ANT 107-Unit 1 Notes Collection
ANT 107-Unit 1 Notes Collection ANT 107
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ANT 103-Great Discoveries in Archaeology
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Grates on Monday February 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 107 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kosiba in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 189 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Getting in touch with our ancestors The roots of archaeology What is archaeology 0 Interested in social and cultural systems of past societiescultures Archaeology is a science 0 Objectiver and scienti cally understand the past Archaeology is politics 0 Gustav Kossinna Came up with idea we can look at distribution of artifacts and say people live there at certain time Archaeology and History 0 Prehistoric archaeology Before writing systems 0 Classical archaeology Bible Greek 0 Historical archaeology Time during regular documentation diaries court casesdocs o Perspectives from archaeology Origins of archaeology 0 Stem from Europe and fascination of different cultures in own backyard Archaeology perspective developed rather recently o It is the product of radical intellectual and cultural developments that occurred in Europe during 1618 centuries 0 Empirical people looking at actual things in environment and wondering why Radical Enlightenment Ideas 0 Humans are part of nature and are thus subject to natural processes laws and conditions We are part of environment and environment creates us 0 Such processes laws and conditions can be understood through rational inquiry ie empirical observation testing ideas analogy 0 Human society can be subject of rational inquiry Beginnings of science 0 Contra said enlightenment is the moment in human history in which we throw away the blinders and chains and start to think for ourselves Need to stop listening to what people in this instant priests and kings to how the world works and use our mind If we do so then we complete the mission to why we are on earth using our mind 0 Although natural laws are constant the material conditions of human existence change across space and through time We should not expect that things like rocks and rain look differently in the past 0 Material remains antiquities can be used to document past material conditions 0 What is the scienti c method 0 Scientists begin with an empirically testable question able to be observed 0 Hypothesis Scientists developexamine multiple explanations of a given questionphenomenon Tested using empirical data 0 Parsimony The explanation that best ts the data and requires the least number of steps is the one that is tentati ve y accepted 0 History of Scienti c Archaeology 0 Antiquarianism Fascination with ancient world empires and conquests Giovanni Battista Belzoni Very destructive One of the rst archaeologists Took very copious notes and drawings 0 Wanted fame and glory Antiquarianstudied antiquities ancient objects largely for the sake of the objects themselves not to understand the people or culture that produced them Used destructive methods but took notes made illustrations and observations Interest in what ancient things had to tell is the beginning of the science of archaeology o Antiquity of the earth and humans People thought the earth was about 6000 years old Bishop Usher 0 Two great sources of learning history church and Aristotle o By tracing genealogy chart of one person in Bible to the next Deep deposits with extinct animals Catastrophism 0 Origin of stone tools changes in technology O Relating prehistoric and historic periods Geological advancements Uniformitarianism O O 0000 0 following James Hutton Charles Lyell 1863 The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Men Contemporary geological processes are the same as those that operated in the past Attention to stratigraphy Layers of earth created successively Processes are regular and predictable Fossils are evidence of organisms and show gradual change through time Change occurs very slowly by gradual process and those changes are uniform Law of Superposition O O O From uniformitarianism The lower the layer the older the layer Condition only if undisturbed like by digging Law of Association 0 O O From uniformitarianism If we nd two things associated with each other next to each other within the same layer then they are from the same time period Condition only if undisturbed like by digging or moving Boucher de Perthes O 0 Thinking of Lyell s ideas challenged the understanding that the age of the earth was no more than about 6000 years quottoolsquot found by Boucher de Perthes were not meteorites no produced by lightening elves or fairies in fact these tools were often associated with extinct animals Deep time Law of Superposition Lyell s geological studies 0 Stratum individual layer Uniformitarianism O 0 Events occurring in one place and time should occur and other place at the same time everything is uniform Change is rare and gradual DEEP TIME Boucher de Perthes O O O 185018705 Thinking of Lyell s ideas B de P challenged the idea that the earth was only 6000 years old Noted tools found with extinct animals 0 Deep timethe recognition that life was far more ancient than recognized by biblical scholars and that human culture had evolved over time Law of Association things in the same layer are from the same time period Origins of Archaeology 0 Following these advancements