ARH 252 - Test 3 Study Guide
ARH 252 - Test 3 Study Guide ARH 252 - Online
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EXAM THREE STUDY GUIDE PERIODS HFQWWPOW Roman Republican Roman Pompeii Roman Early Empire Roman High Empire Roman Late Empire Late Antiquity Early Byzantine 527 726justinian Middle Byzantine 843 1204 Late Byzantine 1204 1453 ROMAN Rome founded in 753 BCE by brothers Romulus and Remus Rome was a monarchy until it was declared a Republic in 509 BCE when Rome began to be ruled by 2 Councils the Senate and an assembly of citizens There were 2 distinct classes of people under the Republic the wealthy landowners called Patricians and the working class of farmers merchants and freed slaves called Plebians Julius Caesar was murdered in the year March 15th 44 BC poetically known as the Ides Of March The Temple of Portunus in Rome is exemplary of the Republican architectural in uences of both Greek and Etruscan structures What are these specific in uences Within the Roman Republic bust portraiture became the foremost trend What is the term used to describe this brutally realistic portraiture Veristic Also how does this portraiture re ect the unique ideals of the Roman Republic Also during the Roman Republic Concrete was invented and immediately made architectural construction more durable and provided for more unique structural shapes What are the three structural shapes associated with this time period Many examples of Republican domestic architecture preserved as a result of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE The city of Pompeii is the most famous example among these preserved towns and is known as being the living city of the dead I ARH 252 0 There are four types of Pompeiian wall paintings A 19th century art historian classified them at First Style Second Style Third Style and Fourth Style The Portrait of Augustus as General depicts the emperor as an idealized man This is exemplary of a shift from the Republican fascination of the wise elder and a return to the Greekin uenced neveraging man Also there is a figure standing at the foot of Augustus who is it Cupid And what is the symbolism of his presence That the Julian family were descendants of the goddess Venus e The rule of Augustus brought Pax Romana a 200 year period of peace and prosperity for the empire And because of this Augustus was given the name Pax Augustus and is the central theme of the Ara Pacis Augustae 0 The Colosseum is also known as the Amphitheatrum Flavium and was built under the emperor Titus It replaced a pond and status of the previous corrupt emperor Nero It was built using Concrete and faced with brick and stone It featured a cloth awning used to protect spectators from bad weather primarily the bright sun 0 The most famous events held within the Colosseum were the gladiatorial fights Please familiarize yourself with the Ancient Roman gladiator tradition as discussed in your book 0 The Arch of Titus is an example of a Roman Arch 0 The inscription carved onto the Arch of Titus is a reminder that emperors became gods upon death 0 During the High Empire Rome expanded its border to northern Africa and the Near East The High Empire is also marked by the rule of the first nonRoman emperor Trajan 0 The Column of Trajan celebrates Trajan s victory over the Dacians a tribe of people in the Near East The column depicts stories from Traj an s victory in the shape of a winding scroll Within the Ancient Roman tradition the scroll is symbolic of someone s accomplishments throughout their life During Traj an s rule he was able to choose his successor Hadrian another Spaniard who would rule the empire Hadrian is associated with being a great connoisseur of the arts which is indicative by the construction of the temple the Temple of Venus and Roma 0 The Pantheon is an example of a Rotunda covered by a dome The Oculus at the center of the dome provides the main source of light The dome also features rows of ARH 252 I recessed squares that help to reduce the weight of the structure without weakening it called Coffers The Pantheon s facade contains 8 Corinthian columns that serve as an homage to the GrecoRoman architectural tradition The Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius is a type of imperial portrait in which we see the emperor on horseback It was intended as a type of portraiture to glorify the power of the emperor This emperor also famously revealed himself in his treatise Meditations which is still read today What kind of ruler was Caracalla And how does Caracalla s rule re ect the chaos of the Late Empire The trend of the soldier emperors emerged during the Late Empire and re ects the turmoil of the 3rd century CE in the Roman Empire What are soldier emperors The emperor Diocletian established the tetrarchy in the 293 CE The emperor Constantine was the son of one of Diocletian s tetrarchs He is credited with declaring Christianity the new religion of the Roman Empire Upon his rule he moved the capital from Rome to Constantinople the New Rome in presentday Turkey The Arch of Constantine celebrates Constantine s defeat of Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge and features some reliefs from arches of the emperors of the High Empire Constantine s strength is also highlighted in the colossal sculpture Statue of Constantine which is now in fragments LATE ANTIOUITY The period of the Late Antiquity is a collection of early Christian art still made in the Ancient Roman tradition Therefore Late Antiquity art is Roman in style but with new subject matter and function Christianity is a monotheistic religion following the teachings of Jesus Christ The Christian canonical text The Bible is broken into two main sections called