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BSC 109 - Module 3

by: Mina Lubel

BSC 109 - Module 3 BSC 109

Mina Lubel
GPA 3.25
Introductory Biology for Non-Majors II
Austin Hicks

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About this Document

Here is module 3 for the online biology class taught by Austin Hicks.
Introductory Biology for Non-Majors II
Austin Hicks
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mina Lubel on Monday February 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 109 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Austin Hicks in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for Non-Majors II in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/16/15
Module 3 Assignment Name Mina Lubel Directions Answer the following questions Submit via Assignments in the Course Tools menu 1 What 3 environmental challenges did plants have to overcome before they could live on land Explain how these challenges were overcome They had to absorb minerals from the rocky surface or hard soil they had to find a means of conserving water in a desiccating environment and they had to develop a way to reproduce on land The problem of reproduction was solved by most early plants in which the male individuals casted their gametes pollen into the wind and let air carry pollen grains to nearby female plants An even better solution was plants evolved owers devices to attract insects When insects visit the ower to obtain nectar they become coated with pollen pollinating that ower The insect will always seek out the plants regardless of how far apart they are Conserving water was another one of the three environmental challenges Plants needed to avoid drying out living on land To obtain water plants have a watertight outer cover called a cuticle This prevents water from entering or leaving the stem or leaves Water enters the plant through the roots while the cuticle prevents water loss to the air The presence of a stoma also helps the plant to conserve water It is a passage through the cuticle covering the epidermis of a leaf Water and oxygen pass through the stoma and carbon dioxide enters by the same portal Safe guards control the opening and closing of the stoma 2 Define the following terms a Alternation of Generation A reproductive life cycle in which the multicellular diploid phase produces spores the give rise to the multicellular haploid phase and the multicellular phase produces gametes the fuse to give rise to the zygote b Primary growth In vascular plants growth originating in the apical meristems of shoots and roots as contrasted with secondary c Secondary growth In vascular plants growth that results from the division of a cylinder of cells around the plant s periphery 1 Double fertilization angiosperms A process unique to the angiosperms in which one sperm nucleus fertilizing the egg and the second one fuses with the polar nuclei e Seed A structure that develops from the mature ovule of a seed plant Contains an embryo and a food source surrounded by a protective coat f Pollination The transfer of pollen from the anthers to the stigmas of owers for fertilization as by insects or the wind g Endosperm This is a source of food for the developing embryo In some seeds the endosperm is used up during the development of the embryo and is stored as food by the embryo in cotyledons Why can t liverworts grow large in height Liverworts cannot grow large in height because they completely lack a vascular system Draw the fern life cycle To submit just put a description however on a test you may see a picture of the fern life cycle and be asked questions concerning it Rhizoids project from their lower surface Eggs develop in an archegonium and sperm develop in an antheridium The sperm swims through free water to the mouth of the archegonium and enters and fertilizes the single egg After the fusion of the egg and sperm forms a zygote the zygote starts to grow within the archegonium The sporophyte becomes larger than the gametophyte Then on the sporophytes leaves clusters of sporangia occur then meiosis occurs and spores form The release of these spores leads to the development of new gametophytes Gymnosperm means naked seed What does this mean This means that their ovules and seeds are not protected by ower or fruit tissue Discuss 4 ways that the evolution of seeds has aided in plant s adaptation to living on land 1 Dispersal Most importantly seeds facilitate the migration and dispersal of plant offspring into new habitats 2 Dormancy Seeds permit plants to postpone development when conditions are unfavorable as during a drought and to remain dormant until conditions improve 3 Germination By making the reinitiation of development dependent upon environmental factors such as temperature seeds permit the course of embryonic development to be synchronized with critical aspects of the plant s habitat such as the season of the year Describe the life cycle of a gymnosperm The relatively delicate pollenbearing cones contain microspores which give rise to pollen grans the male gametophytes These seedbearing cones of pines are very heavy and more substantial structures than the pollen bearing cones Two ovules are borne on the upper surface of each scale which contains the megaspores that give rise to female gametophytes After a pollen grain reaches a scale it germinates and a slender pollen tube grows towards the egg When the pollen tube grows to the vicinity of the female gametophyte the sperm are released fertilizing the egg and producing a zygote The development of a zygote into an embryo takes place within the ovule which matures into a seed Eventually the seed falls from the cone and germinates the embryo resumes growth and becomes a new tree Describe the life cycle of an angiosperm 10 11 In angiosperms the sporophyte is the dominant generation Eggs form within the embryo sac inside the ovules The carpel is differentiated in most angiosperms into a slender portion ending in a stigma The pollen grains are formed within the anthers Then they complete their differentiation to the mature threecelled stage either before or after grains are shed Fertilization is distinctive in angiosperms A sperm and an egg come together and produce a zygote At the same time another sperm fuses with the two polar nuclei and produce the primary endosperm nucleus which is triploid The zygote and the primary endosperm nucleus divide mitotically and give rise to the embryo and the endosperm The endosperm is the tissue that nourishes the embryo and young plant A ower contains 4 whorls Describe them The outermost whorl is called the sepals of the ower This whorl serves to protect the ower from physical damage They are green leaflike structures and are modified leaves that protect the ower while it s a bud The second whorl is called the petals of the ower which serve to attract specific pollinators Petals have particular pigments that are vividly colored The third whorl is called the stamens or the ower and contains the male parts that produce the pollen grains They are slender threadlike filament with a swollen anther at the tip containing pollen The fourth whorl is the innermost whorl and is called the carpel of the ower containing the female parts that produce the eggs It is a vaseshaped structure The carpel is sporophyte tissue that covers the ovules where the egg cell develops The ovules occur in the lower portion of the carpel called the ovary There is usually a slender stalk rising from the ovary called the style with a sticky tip called a stigma which receives pollen Why are angiosperms the most successful of the land plants They are the most successful land plants because they have pollens owers and fruits These owers attract insects and allow for better transportation of pollen On top of this animals and insects can eat the seeds providing transportation of the seed that is usually excreted Angiosperms also go through double fertilization which helps the plant What are differences between monocots and dicots Monocots have an embryo with a single cotyledon and dicots have two Monocots have pollen with a single furrow or pore and dicots have three Monocots have ower parts in multiples of three and dicots have parts in multiples or four or five Monocots have major leaf veins parallel and dicots have major leaf veins reticulates Monocots have stem vascular bundles scattered and dicots have stem vascular bundles in a ring Monocots root s are adventitious and dicots roots develop from radicle And monocots secondary growth is absent whereas dicots secondary growth are often present


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