Com 105 Study Guide for Exam 3 This study guide contains notes from weeks 11 to week 14 (the week of the exam) and summaries of the required readings for this section. Good luck on the exam!
Week 11 Notes
Computer Mediated Communication:
7.18 Billion People in the World
2.95 Billion Active Internet Users (41%)
2.03 Billion Active Social Media Users (28%)
3.61 Billion mobile phone users (50%)
1.56 Billion active mobile social Media users (22%)
When we talk about social media across the world we have to think about policies and limitations put into place by the country on the people. For example, China has banned Facebook because they have deemed it threatening to their country, where as Japan chooses to use another platform just because they prefer it better. If you want to learn more check out an organization is a consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people.
Computer Mediated Communication (CMC): this is any form of communication between two or more individual people who interact and can influence each other via separate computers through the internet or a network connection (using social software).
CMC does not include the methods by which two computers communicate, but rather how people communicate via computers.
Are we abler to deceive each other over text messages, and does it happen more often?
Theoretical Perspectives of CMC:
Psychological - social cognition, interpersonal perception, attraction, and persuasion.
Sociological - group dynamics, social structure, community, reputation, trust Philosophy - ethics of digital communication
∙ Social presentation and perception - how do people present themselves to put their best foot forward.
∙ Online communities
∙ Personal business reputation - review sites and how people make sense of the information, lot of false information here
∙ Censorship and free expression - how social and digital media have opened the questions not only in the US about where free speech draws its limits online ∙ Privacy and ethics - release of private and classified information. ∙ Intimate Relationships - how people show intimacy onlineWe also discuss several other topics like What is the gilded age in us history?
∙ Deception (people who lie online)
∙ Revolution and diplomacy
Week 12 Notes
∙ Time spent on Facebook correlated with involvement in extracurricular activities.
∙ Heavy Facebook users are associated with poorer grades but not by much.
∙ Sharing links on Facebook or checking other friends are associated with higher grades.
∙ Web 2.0 suggests that social media have the potential to form, develop, manage relationships in new ways.
∙ That exchange is appealing because of the possibilities of influencing people
∙ Problems from using social media:
o Facebook - Penn State "Secret" Frat Page
o Twitter - Justine Sacco
o Viral movements
∙ ALS bucket challenge
o Cyberbullying - Tyler Clementi
o Revenge Porn - Kevin Bollaert's ugotposted.com and
∙ Social Media and Organization:
o Organizations - an organized body of people with a particular purpose. We also discuss several other topics like psychology 100 exam 3
∙ Businesses - JPMorgan, McDonalds, Starbucks
∙ Society - Greek Organizations
o Social media can be an effective tool for managing
o Social media can also manage and create a crisis.
o From an organizational standpoint, a crisis is any incident threatening an organization's reputation or procedures of operation. o An organizational problem is exposed to the public through the media.
∙ Social media can be an effective tool for managing organization's image. ∙ Social Media can also manage and create a crisis
∙ From an organizational standpoint, a crisis is any incident threatening an organization's reputation or procedures of operations, We also discuss several other topics like How do you tell a friend that they hurt you?
∙ An organizational problem exposed to public attention.
∙ People can create crisis - people have control over things on the web, and there is not censorship in the U.S
∙ Social media managers need to recognize that their plans can backfire and it is not always going to work the way they want when people can do it their selves.
Taking Care (for you personally):
∙ Realize that social media sites are targets
∙ Also be careful what you disclose through the sites
o Avoid being too specific about your info
o Be careful about the info people might use to find you, including pictures
o Consider how much you post about family and friends Don't forget about the age old question of bch 361 asu
∙ The movie "The Interview" caused a major international problem after the trailer for the movie depicted Kim Jong Un being assassinated.
∙ North Koreans hacked into SONY and they leak 4 unreleased films on November 27th
∙ Dec 3rd - SONY salaries leaked
∙ Dec 8th - Guardians of Peace "Stop immediately showing the movie of terrorism which can break regional peace and cause War!"