the Old Testament and the New Testament The Catacombs were the underground burial places for early Christians and Jews I ARH 252 0 The art of the Late Antiquity features many images of Christ In their earliest form images of Christ depict him as a shepherd teacher and miracle worker He is often depicted as young with frayed clothingnot as a king or regal figure 0 Early Christian art often depicts scenes from the Old Testament which prophesize events in the New Testament The catacomb fresco Good Shepherd Grants and the Story of Jonah depicts Jonah as a prefiguration for the life of Christ in the New Testament 0 The Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus depicts scenes from the Old and New Testaments However the crucifixion of Jesus Christ does not contain an image of the cross rather it s the depiction ofChrist before Pilate 0 The figure of Christ Seated is a rare example of 3dimensional sculpture in the early Christian period Why is a freestanding sculpture rare for this time period Old St Peter s Basilica was built under the reign of the emperor Constantine I to commemorate the life of the martyr Peter whose burial place is under the altar of the church It features the same elements of the Roman basilica but with the addition of the crossarm of the church called a Cruciform and makes the church a shape 4 Please familiarize yourself with the basilican architectural elements of the nave apse transept clerestory and aisle 0 The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia is located in Ravenna Italy The mosaic of Christ as the Good Shepherd shows that after Christianity was accepted by the upper classes Christ exemplifies royal status with purple and gold robes Also occurring during the Late Antiquity is the emergence of illuminated manuscripts which are ancestors of the modern book containing annotated stories and books from the bible painted onto treated animal skins The term illuminated comes from the Latin word illuminare which mean to brighten and references the intricate handpaintings on each page The Vienna Genesis is one of the first illuminated manuscripts to depict scenes from the Old Testament The page of Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well depicts Rebecca twice in two different scenes with no diVision between the scenes in an effort to depict elapsed time 0 The Rossano Gospels is one of the oldest to depict scenes from the New Testament One page depicts Christ Before PILATE BYZANTINE Byzantine art is the collection of artworks from the Eastern Christian Empire founded by Constantine The term Byzantine stems from the ancient city Byzantium which was later renamed Constantinople Byzantine art is separated into the Early Middle and Late Byzantine periods The Early Byzantine period is associated with the ruler Justinian I who restored much of the Roman Empire s power A re ection of this power is the construction of the Hagia Sophia and is considered to the most important monument of the Early Byzantine period Hagia Sophia was designed by the architects Isidore of Miletus amp Anthemius of Trailes and was built as a church for the court of Justinian Hagia Sophia means Church of Holy Wisdom The dome is supported by triangular sections that create a transition from the round base of the dome to the rectangular base of the structure called The Hagia Sophia was originally built as a Christian church and functioned as such until 1453 when it became a mosque Currently it is a museum O Ravenna became a part of the Byzantine Empire under the emperor Justinian San Vitale was built there and dedicated to San Vitale contains mosaics of Justinian and Theodora holding the bread and wine of the Eucharist Interestingly Justinian and Theodora never Visited Ravenna therefore the mosaics almost serve as proxies of the emperor and empress for the people of Ravenna 0 Justinian Bishop Maximianus and Attendants depicts Justinian with 12 attendants symbolizing the 12 apostles of Christ This mosaic also depicts the major characteristics of Byzantine art specifically figure treatment Byzantine figures are typically depicted as at elongated seemingly oating with golden artwork backgrounds During the 8th century the period of Iconclasmemerged as collections of people petitioned and fought the worshipping of icons People who supported the worshipping I ARH 252 of icons were called Iconphile and the people who opposed icon worship were called Iconclast Iconoclasm abruptly ended with the shift into the Middle Byzantine period under the ruler Basil I The Middle Byzantine period rushed in a renovation of the arts Pant0krat0r Theotokos and Child Angels and Saints was commissioned by the Norman ruler William 2nd who was fascinated with Byzantine art Pantokrator means quotruler of allquot Christ while Theotokos means quotshe who bore Godquot Virgin Mary 0 The city of Venice was a very wealthy port city with strong ties to the East It was once part of the Byzantine Empire in Italy The city possessed the of Saint Mark The plan is Cruciform crossshaped and features brilliant mosaics with lots of gold 0 The Vladimir Virgin Icon was made in Byzantium and sent to Russia How is the Virgin depicted 0 Constantinople was sacked in 1453 by the Ottoman Empire bringing the Eastern Christian Empire to a close However the style of Byzantine art continued to ourish in the northern Slavic world TERMS O Ambulatory covered walkway outdoors or indoors especially the passageway around the apse and the choir of a church 0 Amphitheater a greek word quotdouble theaterquot roman building type that is made of two greek theaters Arcade a series of rows of archs Arena where the action occured in the ampitheater Attic uppermost portion of the triumphal arch