archaeology spilt into two foci Classical and Prehistoric o Archaeology and History 0 Relating age to writing and dates of classical cultures historical documents 0 Developed methods for excavation and interpreting stratastratum 0 Classical archaeology Wants to ll in the blanks from history and documents Heinrich Schliemann and Troy 0 Used the Iliad and other sources to nd Troy 0 Example of Classical Archaeology Prehistoric archaeology o Sought to explain the development of Culture Civilization 0 Since we no longer had written documents that could be used to group artifacts according to the people who made them we had to come up with new explanation new classificationsnew problems Classifying the past 0 Origins of stone tools changes in technology Christian Thomsen and Jens Worsaae Danish museum workers Threeage system StoneBronzelron Assumes gradual development of technology The three age system 0 Humans used tools available in their environment 0 Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age Stones sticks shells l copper bronze l iron steel As you go on you need more heat and craftsmanship to create tools and they become more durable and complex Plastic age Models of cultural diversity and change 0 Foundann Charles Lyell 1840 Uniformitarianism Charles Darwin 1859 Biological Evolution 0 Changes occurs gradually o Changedevelopment is a process 0 Human social change linked to the environment Evolutionism o Unilinear cultural evolution Herbert Spencer Lewis henry Morgan Edward Tylor 0 As time goes on human progress occurs over time and people get more complex 0 Morgan stages of savagerybarbarismljcivilization 0 Don t agree with this anymore Darwin evolution occurs through random changedifferential death rates 0 Darwin says things were gradual Cultural evolution 0 Spencer said quotsurvival of the ttestquot o Unilinear means one line that points toward Progress 0 Culture evolutions see it as just Culture at the top Culture is the basis of civilization 0 The good these theories claimed that all humans share the capacity to develop and quotadvancedquot culture 0 The bad the idea of an advanced culture was linked to European ways of life so essentially there is only one culture 0 The ugly such theories were and are often used to justify the colonization of people who were wrongly classi ed as quotsavagequot Prehistoric American Archaeology raised problems Origins of American Archaeology 0 Mound builder myth 0 Had to nd out how civilizations deevolved Great Zimbabwe 0 Empirical thinking 0 In Africa see very complex structures like the mounds in the US Summing up 0 Early archaeological and geological discoveries showed that 1 the human past is far deeper than ever though and 2 we can understand the human past through the application of general methods 0 Early anthropologists attempted to understand human history in general by proposing that all human social groups proceeded through a series of developmental stages Social Evolution 0 But modern anthropologists challenge this view in various ways They argue that we must concentrate on cultural diversity the particular practices beliefs and technologies of different human groups rather than a singular path toward quothigh culturequot Culture History 0 Franz Boas Papa Father of contemporary anthropology German geographer and interested in varying geography Realized that there is no universal measure to a culture 0 Cultural relativism Franz Boas In order to understand the cultures of other people for which they leave their lives we cannot judge those things we have to try to understand the way they understand their world Understanding the natives point of view 0 Ethnocentric Our ethnicity is the standard for which we judge other practices Bad Applying our terms to other people 0 Culture History Culture history interpretation 0 Archaeologists ask Why What groups of people Where Location When Timedating Empirical basis of their knowledge 0 Things that can be seen touched felt and thought about 0 Details from watching and observing and seeing 0 Interpretation Interpretation 0 Three major approaches Culture history Culture processes 0 Main goals why Model of culture Research approachreasoning how Main proponents who Examples De nitions vary Culture complex whole which includes knowledge belief art morals law custom and other capabilities and habits acquired by a member of society 0 Culture nonbiological adaption to our environment MasonBoas Debate typological vs life group Boasian critique of social evolution 0 Empirical argument the evolutionists armchair anthropologists only speculate about the development of human societies The science of anthropology must have been based in the systematic observation and documentation of real cultural contexts 0 Theoretical argument questions the idea that all human groups proceed through the same xed stages Some groups skipped stages Notions of progress are ethnocentric Cultural relativism o Methodological argument to understand human culture we must understand the diversity of human cultures Concepts like complexity and advanced are relative There are no scienti c criteria with which we can determine that one cultural pattern is more advanced than another Boas s answer to the problems he notes was to advocate particularism a relativistic approach that placed and focused attention on each other s unique historical and geographical o Boas argued that efforts at cross cultural comparisons and efforts to produce generalizations