∙ Dec 9th - leaked emails
∙ Dec 16th - hackers threaten violence on theaters showing "The Interview". Which was a problem because the movie did not violate anything because of the first amendment.
∙ Dec 17th - movie release scrapped by SONY because movie theaters saying it is too risky.
∙ Changes in the way we engage in commerce and create new currency ∙ Elicit activities on the deep web
∙ A place to buy drugs and other illegal substances and actions yet people all over the world used this website.
∙ The government is taking the way people use technology very seriously. Week 13 Notes
Digitalization of News and its Effects:
∙ User generated content and its effects
∙ World Wide Citizen journalism
∙ There has been controversy over this anonymous app where people can post offensive things where as others believe it is important to be confronted with offensive speech We also discuss several other topics like intro to nutrition exam 1
∙ There has been a serious decline in revenue for news print and journalism ∙ More news organizations are turning toward the web and digital news media ∙ Online only news organizations are starting to be very popular, as well as alternative news media forms.
∙ Political Norms: the traditional view is that journalism is supposed to provide a check on power. They wanted to expose problems in the political process, and journalists are seen as important people who are supposed to provide the facts for the citizens. This is why some countries restrict the access of citizens and journalists to make sure citizens do not see any problems with the government.
∙ Economic Norms: news is a business and must profit, so they must recognize that viewership depends on how stories are written and how long they are in the news for. This conflicts sometimes with political norms
∙ Journalism Norms: news must adhere to principals of fairness, objectivity, and balance.
∙ These norms are the traditional reporter will adhere to.
Digital Features of News:
∙ Around 30% of people using Facebook find their news through the site, ∙ 78% of people who read the news on Facebook did not have the intention of reading the news when they started using Facebook
∙ Most people today are getting news from Facebook, Twitter, and other social media sites rather than reading the paper.
∙ Entertainment news is a significant portion of what we read from news online Online Comments:
∙ Online comment sections a type of user-generated content. ∙ Turn news into a social experience
∙ Allows for innovative news engagement
∙ This can spark debates and name calling
o Do comments influence our perceptions:
∙ Can (potentially) further polarize beliefs
∙ Increased third person effect
∙ Improve perceived credibility of journalists
o Anonymous comments more effective. Why?
∙ People identify more with anonymous postings.
∙ Social identification/deindividuation effect model
o Banning comments ensures article credibility
o Allowing comments provides platform for public opinion and greater context
o Banning comments is essentially banning a form of online speech o Allowing comments interferes with journalism norms on objectivity, fairness, and ethics
∙ Who’s a journalist?
o Digital platforms allow for greater participation in journalism process o Traditional journalist as gatekeepers
∙ Scans sources for news stories
∙ Only limited number of stories can be selected
∙ Selection criteria based on economic, political, and journalism norms
∙ Stories made for audience consumption
∙ This process illustrates journalists as gatekeepers
∙ Has always been around but the rise of the internet allows these organizations to reach a wider audience and participate in more traditional journalism.
∙ Digital platforms allow more inclusive journalism rather than exclusive. ∙ There are so many channels changing both news and entertainment media consumption
∙ Alternative media differs from "gatekeeping journalism"
∙ These forms are definitely bias, they target an audience
∙ Instead of fairness and balance like journalists have in the past, they openly advocate for one view point
∙ Alternative Media organizations do not fully adhere to journalistic norms of objectivity, fairness and balance.
∙ Mobile devices allow people to take pictures and put them online instantly ∙ CNN and other journalistic organizations have embraced citizen journalism to aid them in reporting and seeing things that CNN cannot get to. ∙ This has increased the reports and evidence of Police brutality, such as videos of Police attacking people. This has prompted a lot of conversation of issues, racism, police brutality, police profiling, and others.
∙ Stories which might not have been available before are now available. Top Citizen Journalism Moments:
∙ Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004 - effects were felt all around the world ∙ Virginia Tech Massacre 2007 - first time there was insider footage from a shooter attack inside a school, footage which a news organization could not get ∙ Protests in Burma 2007 - there were protests after an election which was not honored. They restricted western media coverage, so citizens stepped in and sent information to media outside Burma.