Baptistery is the separate centrallyplanned structure surrounding the baptismal font The baptistry may be incorporated within the body of a church or cathedral and be provided with an altar as a chapel In the early Church the catechumens were instructed and the sacrament of baptism was administered in the baptistery ARH 252 I Barrel vault deep arch or series of uninterupted archs one after the other covering a long space Also known as tunnel vault Basilica originated in Roman architecture and used as a public building for legal and other civic proceedings was then incorporated in Christian architecture as a church that somewhat resembled the structure of its Roman counterpart Both are rectangular in shape timber roof ceiling common material for Early Christian churches Buttress external massionary structure that opposes the thrust of an arch or vault Catacomb subterranean networks of rockcut galleries and chambers used as cemeteries for the Christian dead An underground burial ground consisting of tunnels of different levels having niches for urns and sarcophagi and often incorporating rooms Cavea seating area of the Roman Ampitheater Central Plan The parts of the structure are of equal or almost equal dimensions around the center ChiRho Monogram The monogram for Christ in Greek Chiaroscuro The treatment and use of light and dark especially the gradations of light the produce the effect of modeling Cloissone decorative metalwork technique that uses metal strips that are then filled with semiprecious stones or colored glass Example Purse Cover from Sutton Hoo CodeX is a book made up of a number of sheets of paper vellum or similar with handwritten content Coffer A sunken panel often ornamental in a vault or a ceiling sun panels that function to lighten the weight of the dome Composite Capital a combination of the corinthian acapus leaves and the ionic ute Concrete a building material invented by romans volcanic sand water ime morter small stones inexpensive design Cruciform cross shaped structure Cuirass made of leather a plate of armor Dome A hemispherical vault An arch rotated on its vertical axis 360 degrees Drum One of the stacked cylindrical stones that form the shaft of a column Cylindrical wall that supports a dome Engaged Column Pilaster Columns built into wall a at rectangular or semicircular vertical member protruding from a wall of which it forms a part it usually has a base amp a capital amp is often uted a halfround column attached to the wall Equestrian monument It39s a statue of a horse ridden by some famous hero or heroine who led the nation to victory Eucharist is a Christian sacrament or ordinance It is reenacted in accordance with J esus39 instruction at the Last Supper Fenestrated having windows Fenestration arrangement of windows in a building Forum public square found in ancient roman city 9 Gallery the secondstory aisle or the upperlevel side aisle of a Christian church in Byzantine churches it was reserved for women Gladiator was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators wild animals and condemned criminals Groin the edge that is formed by the intersection of two vaults Groin vault formed at the point where two barrel vaults intersect at right angles allow for more light Horror vacui Fear of empty space a technique of design in which an entire surface is covered with pattern Icon portrait or image of a sacred figure that serve as objects of worship Iconoclasm destruction of religious or sacred images Destroyers of image are referred to as iconoclasts Iconoclast Destroyers of iconic images Iconostasis Greek for icon stand high screen or wall with tiers of icons Iconphile loverssupporters of religious images Illuminated manuscript predecessor of modern book comes from latin word quotilluminatequot meaning to adorn ornament brighten Imperator a title of honor given to generals and later emperors Impluvium is the sunken part of the atrium in a Greek or Roman house domus Designed to carry away the rainwater coming through the compluvium ARH 252 I of the roof it is usually made of marble and placed about 30 cm below the oor of the atrium Insula a multistory apartment building typically brick Isocephaly heads on the same level a method of composing groups of figures so that they are all shown at the same level regardless of posture or purpose Keystone central stone of an arch and it functions to set the arch Mandorla Full bodied halo almond shaped nimbus surrounding the figure of Christ or other sacred figure Mosaic Art of creating images with an assemblage of small pieces or colored glass or other materials Mausoleum a monumental tomb Niche Small areas that hold statues Nimbus halo around holy figure to signify divinity Oculus Eye round central opening of a dome Orants figure with outstretched arms and palms up in a gesture of prayer in ancient and early Christian art Pantheism The belief and worship of many all gods Pantokrator Greek for ruler of all Image that depicts Christ as ruler and judge of heaven and earth Patrician Roman freeborn land owners Pendentive concave triangular sections that provide transition from square area to circular base of dome essentially they are support system for the dome allow for windows at base creates impression that dome is suspended not supported Pilaster at rectangular vertical eliment that projects from a wall usually incorporates base capital must be uted Plebian Roman social class made of farmers merchants and free slaves Pontifex Maximus the most important highest priest in ancient roman religion Prefiguration Old Testament figures that are prophetic of Jesus and events in New Testament Pseudoperipteral in Roman architecture a temple with a front portico of freestanding columns amp