had to wait until detailed evidence was in hand Boas rejected the idea that like causes will result in like effects OOOOOO Race 0 Biocultural boas noted that in the few cases in which in uence of culture upon mental reaction of population has been investigated it can be shown that o Variance Culture history in archaeology Alfred Kroeber culture and geographical 0 Cultural trait lists 0 Culture areas 0 Diffusion Kroeber culture area hypothesis 0 Some cultural traits cluster together de ning an area 0 Some cultures within an area have all or most of cultural traits for areacultural climax focal point 0 Some cultures have fewer cultural traits for area and tend to be distant from the cultural climax Cultural traits often de ned by stylistic criteria 0 Styles of artifacts Archaeological applications of culturehistory culture areas space distribution 0 Culture history Kroeber culture area hypothesis 0 Cultural climax places with 100 with traits o Marginal culturesmix of cultural traits Early culture history period methods 0 Stratigraphy Like the law of superposition o Seriation Differentiate style of cultures 0 Culture history 0 Goals temporal and spatial synthesis of data 0 De ne sequence time and geographical distribution space by studying patterns in material remains o Normative model of culture Culture is a set of rules or norms that govern behavior in a particular society Norms passed down in generations Culture changes very rarely Culture history 0 Establish a chronology o Periods Long period of time o Phases Smaller period of time in long period of time 0 Research approach De ne o Tradition cultural continuity through time 0 Horizon ties and uniformity across space at a single point in time AmericasGordon R Willey amp Philip Phillips 0 Andean o Mechanisms of culture change 1 lnvention independent creation of ideaobject 2 Diffusion spread of conceptidea 3 Trade exchange of objects 4 Migration movement of people 0 Internal sources of change 0 External sources of change Diffusion Trade Migrationconquest o Diffusion Any contact between individuals from different societies involves the potential transmission of new ideas from one culture to another Diffusion age area hypothesis 0 All cultural traits disperse equally in all directions 0 Traits with wider distribution are older Culture history approach 0 Main goals describe patterns time and space 0 Model of culture normative Cultural changes are rare people tend to want to be normal 0 Research approach description inductive 0 Main proponents Gordon Willey 0 Examples American southwest Interpretation 0 Three major approaches Culture history Culture processprocessual Postprocessual Culture history 0 Culture history prominent through 19505 Willey and Phillips begin to ask whyhow 0 Walter Taylor 1948 A Study of Archaeology First direct critique of How do cultures change Processual NEW archaeology 0 Primary goal of archaeology should be the search for universal law of culture change 0 Problem with culture history is that it only provides a synchronic perspective Synchronic means same time Study how two things were at the same time frame 0 Process diachronic culture change The change 0 Lewis Binford Processualism cultural process o Seeks more scienti c explanations for how cultures change through time 0 Claims that only valid explanations are those that can be tested hypothesis Scienti c 0 Deductive O Typical scienti c approach start with a known thing and test that Only aks questions that can be tested 0 This limits the kinds of questions that can be asked Processual approach 0 Archeological interpretation aimed 0 Models of culture Two complementary models Materialism O O O 0 Material explanations are more quotrealquot than the ideas that people may have had to explain their actions In fact ideas come from material realities A different de nition of culture ADAPTIVE General systems theory Ecological O O 0 Culture as an adaption to the environment Julian Stewardcultural ecology Lewis Binfordapplication to archaeology quotthe extrasomatic nonphysical means of adaption for the human organismquot Julian Steward Culture is adaption to the environment Processual arch based in the theory of multilinear evolution Cultural ecology Cultural core 0 Way people have adapted to their environment Socioeconomic orientation Variation synchronic and change diachronic in cultures due to differences in the environment Genescultural transmission More variable can change quickly Multilinear cultural evolution 0 Thus there is no singular trajectory 0 Each system is different and must be studied General systems theory 0 A diachronic approach 0 Idea is culture itself is system of adaptation and then change then occurs when some variable in the system changes Like the environment changes therefore changes culture Processual new archaeologists 1960present 0 During the culture history period archeologists focused on the ceremonial highly visible areas of sites 0 Binford argued for sampling to ensure representativeness of the data archeologists collected Processualism o Focuses on the process of cultural change Culture is a form of adaptation Cultures are comparable multilinear evolution Materialism Cultural ecology Representative sampling OOOOO Archaeologists start with a problem we are interested in uncovering the ways that the Inkas built their state in Cusco Peru The Inkas are known for their 0 Immense architecture and monumental buildings 0 Geometric and abstract designs 0 Impressive