∙ Oscar Grant 2009 - video was taken of a police brutality event and it has been widely used
Problematic moments - citizen journalists do not always adhere to journalistic norms ∙ The Boston Bombing - people after the bombing tried to identify the bombers themselves, making stories up about the crowd to try to solve the case themselves. Some news sources even quoted random people who decided one person in the crowd was suspicious.
A time where it was good for the people to make guesses:
∙ Jason Callahan - Grateful Doe, people who were not investigators tried to identify an unidentified body pulled from a car wreck, and finally he was able to be identified by his mother when she reached the story much later. Mass Media power over population:
∙ When there are problems in a country they often go after social media to block people from spreading anti-government ideas
∙ Arab Spring - a series of protests throughout the world starting in North Africa. Related to labor issues and representation which lead to the resignation of their leader. It spread from there across North Africa and into the Middle East. The role of social media was consistent across the whole time. Social media became an important tool for organizing protests and use doubled during the event of Arab Spring. It was used to mobilize people, to let them know when protests would happen and organize people together as a show of force.
∙ 9 out of 10 Egyptian and Tunisian protesters used Facebook to organize demonstrations.
Outcomes of Arab Spring:
∙ Leaders ousted
∙ Reforms passed
∙ Civil War
∙ Unstable Government
Week 14 Notes
Free Speech Review:
∙ US - first amendment gives us a direction of the bounds of free speech. There are certain boundaries and we cannot say just anything we want, but it gives us a wide range of what we can say and the information we can produce/communicate.
∙ Europe - France: free speech, greater restrictions on "hate speech". While it is protected in the United States it is not tolerated and criminal in other countries.
∙ Sub Saharan Africa - Zimbabwe
∙ Middle East - Egypt
∙ South East Asia - Thailand, tourist friendly and open but still censored ∙ East Asia - China, one party rule, and there are a number of instances where China has been faced with controlling outside information.
∙ Chinese often do not know when their country is engaging with others because of heavy censorship, which does not allow any Western media which speaks ill of the Chinese government.
∙ Isaac Mao is a blogger from China and there are few Chinese bloggers, but it has been a growing population.
∙ The government's response to the increase bloggers is to limit access more and have more censorship.
∙ There have been some limitations lifted for famous websites, such as youtube.com, but others are strongly forbidden such as Wikipedia. ∙ Hong Kong is a former British colony which is outside of the great firewall of china, so people there can actually see the internet in its full capacity. ∙ Surveillance is prevalent in China, and the US actually had the ability to do that at one point.
∙ Companies which host the blogs in China are responsible for what is posted, and often will not post things which are written with taboo subject. ∙ Google has a Chinese sector which blocks searches on human rights and other rights.
∙ Yahoo is under controversy because Chinese people trust yahoo email to communicate with outside sources, but it is not private and some have been jailed for their use of the service.
∙ The Olympics are a heavily censored subject online.
∙ Some believe that if the government is blocking a site they have a reason while other citizens use a proxy server to get around the great Chinese firewall. ∙ Chinese government wants to keep the communist party in power, so while they cannot forcibly block every little thing, but they do not want anyone to organize to over throw them.
“Users of the World Unite”
∙ In the past companies were able to control information that was released about them, but with the rise of the internet people, both clients or employees can post anything. This poses a risk for a company because confidential information could be released.
∙ The original intention of the internet was to help people communicate with each other and exchange information, so Social Media is actually reverting into the original intent for the internet.
∙ 1979 Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis created Usenet, which was a way for internet user to send public messages across the internet.
∙ “Open Diary” was an early social networking site created by Bruce and Susan Abelson, which was created to bring online diary writers together. ∙ Web 2.0 became relevant in 2004, when software developers and end users changed the way they used the internet. It changed in the way that content is constantly and continuously by many users in collaboration, instead of being created and published by one person. It is not an actual update, but there are some functions which are more common such as Adobe Flash, Really Simple Syndication (RSS), and AJAX (Asynchronous Java Script).