a series of engaged columns or pilasters all around the sides amp back to give the appearance of a peripteral colonnade Relic the body parts clothing or objects associated with a holy figure Revetment a retaining wall or the covering of a wall used in ancient roman architecture I ARH 252 Rotunda a circular building usually covered by a dome Sarcophagus A Coffin usually of stone a chestshaped coffin made of stone or made to be placed in the open favored by the Romans amp early Christians who used the sides amp lid as fields for sculptural ornamentation Spandrel triangular space enclosed by the curves of adjacent arches and a horizontal member connecting their vertexes area above the curve of the arch below the entablature Squinches device used as a transition from a square to a polygonal or circular base for a dome May be composed of lintels corbels or arches Taberna single room shop that is covered by a barrel vault Tesserae Greek quotcubequot A tiny stone or piece of glass cut to the desired shape and size for use in forming a mosaic Tetrarchy rule by four system of roman gov that was established in late 3rd century by emperor Diocletian in an attempt to foster order by sharing power Theotokos Greek for she who bore God Virgin Mary Thrust the outward force that is exerted by an arch or a vault that must be counterbalanced by a buttress Torah Hebrew religious scroll containing the Pentateuch first 5 books of the old testament Tripartite refers to a threepart organization most often used in architecture to describe elevations interiors amp oor plans Triumphal arch free standing arch that functions to commemorate a historical event Velarium cloth awning that could be used to shield spectators from rain and sun Veristic Realism in art and literature True to natural appearance Architectural Elements of a Basilican Church gt gt Aisles the parts of the basilica that are on either side of the nave and separated from it by columns Apse an alcove usually semicircular in the wall of a building commonly found in a church and frames the altar ARH 252 I gt Atrium main room or central hall of a domus househome gt Clerestory windows that form the nave s uppermost level below the timber ceiling or the vault allow light to pierce through the basilica would have illuminated the mosaics and frescoes on the walls NartheX is an architectural element typical of Early Christian and byzantine basilicas or churches consisting of the entrance or lobby area located at the end of the nave at the far end from the church39s main altar Traditionally the nartheX was a part of the church building but was not considered part of the church proper It is either an indoor area separated from the nave by a screen or rail or an external structure such as a porch By extension it can also denote a covered porch or entrance to a building Nave central aisle of a Roman or Christian basilica Transept is a transverse section of any building which lies across the main body of the building In Christian churches a transept is an area set crosswise to the nave in a cruciform quotcrossshapedquot building in Romanesque and Gothic Christian church architecture Each half of a transept is known as a semitransept Gods and Godesses O 0 Apollo god of light and the sun truth and prophecy healing plague music poetry and more Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto and has a twin sister the chaste huntress Artemis Same for both Greeks and Romans Bacchus Roman name for the Greek god Dionysus god of the grape harvest winemaking and wine of ritual madness and ecstasy Cupid is the god of desire erotic love attraction and affection He is often portrayed as the son of the love goddess Venus and is known in Latin also as Amor quotLovequot His Greek counterpart is Eros Diana was the goddess of the hunt the moon and birthing being associated with wild animals and woodland and having the power to talk to and control animals She was equated with the Greek goddess Artemis though she had an independent origin in Italy Diana was worshipped in ancient Roman religion and is revered in Roman Neopaganism and Stregheria I ARH 252 O O Juno is an ancient Roman goddess the protector and special counselor of the state She is a daughter of Saturn and sister but also the wife of the chief god Jupiter and the mother of Mars and Vulcan Juno also looked after the women of Rome Her Greek equivalent is Hera her Etruscan counterpart is Uni As the patron goddess of Rome and the Roman Empire Juno was called Regina quotqueenquot and together with Jupiter and Minerva was worshipped as a triad on the Capitol Juno Capitolina in Rome Iupiter or Jove is the king of the gods and the god of sky and thunder Jupiter was the chief deity of Roman state religion throughout the Republican and Imperial eras until the Empire came under Christian rule In Roman mythology he negotiates with Numa Pompilius the second king of Rome to establish principles of Roman religion such as sacrifice Greek equivalent is Zeus Mars was the Roman god of war and also an agricultural guardian a combination characteristic of early Rome He was second in importance only to Jupiter and he was the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army Most of his festivals were held in March the month named for him Latin Martius and in October which began and ended the season for military campaigning and farming Under the in uence of Greek culture Mars was identified with the Greek god Ares whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars Mercury is a major Roman god being one of the Dii Consentes within the ancient Roman pantheon He was the patron god of financial gain commerce eloquence and thus poetry messagescommunication including diVination travelers