agricultural terracing and irrigation 0 Religious practices involving feasting with the dead The Andes mountains are very steep Agricultural elds requires terraces to retain nutrients and water The Andean environment is very dry The soil requires irrigation The Inkas built elaborate tombs with opendoors so people could eat and drink with their ancestors an essential religious practice Culture History 0 Culture is like an area like the South Processualism 0 Reasons for culture history Postprocessual archaeology 1980present o Criticizes processualists primary goal of looking for explanatory laws 0 Argues for a quotcontextual approachquot 0 Initially argued for the attempt to identify individuals and meaning in the archaeological record 0 Ian Hodder Postprocessual critique 0 We cannot seek casual explanations since humans are complex and varied o Particularist o Interpretative Archaeological applications of postprocessualism interpretation of meaning 0 Culture is a set of relations through which people make sense of their lives An archeological survey has been conducted in a region near Cusco we can look at some of the prelnks cultural materials Dating How old is it 0 General types of dating 0 Relative dating methods Dating the past 0 Major question for archaeologists is WHEN Allows us to compare items through time and space How do we de ne the Time Dimension How do we look at similarities over space Chronology a series of relative a range the 905 or absolute dates an actual date 020315 arranged in order of their age de nes chronological sequences Horizons broad spatial Very fast spread of some kind of technology or style represented in a material culture that is spread very quickly in a space 0 Technology style religion form of material culture that becomes popular very quickly 0 Ex internet and computers and laptops and smart phone Periods broad spatial Something that lasts material object or style over time for an extended period of time and important to people in a particular area 0 Ex plastic blue jeans in the United States Phases local contracted Shorter time period 0 Ex ripped or skinny jeans Used to organize subsequent data artifacts etc 0000 Usually the rst task in a new area 0 WHAT are we dating 0 Direct Dating analyzes the actual artifact ecofact or feature to determine age Derive date from the actual thing we re analyzing 0 Indirect Dating analyzes material associated with artifact ecofact or feature to determine age By directly dating something you can indirectly date the things around it Law of association o If know how old artifact is in the layer than you can associate how old the layer is 0 Basics of Dating Relative dating 0 Relative Dating evaluating the age of one item relative it other items Artifact A is older then Artifact B Actual ages not assigned Beginning of archaeology until the 19505 Shaped the work and interpretations Re ned versions done today 0 Relative Dating Methods 0 Seriation categories derived from cultural regularities Materials change as behaviors change Styles typical of time periods Creating a series of artifacts looking at how they changed over time using a general criteria style Ex Cars Attributes details Form Technology Attributes that change rapidly and are well preserved Usually stylistic changes 0 Stylistic Seriation Ordering artifacts or attributes based on similarity in style With no stratigraphy must determine if the differences are spatial or temporal o Diospolis Parva 0 Sir Flanders Petrie Showed changed does not always match our idea of quotprogressquot simple to complex Stylistic seriations must be free of bias 0 Link with other methods or artifacts to determine time 0 Frequency Seriation Orders the sequences of sites or deposits by studying the relative frequencies of their artifacts types Assumption frequency of each artifact type follows a predictable career Comes into use period of popular use falls out of use Sequence comparison 0 Using the presence of similar sequences of artifacts in tow or more sites 0 Could share some styleidea not necessarily the same age 0 Example Inca quotarcibalaquot o Stratigraphy Age of archaeological materials assessed by their association with geological deposits or formations Law of superposition Older versus younger Used to help with seriations 0 Dating the Past 0 Absolute Dating Placing the age of a sample on an absolute time scale usually a calendrical system Artifact A is ca 300400 BC Not precise date range and probability Archaeological revolution 19505 Invention of radiocarbon dating Used in conjunction with relative dating Most precise date in an artifact that is inscribed Roman coin Mayan inscription Correlated with out calendar 0 Terminus Post Quem the time after which Find artifact with year you know that they layer where it is found is that year or later drop 1850 coin and nd it 0 Region 0 A de nable area where archaeologists work 0 May start as large area for study but it is re ned as you learn more about the area and focus on a particular ques on 0 Sometimes de ned by natural boundaries 0 Ideally you try to de ne an area that had meaning for people who used in the past 0 Research stages 0 Strategies Site speci c archaeology Regional or problemoriented archaeology Archaeological Survey 0 Methods archaeologists use to acquire data from sites or regions without excavation o Observing and recording what is on the surface 0 Noninvasive methods to observe and record subsurface remains 0 Methods will vary depending