beirut to keep order lsrael exchanged one enemy for another l PLO becomes Hezbollah One threat gone transformed into Hezbollah US connection to this story crucial 19805 after US pulls marines out of Lebanon still Americans in Lebanon and the Shiites organizations began kidnapping Reagan administration under pressure as they have to get hostages back 0 1982 Lebanon War and US intervention in 1983 Reagan Plan conduct negotiations between Israelis and Jordanians Syrians and Palestinians which ultimately went no where 0 Every administration tries arabIsraeli peace making mechanism to maintain power and in uence in region 0 Potential exam question WRITE ABOUT 1979 saddam husseins rise islamizatin of Pakistan Iran hostage crisis Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 3 Pro and Contra o Saddam takes over Iraq in 1979 0 France and Iraq relationship oil and weapons France was principal conduit of western technology for Iraq Iraq entered treaty of friendship and cooperation in with Soviets became Sovietized system Western connection remains France and US has very little connection with Saddam at this point Rumsfeld was the special envoy to Middle East 0 Lebanon on one side IranIraq on the other side Rumsfeld sent on mission to feel out Saddam Hussein as US and Iraq were in tacit alliance at this point and didn t want Iraq to lose to Iran afraid that if Iraq loses Iran will take over southern part of Iraq and balance of region will changed so western countries supporting Sadam Hussein Americans and Israelis playing both sides of the equation l balance of power game M O O The Reagan Years II 0 Lebanon war 1982 Israel invades because Lebanon because wanted to remove PLO US gets involved in Lebanon by sending marines in order to remove Israelis better US than Israel Settlements Johnson administration 67 war occurs and Israel takes control of Sinai West bank Gaza Golan Heights and EastJerusalem 0 Historic low point in USIsrael relationships Eisenhower administration reasons 1975 Ford years Ford was frustrated with Rabin government and said that if the Israelis aren t more forthcoming US would have to quotreassess the relationshipquot Nixon presidentKissinger Sec of State during 1973 Yom Kippur War so by 1975 Israel was weak Israelis are focused on domestic politics and not concerned with peace process which is where Ford s frustration begins BUT today in contrast Netanyahu gov is strong and Israel is very strong which is possibly driving Obama administration crazy because Israel is able to defy US is US becoming less relevant o IranIraq war Iraq s Hussein attacks Iran in fear of Iran s Sunni supporting Iraq s smaller Sunni community Reagan wanted to keep Straight of Hormuz open very narrow waterway 0 Oil tankers ow through straight and fear that war would spread through the straight and Persian Gulf would become battle ground and damage US oil supply Carter doctrine US would use military force to defend its interests in the region Iranians had a lot of young men to ght and wanted to break through Iraq June 1981 Israel launched preemptive attack on Iraq s nuclear facility War became about getting access to technology and both sides had willing donors of missiles and weapons USIraq began a dialogue Major worry of Sunni Iraq is that the southern part of country is dominated by Shia population and they need to have loyalty to Iraq instead of Shia Iran 0 fear mostly led Shia Iraqis to ght against the Iranians out of fear of death 0 US supports Iraq to take them away from the Soviet union and maybe even peace with Israel Reagan administration trying to take advantage of Sadam s distress by trying to remove them from the terrorist organizations of rejectionist camp The rejectionist camp Iran Libya Syria and Iraq rejected the peace process Bring Iraq into fold of US so signi cant government interaction and even nancial dealing US and Iraq against the Iranians but exception is the IranContra scandal 0 US sold military equipment to Iran and taking proceeds and giving them to the Contras those in Nicaragua opposed to the Sandinista gov o Reagan administration wanted to get Terry Anderson captive in Lebanon and others imprisoned Robert McFarlane responsible for scandal partly 0 Oliver North another member of scheme and was de ant in Congress and saying how he was supporting the national interests of the US 0 Sell missiles to Iran and use money to fund war in Latin America 0 quotWhen CIA director William Casey for one supported McFarlane s idea of reaching out to Iran through limited supplies of arms among other approaches President Reagan s two senior foreign policy advisers strongly opposed the notionquot o Civilian ight from Iran to Dubai Iran Air Flight 655 0 US shoots down ight by naval vessel 0 Irony is that this event was tipping point in causing Iranian government in saying they re done with the war 0 Iran had Iraq Soviets and Americans against them so time for Iran to give up Iraqi victory but was surprising because Saddam Hussein was in way over his head but he ultimately prevailed and would have another rise in the military Libya and Qadda 0 involved in terrorism from the Philippines to Ireland 0 Libya challenging territorial waters in the Mediterranean 0 Libya s involvement in state sponsored terrorism o quotthe Reagan administration accused Libya today of aiding terrorists who stages attacks at the Rome and Vienna airportsquot 1985 0 quotWe have to deal with this terrorist problem We can t allow terrorist to do this to the worldquot Reagan 1986 o Possibility that America will take military action against Qadda quotprospective military action is something that only the President will decide on Time is winding down the time is getting shortquot John Whitehead sec of state 0 Decide to bomb Libya and punish Qadda for its involvement in terrorism quotfor nearly 10 minutes the night sky was ablaz with explosion from missiles and tracers as the American planes soared out of the distancequot 0 Libya was protected by Palestinians east Germany Soviet Union 0 Pan Am Flight 103 bombing in December 1988 and was end of Qadda and terrorism 0 Libya has now opened up relations with the US Reagan doctrine unof cial it was implied because re ected general tendency gave support to anticommunist resistance measures all over the world