boundaries luck trickery and thieves he was also the guide of souls to the underworld He was considered the son of Maia and Jupiter in Roman mythology His name is possibly related to the Latin word merx In his earliest forms he appears to have been related to the Etruscan deity Turms with characteristics subsequently borrowed from the analogous Greek god Hermes Minerva was the Roman goddess of wisdom and sponsor of arts trade and defense She was born from the godhead of Jupiter with weapons1 From the ARH 252 I 2nd century BC onwards the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena She was the virgin goddess of music poetry medicine wisdom commerce weaving crafts magic She is often depicted with her sacred creature an owl usually named as the quotowl of Minervaquot which symbolizes that she is connected to wisdom Venus is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love beauty sex fertility and prosperity In Roman mythology she was the mother of the Roman people through her son Aeneas who survived the fall of Troy and ed to Italy Julius Caesar claimed her as his ancestor Venus was central to many religious festivals and was venerated in Roman religion under numerous cult titles The Romans adapted the myths and iconography of her Greek counterpart Aphrodite for Roman art and Latin literature In the later classical tradition of the West Venus becomes one of the most widely referenced deities of GrecoRoman mythology as the embodiment of love and sexuality Emperors Basil I ruler is responsible for ending iconoclasm and bringing in the Middle Byzantine Period Caesar Augustus ruled as emperor from January 16 27 BC to August 19 AD 14 He was the first emperor of Rome which was a tremendous accomplishment He ended the much decayed and civil con ictfilled period of the Roman Republic when he started the first Imperial period which we sometimes call the Principate Caracalla was probably originally named Lucius Septimius Bassianus but then was called Marcus Aurelius Antoninus from the age of seven Caracalla39s father Septimius Severus made Caracalla Caesar in 196 and Augustus in 198 Caracalla followed in the ancient Roman tradition of fratricide begun by Romulus when he killed Remus by killing his brother Geta in 212 shortly after they both succeeded Septimius Severus to the imperial throne in 211 Caracalla staged the assassination of his brother so that his brother died in his mother Julia Domna39s I ARH 252 arms He then carried out a blood bath killing as many as 20000 supporters of Geta Caracalla bought the affection of the soldiers but was himself assassinated by his praetorian prefect Macrinus on April 8 217 Charlemagne Roman Emperor King of the Franks 768 Famous for his Renovatio Imperti Romani or Renewal of Rome Constantine Roman Emperor AD 306337 Constantine was the first Roman emperor to support Christianity and become Christian From the time of Constantine Christianity became an accepted Roman religion with a temporary setback when his nephew Julian tried to reinstate the old Roman polytheistic beliefs which we refer to as paganism In the late fourth century the Roman Emperor Theodosius I finally put an end to popular pagan practices Constantine proclaimed the Edict of Milan in 313 granting religious freedom to all This was a departure from preVious emperor39s persecutions of the Christians Constantine created a new Christian capital for the Roman Empire at Byzantium named Constantinople for him and later Istanbul Diocletian was Roman Emperor from November 20 284 to May 1 305 Diocletian ended the quotCrisis of the Third Centuryquot 235284 by giVing up sole control of the Empire thereby ending the Principate and starting the Dominate rare from the word dominus 39lord39 now used to describe the emperor Diocletian set up the rule by 4 known as the Tetrarchy Instead of dying in office as all earlier emperors had done Diocletian abdicated and retired to his palace at Split where he gardened Domitian last of the FlaVian emperors Domitian ruled from October 14 81 September 8 96 Younger brother of Titus and son of Vespasian Hadrian The reign of the good Roman emperor Hadrian which lasted from AD 117138 was a period of building consolidation of the empire and reform Iustinian I First Ruler of the Byzantine Empire was a Christian emperor of the Roman Empire on the cusp between Antiquity and the Middle Ages Justinian is sometimes called quotThe Last of the Romansquot History remembers Emperor Justinian for his reorganization of the government of the Roman Empire and his codification of the laws the Codex Justinianus in AD 534 ARH 252 I Marcus Aurelius April 26 121 March 17 180 was the last of the five quotgoodquot emperors of Rome and a major Stoic philosopher reigned from from AD 161180 Known for his Stoic philosophy Marcus Aurelius not only wrote his Meditations but also waged wars with the Parthian Empire and Germanic tribes The reign of Marcus Aurelius marked the end of the Far Romana Christians were martyred during Marcus Aurelius39 reign but he did not initiate Christian persecutions Nero born December 15 AD 37 died June AD 68 ruled October 13 54 June 9 68 A series of treason laws in AD 62 and the fire in Rome of AD 64 helped seal Nero39s reputation Nero used the treason laws to kill whomever Nero considered a threat and the fire gave him the opportunity to build his golden palace the quotdomus aureaquot Unrest throughout the empire led Nero to commit suicide himself on June 9 AD 68 in Rome Sentjmius Severus First of the Soldier emperors born in Africa at Leptis Magna on April 11 145 and died in Britain on February 4 211 after reigning for 18 years as Emperor of Rome He came to power by disposing of rivals with a better claim to power than