on research design Discovering sites 0 Nonsystematic or chance discoveries Historylegends o Heinrich Schliemann and Troy 0 Investigated an epic story by trying to nd the city of Troy Information from Locals o Hiram Bingham and Machu Picchu o Discovered a site that was known by local people throughout Peru Natural Processes Exposing Sites Olduvai Gorge Tanzania 0 Geological processes revealed a deep stratigraphy Accidental encounter Lascaux Cave Paintings France 0 A young French boy s dog fell into a hole When the boy went to retrieve him he noticed paintings 0 Systematic site discovery Environment will shape ability to nd sites and the methods they used 0 Dry low vegetation you can see archaeological materials 0 Wet dense vegetation you cannot see materials 0 Kinds of Systematic regional site discovery Methods 0 Aerial survey 0 Detect and record archeological evidence present on or beneath the ground by airborne sensing methods 0 Remote sensing imagery from satellites or airplanes 0000 0 Before entering eld Aerial photography Satellite imagery Geographic information systems GIS Used to organize and analyze geographic information Perform statistical analyses View satellite and aerial imagery 3D modeling of terrain LIDAR lasers used to model the surface of the ground Helps discovering planning next phases Must be groundtruthed for proper interpretation walk across ground and see sites or materials noticed in aerial photos 0 Surface survey 0 OO O Detect and record archaeological evidence present on the ground by direct inspection of terrain Recording archaeological sites Geographical position system GPS Sites discrete areas with archaeological remains Settlement pattern the distribution of sites in cluster or across a region which reveals the cultures or social groups that lived there Recording archaeological sites Describing sites topographic maps Compass Theodolite Total station Description of sites Topographic maps Subsurface survey The site is the basic working unit for archaeologist It includes what is on surface and underground They vary greatly by both size and composition Systematic survey to locate archaeological sites in that region Region 0 A de nable area where archaeologists work 0 May start as large area for study but it is re ned as you learn more about the area and focus on a particular ques on 0 Sometimes de ned by natural boundaries 0 Ideally you try to de ne an area that had meaning for people who used in the past 0 Research stages 0 Strategies Site speci c archaeology Regional or problemoriented archaeology Archaeological Survey 0 Methods archaeologists use to acquire data from sites or regions without excavation o Observing and recording what is on the surface 0 Noninvasive methods to observe and record subsurface remains 0 Methods will vary depending on research design Discovering sites 0 Nonsystematic or chance discoveries Historylegends o Heinrich Schliemann and Troy 0 Investigated an epic story by trying to nd the city of Troy Information from Locals o Hiram Bingham and Machu Picchu o Discovered a site that was known by local people throughout Peru Natural Processes Exposing Sites Olduvai Gorge Tanzania 0 Geological processes revealed a deep stratigraphy Accidental encounter Lascaux Cave Paintings France 0 A young French boy s dog fell into a hole When the boy went to retrieve him he noticed paintings 0 Systematic site discovery Environment will shape ability to nd sites and the methods they used 0 Dry low vegetation you can see archaeological materials 0 Wet dense vegetation you cannot see materials 0 Kinds of Systematic regional site discovery Methods 0 Aerial survey O 0000 O O Detect and record archeological evidence present on or beneath the ground by airborne sensing methods Remote sensing imagery from satellites or airplanes Before entering eld Aerial photography Satellite imagery Geographic information systems GIS Used to organize and analyze geographic information Perform statistical analyses View satellite and aerial imagery 3D modeling of terrain LIDAR lasers used to model the surface of the ground Helps discovering planning next phases Must be groundtruthed for proper interpretation walk across ground and see sites or materials noticed in aerial photos 0 Surface survey 0 OO O Detect and record archaeological evidence present on the ground by direct inspection of terrain Recording archaeological sites Geographical position system GPS Sites discrete areas with archaeological remains Settlement pattern the distribution of sites in cluster or across a region which reveals the cultures or social groups that lived there Recording archaeological sites Describing sites topographic maps Compass Theodolite Total station Description of sites Topographic maps Subsurface survey The site is the basic working unit for archaeologist It includes what is on surface and underground They vary greatly by both size and composition Systematic survey to locate archaeological sites in that region 0 Absolute Dating Placing the age of a sample on an absolute time scale usually a calendrical system Artifact A is ca 300400 BC Not precise date range and probability Archaeological Revolution 19505 Invention of radiocarbon Dating Used in conjunction with relative dating 0 Floral and Faunal Dating Methods 0 Dendrochronology treering dating O 0000 0 Counting annual growth rings in cross section Growth ring 1 year Thicker growth rings mean years with more nutrients Master sequences of particular species