Beginning of Pakistan s engagement with Afghanistan Cold War Reagan and gorbachev end of cold war impacted Middle east 0 end of bipolar reign of Russia and US Palestinian intifada George H W Bush 1988 Bush wins by large margin James Baker 0 preoccupied with cold war and maintain balance between arabs and Israelis 0 not proIsraeli Brent Scowcroft 0 all three actors are prudent careful wise well experienced all preoccupied with Cold war and wanted to bring it to a soft landing Dick Cheney was Bush s second choice to be secretary of defense 0 Colin Powel serving as chief of staff after being National Security Advisor for Reagan Expectation of what Post Cold war middle east would be about 0 positive predictions post cold war 0 demilitarization less proxy wars in region 0 negative implications 0 US leaving region so creating conditions of state failure 0 deregulation of middle east 0 local actors dreading end of cold war leaving Israel as strong actor Arab cooperation Council 1989 0 Yemen became uni ed in 1990 north and south Yemen saddam Hussein in Iraq making alliance with Jordan Egypt and Yemen Question in Washington is what Saddam Hussein will do next post war with Iran Bust years are years of transition 0 who was bigger threat Yitzack Shamir or Saddam Hussein 0 General though Saddam Hussein wouldn t start another war anytime soon and the intransigence of Likkud gov meant that they wouldn t come to negotiating table with Palestinians would cause another war 0 Bush took priority to Israeli issue 0 Was point of weak political parties in Israel between Shamir and Peres so both Labor and Likud were focused on domestic issues and weren t strong enough to bring the country to the negotiating table 0 Bush administration convinced that after 1988 Saddam would not wage another war because of the scope of the loss in IranIraq war 0 April Glaspie has meeting with Saddam Hussein o Troop mobilization in the IraqKuwait border 0 Saddam Hussein said these were military exercises 0 Glaspie says to Hussein that the US doesn t take a position on arab arab disputes giving him a quotyellow lightquot that US wont stop Iraq 0 OR is she saying US doesn t want to be middle man 0 Bush administration believed Saddam would go right but went left 0 0 Republican takeover of Senate last night 0 Iran nuclear deal if Obama makes deal House and Senate will provide large backlash will stand up to executive branch Netanyahu should be very happy about election outcome Important for nal 0 Bush former director of CIAO had high level foreign policy experience beforehand o Eisenhower Nixon VP for Eisenhower 0 Those who were not familiar with foreign policy 0 Kennedy although fought in war Reagan Carter W Bush Clinton who were governers and not involved as much in foreign policy 0 Perpetual discussion if we should put politics or human rights rst 0 Obama administration took cautious approach cautious about democracy in Egypt George H W Bush Years II 0 ACC arab cooperation council Yemen Jordan Iraq Saddam building coalition to mess with Saudi Arabia and gulf countnes US surprised by Saddam s decision to go to war taken aback Hussein was armed de ant of West dynamic and other Arab countries beginning to back him 0 US caught off guard 67 war Yom Kippur War 0 73 war 0 And now Iraqi invasion of Kuwait 0 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait 0 quotthe United States might begin to explore whether Iraq could be enlisted in the effort to build an Arab consensus aimed at supporting a Palestinian settlementquot 0 how to use war to shape post war 0 Jordan wouldn t join coalitioncrusade to take down Saddam Hussein worried because of Money 0 Jordan and Iraq were very close economically during 19805 IranIraq war 0 also worried about Palestinian Question Palestinians were looking to Saddam as a leader so Jordan didn t want to experience backlash in his own country from the Palestinians living there 0 quotLinked or not there is no way to separate the crisis in the Gulf from the Israeli Palestinian questionquot Jimmy Carter quotNeeded Middle East Peace Talksquot 0 Anti war movement in the US in the 1990s 0 tension in administrations between Arab Israeli con ict and those who believe disturbance is found elsewhere saddam Hussein lack of democracy ect Bush put together coalition of Arab states to take down Iraq but Saddam wanted to attack Israel 0 by bringing Israel into the equation will put pressure on the USArab alliance Israel usually immediately reacts but this time doesn t respond to Iraq wanting to ght them at the request of the US so that coalition didn t crash 0 War in Kuwait gave to sequel wars 0 Shiite intifada War in the south of Iraq by the Shiites who stood up to Saddam Hussein o Kurds Both thought that the US would back the Shiites and Kurds if they rose up against Saddam Hussein but didn t happen Saddam Hussein was not allowed to send his planes to northsouth or they would be shot down US British and French patrolled the sky 0 containment strategy 0 Poverty in Iraq rises saddam couldn t ship oil and modernity of Iraq was eroding as institutions were already failing before US arrived there in 2003 o If US underestimated anything it was that they didn t know the extent of decay occurring in Iraq during the 1990s US returns to what is knows Arab Israeli con ict 0 Madrid conference December 1991 Netanyahu as foreign minister Shamir likud is PM at the time 0 conference was beginning of process that would end in Oslo during Clinton s time 0 Israel and PLO beginning to negotiate with each other but PLO not present at Madrid conference because would negotiate with terrorist org so Jordan represented PLO US and Israel very tense with James Baker sec of state and Bush so Israel had to appeal to congress 0 quotEvery time I have gone to Israel in connection with the peace process on each of my four trips I have been met with the announcement of new settlement activityquot James Baker 0 Threads US beginning to walk away from the Middle East and the problems in Iraq and Pakistan pattern of pivoting out of the region in the 19905 and retreat into its own problems Bush administration and middle East last days in administration Bush intervenes in Somalia in 19911992 for purpose of bringing food to needy


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