his own Septimius Severus died peacefully leaving as joint successors his sons Caracella and Geta Titus the older brother of the notorious emperor Domitian and son of the Emperor Vespasian and his wife Domitilla His reign saw the eruption of Mount Vesuvius and the destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum Also inaugurated the Colosseum that his father built Trajan September 18 53 August 9 117 Ruled 98 117 1st non roman emperor Trajan was a soldier who spent most of his life involved in campaigns When delivered the news that he was adopted by Roman Emperor Nerva and even after Nerva died Trajan remained in Germany until he had completed his campaign His major campaigns as emperor were against the Dacians in 106 which vastly increased the Roman imperial coffers and against the Parthians beginning in 113 which was not a clear and decisive victory Appointed Hadrian as his successor Trajan also built an artificial harbor at Ostia I ARH 252 39 Vespasian was the first of the FlaVian Dynasty of Roman emperors He ruled from July 1 AD 69 to June 23 79 launched a building plan and restoration of the city of Rome at a time when its wealth had been delpleted by ciVil wars and irresponsible leadership What are the characteristics of art of the Late Antiquity Roman in style amp technique Different in subject matter and function How is Jesus first depicted in early Christian Art Youthful Nimbus What is a pre guration Prophetic forerunner Example Jonah Where were early Christian objects typically found Catacombs and basilicas What are Illuminated Manuscripts Illustrated books placing pictures in manuscripts ARH 252 I What is the difference between a central architectural plan and a rectangular or cruciform plan Central Plan Bui1ding s parts are of equal dimensions around the center Roman plans were usually round or polygonal domed structures Rectangular Plan Rectangular style Roman Basilicas What are Luxury Arts Major Arts Scu1pture and painting Minor Arts Jewelry carvings Repouss High status Figure prominently in the history of art through the ages What is a mosaic Art of creating images with an assemblage of small pieces of colored glass or other materials How did mosaics rst function before becoming wall decoration Originay used for ooring due to durability What does it mean for Early Christian art to be Roman in style but new in function The art is in roman style and technique they differ in subject and function Architectural Elements of a Christian Basilica The Church is cruciform crossshaped structure I ARH 252 Navecentra aisle of a Roman or Christian basilica Apse an alcove usually semicircular in the wall of a building commonly found in a church and frames the altar Cerestory windows that form the nave39s uppermost level below the timber ceiling or the vault Alow light to pierce through the basilica Would have illuminated the mosaics and frescoes on the walls Exterior is all brick Also very common for Early Christian churches What is important about the city of Venice Had the economy to support art and artists Link between the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire Coser to Rome but had heavy in uences from Byzantine Empire Venice is lled with Byzantine art and architecture What structures are most indicative of these eastern in uences St Marks Basilica First Ruler of the Byzantine Empire Justinian Characteristics of Byzantine art Unique Gold background Most important Early Byzantine Structure Hagia Sophia lusion of oating What architectural element allows for Hagia Sophia39s dome to achieve the illusion of oating PendenUves ARH 252 I Pendentives transfer the weight from the dome to piers beneath What are pendentives NOT walls What is an icon Portrait or image of a gure that would serve as an object of worship What is the lconoclasm Destruction of religious or sacred images because of this loss of wealth in empire How did the lconoclasm affect the production of art Loss of wealth in empire What are iconophiles and iconoclasts Iconophiles Lovers of images Iconoclasts Breakers of images How did the iconoclasm affect the production of art mperia ban on images Ban on picturing the divine How did it change in the Middle Byzantine Period Destruction of images was condemned as a heresy Restoration of the images occurred What ruler is responsible for ending iconoclasm and bringing in the Middle Byzantine Period Basi 726843 I ARH 252 What happened to the Byzantine Empire in 1453 Byzantium collapsed Constantine Xl died at Constantinople defending it in vain against the ottoman Turks After the sack of Constantinople where does the Byzantine style re emerge Gothic style Russia What is a warrior lord Fusion of nonRoman people of Hun vandals Merovingian Franks goths amp others How would you describe art of the warrior lords Small portable status symbols weapons and jewelry Nonroman tribes that threaten the political powers of other tribes What is a ship burial Earthen mound used to cover ships Marks importance of the people lay to rest with precious objects Great lords with rich furnishings Explain how the Vikings were master seafarers and master woodcarvers Viks coves or quottrading placesquot of the Norwegian Had many seaworthy long boats and went on many voyages Sculpture in wood carved wood ornamentation of the Osberg Ship Where is Sutton Hoo Near the sea in Suffolk England What was discovered at Sutton Hoo Treasure laden ship status symbol ARH 252 I Purse cover belt buckles and other small portable objects How are illuminated manuscripts of the medieval period different from their Christian counterparts luminated manuscripts of medieval period put more exquisite detail in small counterparts such as pictures that tell the story Who