in particular regions each ring has a known year Width of ring varies depending on annual climate Occurs across all trees in a region Germany oaks 9500 year old chronologies California bristle cone pine trees 10000 years Match the archaeological wood with the sequence Need particular species though Four conditions must be met 0 1 Species must produce wellde ned annual rings and be 0 2 Ring growth must depend on humidity temperature 0 3 The prehistoric population must have made extensive use of timbers o 4 Cultural and environmental conditions must allow for good preservation of timbers in archaeological contexts Four errors in interpreting treering dates 0 1 The wood was reused thus date is older than context 0 2 Use of feature extends later thus wood is older than context 0 3 Replacement of timbers construction older than wood 0 4 Wood artifactsecofacts may be older than where it was found Radiometric Dating 0 Measures radioactive decay of isotopes lsotopes variations of an element 0 Carbon C atomic weight is 12 O O Naturally occurring isotopes C12 C13 stable C14 unstable radioactive Radiocarbon dating 0 O O O 0 000 0 Plants absorb C14 during photosynthesis Animals eat plants and absorb the C14 in plant Plantanimal dies unstable C14 begins to die decay Decays at regular rate half of C14 amount is lost every 5730 years Half life Calculates how much C14 is present in the organism and estimate the age at which it died Provides as date before present or bp Present is 1950 Correlated to BCAD Any organic artifact can be dates Charcoal most common AMS Radiocarbon Dating 0 O O O Accelerated Mass Spectrometry Separate out the carbon elements rst Original method slow less accurate need large samples AMD fast more accurate small samples 0 Radiocarbon Dating revolution in archaeology 0 00000 Provided real dates for objects previously organized by relative chronologies Test of the seriation reordering Providing a worldwide scale on which to measure time The first or the oldest Must be careful Be aware of limitations 1 Only as good as the context Disturbances can move things around Nonarchaeological carbon not produced by humans 0 Old wood problem 2 Size of sample o If it is too small can t get a date 3 Built in statistical uncertainty Averages not exact date 0 67 100 year period 0 97 200 year period 4 C14 has uctuated in the past Limit 3000040000 years ago Good for most archaeological studies Not good for ancient hominid sites Human evolution Cost is limitation 3501200 per date 0 Research Stages 0 Guide an investigation to ensure validity of results and make ef cient use of time money and effort 0 Based on the tpe of archaeology in progress CRM cultural resource management 0 Private consulting companies government Academic University museum 0 Implementation Team CRM a few eld members contract out Academic large eld projects students workers specialists 0 Data gathering Sub surface excavation The Pompeii Premise o 79 AD Volcano buried entire city very quickly 0 Entire city buried as it was at that moment since it was quick Behavioral Process what people did in the past 0 Howwhy are the artifacts where they are 0 Acquisition l manufacture l use deposition 0 Transformation process what happened after people left the area 0 Natural Environmental setting best preservation 0 Extremely dry wet or frozen What we nd depends on the durability of material 0 Most hard non organic stone ceramic phytoliths fossilized plant remains Medium hard organic or transformed bone carbonized plants 0 Least soft organic untransformed textiles basketry uncarbonized plants 0 Human Looting Construction Plowing War 0 Reconstructing Activities 0 Provenience XY grid Z elevation 0 Association What we nd together and how we nd it together 0 Primary Context the person was doing it in the past Undisturbed Userelated or in situ 0 Primary Use Related Context Exactly where and how people used in in the past where they were left 0 In situ in sight Folsom NM Transposed Person did it and threw it out or moved it Midden 0 Trash dump 0 Secondary Context someonething besides the people in the past Disturbed Natural 0 Human Archaeological excavation o Excavation used to discover and retrieve data from beneath the ground 0 Two goals 1 Reveal the 3D patterning or structure in the deposition of artifacts ecofacts and features 2 Assess the functional and temporal signi cance of this patterning 0 Need to understand Vertical relations stratigraphy pro le Horizontal relations association plan 0 Excavation Methods Penetrating excavations Test pits or shove test units 0 Small excavation units 0 Series of very small excavation units to see if there is anything there and if there is then how deepold is it 0 Vertical space Clearing excavations Big broad unit that gives sense of horizontal space 0 Archaeological data 0 When a site is excavated the soil that holds the archaeological data is the matric It can be natural deposits such as soil It can be human deposits such as buildings or garbage accumulation which archeologists ca midden Features Nonportable humanmade remains Arrows showing garbage pits which are simple features Buildings are complex features They are made up of various units walls oors or storage places Artifacts and ecofacts portable human made remains Artifacts made by humans Ecofacts natural remains that cultural signi cance and that may be partially modi ed by humans 0 Highly in uenced by human behaviors
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