∙ Social Presence: media differ in the degree of “social presence” they allow to have between two communicators. Social Presence itself can be defined as acoustic, visual, and physical contact that can be achieved. Depends on the intimacy and immediacy of the media which is being used to communicate. It can be expected that it be lower for mediated than interpersonal, and for asynchronous than synchronous communications.
∙ Media Richness Theory: the theory that all communication is to reduce confusion, and to get ideas and information across to clarifying things. It says that media differ based on the amount of information that is transmitted, and some media is better at resolving ambiguity and uncertainty.
∙ Self-Presentation: states that people desire to control other’s opinions of them and how they present themselves. This is done with the object of influencing others to gain rewards, but also to make an image consistent with one’s identity.
∙ Self-Disclosure: reveling personal information either conscious or unconscious.
∙ Collaborative projects (such as Wikipedia): they allow for joint and simultaneous creation of content by many users. The idea is that more users collaborating will result in purer information as they are able to correct each other.
∙ Blogs: were the earliest form of social media. They are usually only managed by one person but there is possibility for interaction because of the comment section. Text based blogs are by far the most popular. Many companies use blogs to update their employees and shareholders.
∙ Content Communities: the main object is for users to share information between each other. Users are not required to make a profile to share
content. It is a problem for copyrighted materials, popping up for free all over the web.
∙ Social Networking Sites: they are applications which allow users to connect with each other by creating personal profiles with information. ∙ Virtual Game Worlds: users can be in the form of avatars in a three dimensional worlds. Virtual game worlds require the user to follow instructions and be a character usually in a magical kingdom with all of the other users on the game. It does not allow for much personalization. Virtual Social Words allow the person to make an avatar and personalize it and there are no rules restricting the social interactions, people are able to be more personal.
∙ User Generated Content (UGC) needs to fulfill three requirements to be content generated by end-users on a public website:
o First, the content needs to be on a public site or social networking site where a select group of people can see it. Excludes texts and private messages
o Second, it needs to be creative and original. Excludes replications of previously made work.
o Third, it cannot be made in the professional routines/ practices. Excludes all content created with the commercial mindset.
“Facebook Emotional Contagion”
∙ It is possible for emotions can transferred to others through “emotional contagion”.
∙ Emotional contagion can be transferred via text based computer mediated communication, meaning people can feel emotions from reading people’s updates.
∙ News feeds are often filtered because too many people post too much. ∙ If there are questions about specific data from this article there is a lot on page 2 of this reading, however I do not believe it will be very important. The experiment and numbers mean that there is proof of the Facebook Emotional Contagion.
∙ The basic results were that when there is less positivity in someone’s newsfeed their status had more negative words, but when there are less negatives in their newsfeed then they make posts with more positive words. ∙ Contagion is not made to influence someone on purpose.
∙ People who did not see many emotional posts neither negative nor positive did not post emotional updates either.
∙ This can also effect people offline in the same way.
“Is social media a tool of expression or trouble for business”
∙ Yes (by Christopher E. Parker): There is a problem with people, especially employees, can feel a false sense of security online. The Stored
Communication Act protects people’s privacy of stored Internet communications. The Fair Credit Reporting Act says that an employer must have the consent of an applicant or employee before they can as for a “consumer reporting agency” or before a third part can conduct a background check, but it does not protect employees from employers looking at social networking sites. The risks of an employer looking at social networking is that they might find out things which they are not allowed to ask an applicant or employee about. Employers must be careful because employees can post about confidential information from the company, and if the employee says something that is false the company can be at risk of being sued. It can be tricky for employers to deal with an employee who is posting dissatisfying things because of the first amendment and other laws.
∙ No (by David L. Barron): Employers need to be very careful when there are problems in the office, and take accounts of online harassment just as seriously as in person. Some posts are protected activity according to the National Labor Relations Board.