is Charlemagne Roman Emperor King of the Franks 768 Famous for quotRenovatio lmperti Romaniquot Why do we refer to the art made during his rule as Carolingian He was part of the Carolingian Empire This was during the Carolingian Renaissance What is Renovatio lmperti Romani Renewal of the Roman Empire What does it refer to Charlemagne39s revival of Early Christian Rome Accomplished through artistic patronage Commissioned imperial portrait statues Fostered a general revival of learning How would you describe Carolingian architecture lmported porphyry purple marble Coumns from Ravenna Emuated Roman Classics and Late Antiquity architecture Construction and expansion of many monasteries What Byzantine church is the Palatine Chapel modeled after San Vitale in Ravenna I ARH 252 Who were the Ottos Turkish empire that took over in 1453 Family of Holy Roman Emperors Three generations that started the Ottonian empire Followed the Carolignian empire How did they continue Charlemagne s legacy Had the same architecture as Carolingians 1buit monasteries 2 continued RIR Renovatio Imperii Romani which stood for renewal of Roman Empire to revive early Christian art Late Antiquity The Late Antiquity refers to the several centuries following the fall of the Ancient Roman Empire During the 3rd and 4th centuries CE there is a growing rejection of paganism Roman godsgoddesses following the rule of Constantine and the establishment of quotNew Romequot in Constantinople Monotheism speci cally Christianity is becoming more prevalent How does the in ux of Christianity re ect art Sti Roman in style and technique but new trends emerge in subject matter and function Both Jewish and Christian imagery become the standard Early Christian art is associated with the Late Antiquity Christ was cruci ed in 29 CE but early Christian art is not made during Christ39s life eariest art references jesusApostlesGod Christian subject matter with Roman stylization Early Christian art mostly found in catacombssubterranean networks of rockcut galleries and chambers used as cemeteries for the Christian dead aso housed jewish families ARH 252 I somewhat similar to a tumulus some underground galleries run as long as 90 miles After sometime churches were built atop these catacombs lmportant Early Christian works The Good Shepherd the story of Jonah and orants from Saint Peter and Marcellinus Rome Italy 4th century Late Antiquity painted on ceiling of catacomb the term orants refers to gures with outstretched arms as a gesture of prayer lmage depicts The Old Testament story of Jonah Jonah doubted Christ and was pushed out to see swallowed by a whale then spit back onto shore Effectively reaf rming Jonah39s faith in God The gure of Jonah is depicted a lot in Early Christian works Why Because he paralleled Jesus Jonah emerged from whale after 3 days Christ arose from the dead after 3 days referred to as pre gurationOld Testament gures that are prophetic ofJesus and events in New Testament Christ as the Good Shepherd common early Christian imagery Hods sheep around his shoulders lost sheep that he rescued Notice that Christ is depicted as young youthful Not until much later Christ appears with beard robe as holyroyal gure in throne Early Christian Architecture I ARH 252 Interior of Santa Sabina Rome Italy 422432 Late Antiquity Example of a basilicaoriginated in Roman architecture and used as a public building for legal and other civic proceedings was then incorporated in Christian architecture as a church that somewhat resembled the structure of its Roman counterpart Both are rectangular in shape timber roof ceiling common material for Early Christian churches Below are the architectural elements of a Christian basilica You will be responsible for knowing all of them The Church is cruciform cross shaped structure navecentral aisle of a Roman or Christian basilica apsean alcove usually semicircular in the wall of a building commonly found in a church and frames the altar cerestory windows that form the nave39s uppermost level below the timber ceiling or the vault alow light to pierce through the basilica would have illuminated the mosaics and frescoes on the walls exterior is all brick also very common for Early Christian churches The City of Ravenna Very important in Early Christian art Old Etruscan city became capital under ruler Honorius Honorius39s father Theodosius condemned all pagan worship abolished Olympic Games as well Ravenna is south of Venice Later became a Byzantium city has wonderful Late Antiquity and Byzantium artifacts Mausoleum of Galla Placidia Ravenna Italy 425 Late Antiquity ARH 252 I Galla is Honorius s halfsister built 25 years before she died aso cruciform structure barrevauted arms with large tower aso has a centralized dome therefore is a fusion of rectangular and central plan ongitudina plan with vaulted or domed crossing Interior of the mausoleum of Galla Placidia Ravenna Italy 425 Late An qu y richest example of Early Christian mosaics Mosaics originaly used for ooring due to durabilitythen artisans began to make mosaics on walls using different colored pebbles artists would also be conscious of the light that would shine on them through clerestory Christ as the Good Shepherd mosaic from entrance at Galla Placidia Ravenna Italy 425 Late Antiquity positioned above entrance rega exquisitely detailed naturaistic and classically composed Depicts Jesus sitting amongst his ock nimbushalo around holy gure to signify divinity robed haloed wearing gold and purple color of royalty sheep in even groupings of 3 Interior of Sant39Apollinare Nuovo Ravenna Italy 504 Late Antiquity I ARH 252 built by Theodoric King of Ostrogoths Germanic tribe Goths paace church meaning served as a palace and a church dedicated structure to Jesus nave wall decorations divided into 3 zones Upper two are from Theodoric s rule depict scenes from Old Testament and the life of Christ Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes from Sant39Apollinare Nuovo Ravenna Italy 504 Late Antiquity very different from mosaics at Galla Placidia 80 years difference Depicts Jesus still beardless and in purple and gold However faces the viewer directly surrounded by disciples arms outstretched focus on Jesus as a miracle worker acks details of other people landscape costumedetail nstead focuses on Jesus as a spiritual event aso entire work anticipates Byzantium art Luxury Arts Types of art broken into two categories Major and Minor Arts Scupture and Painting are viewed as the quotmajor artsquot Jewery carvings repousse viewed as the quotminor artsquot During the Late Antiquity and Middle Ages these are called quotLuxury Artsquot because of the wealthy status of the clientele purchasing the items During this time another art form emerges ARH 252 I Iustrated books manuscript originated in Egypt carried on through Greek and Roman tradition Called Illuminated Manuscripts process Manuscripts are an early form of a codexpredecessor of the modern book and composed of separate leaves enclosed within a cover and bound together at one side much more durable than Egyptian counterpart Egyptians used papyrus Manuscripts used calfskin vellum and lambskin parchment Why called Illuminated comes from latin quotilluminarequot meaning quotto adorn ornament or brightenquot Therefore we call them Illuminated Manuscripts Manuscript Covers even more ornate than pages adorned with gold clasps jewels carvings Examples of Illuminated Manuscripts Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well from Vienna Genesis 6th century Late Antiquity from Vienna Genesis odest wellpreserved manuscript containing biblical scenes Caled Vienna because it is located in Vienna Depicts Story of Abraham39s son Isaac Abraham sent their servant Eliezer to nd a wife for Isaac Eiezer chose Rebecca after he went to a well and she was the rst to get water for him I ARH 252 Scene shown at left Rebecca is on her way to get water from well Then we see Rebecca in red giving Eliezer water lvory Carving another form of Luxury Arts carved from ivory tusks expensive imports Suicide ofJudas and Cruci xion of Christ 420 Late Antiquity 3x3 inches ivory plaque from a small box Depicts Judas hanging from tree with open bag of silver below him Cruci xion on right with MaryJoseph next to JesusJesus is very peaceful Longinus holds spear to thrust into Jesus39 side Longinus was Roman soldier during Christ39s death Above head reads quotREX IVDquot or quotKing of the Jewsquot Eariest example of the cruci xion jesus is impervious to pain so peaceful calm He is muscular heroic virtually weightless is not hanging from cross he is displayed on it ARH 252 I Byzantine Art Early Byzantine Art rule ofjustinian christian empire claimed power was god given Anthemius of Tralles and isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia quotchurch of holy wisdomquot light plays an important role oods the interior dome is resting on light golden chain of heaven commisioned underjustinian pendentiveshow the illusion of a oating dome is created suspended but not supported San Vitale Ravenna ltaly 6th cent named after st vitales a martyr octoganal commisioned byJustinian also Justinian Bishop Maximianus and Attendants San Vitale Ravenna ltaly 6th cent mosaic purple robes nimbus headband bread symbolic of eucharist overlapping feet distance btJustinian and Bishop is ambiguous to symbolize balance bt church and state Theodora and Attendants San Vitale Ravenna ltaly 6th cent rare to have image of rulers wife denotes her power and importance holding chalice elongated ngers Virgin and Child Between Saints Theodore and George 6th cent I ARH 252 example of an icon portrait or image of a gure that would serve as an objects of worship viewed as more direct contact or to have healing powers iconoclasm destruction of religious or sacred images bc of this loss of wealth in empire Middle Byzantine Art return to iconism Virgin and Child Enthroned apse mosaic from Hagi Sophia Constantinople Turkey 9th cent return of religious imagery New Emperor Bazzle Katholikon Hosios Loukas Greece 11th cent St Mark39s Basilica Venic ltaly Begun 1067 11th cent Interior of St Marks Venice Italy begun 1063 Pantokrator Theotokos and Child Angels and Saints from Cathedral at Moreale Sicily Italy 12th cent Pantokrater image that depicts christ as ruler and judge of all Be sure to know Justinian Bishop Maximianus and Attendants displays the balance of imperial and churchly powers ie church and state The movement known as lconoclasm did which of the following prohibited the production and worship of sacred images Charlemagne proclaimed the phrase quotRenovatio lmperti Romaniquot Catacombs were the subterranean burial grounds of the early Christians ARH 252 I Basil I was responsible for ending iconoclasm and marks the beginning of the Middle Byzantine penod The Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne is thought to have been inspired by San Vitale Sutton Hoo was an important 6th century ship burial where objects such as the purse cover belt buckles and other small portable objects were found In regards to the elements of a Basilica apse is term for the alcove usuay semicircular in the wall of a building commonly found in a church and frames the altar Nave is the term for the central aisle of the structure Clerestory is the term for the windows that form the nave39s uppermost level below the timber roof ceiling
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